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Project Title:  Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2013  
End Date: 09/30/2020  
Task Last Updated: 08/27/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barshi, Immanuel  Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center 
Address:  Mail Stop: 262-4 
Human Systems Integration Division  
Moffett Field , CA 94035-1000 
Email: Immanuel.Barshi@nasa.gov 
Phone: 650.604.3921  
Congressional District: 18 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Ames Research Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Dempsey, Donna  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center /SF311 
McGuire, Kerry  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center /SF4 
Landon, Lauren  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories/ NASA Johnson Space Center 
Healy, Alice  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Kole, James  Ph.D. University of Northern Colorado 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: September 2018 report: Co-Investigators removed from the study are Dr. Kritina Holden (HRP HFBP), Dr. Brandon Vessey (HRP HFBP), Dr. Victor Hurst IV (HRP ExMC), and Vicky Byrne. Co-Investigators added to the study are Dr. Lauren Landon (HRP HFBP) and Dr. Kerry McGuire (HRP ExMC). September 2019 report: Co-Investigator added to the study is Dr. James Kole (Univ. of Northern Colorado).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2020 per PI (Ed., 7/18/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/JSC HRP (previously 12/30/2016); title also changed to “Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention” (previously "Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention: 1 Yr ISS Investigation")--[Ed., 10/4/17 and 5/7/18, per info sent July 2017]

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Risk/Gaps per E. Connell/HRP (Ed., 3/20/14)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/1/13 (from 5/22/13) per M. Whitmore/JSC (Ed., 2/24/14)

Task Description: This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Given that only two crewmembers will be spending the full year in space, the research proposed here is more of a case study than a typical research project. However, using repeated measures within-subject design, important insights can be gained concerning the retention and transferability or generalizability of material learned, as well as the effectiveness of Earth-based pre-launch training. In addition, information obtained in this research could help in the design of proper intervals for onboard refresher training, and suggest domains best served by Just-In-Time training (JITT).

This proposal will be led by the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP). The outcomes from this study will address gaps within the SHFE Element, as well as within the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) and Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Elements, and will be a cooperative effort with those Elements. Products and tools developed by these Elements in their work under HRP will be leveraged to benefit the proposed research.

The specific aims are as follows:

Aim A. Test the retention and transfer of specific technical content learned pre-launch to assess the need for and possible schedule of onboard refresher and JIT training.

Aim B. Compare the process of knowledge/skill decay on orbit with that of a closely-matched subject on Earth.

Aim C. Collect naturalistic data from onboard crew and ground control personnel on training-related crew performance including: performance errors, requests for ground support, need to review material previously learned, and training success stories.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed due to a time constraint. This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, we have not been able to collect data in flight to document the effectiveness of preflight crew training. Crewmembers have been largely successful in their performance, but that success could have primarily been the result of excellent innate capabilities, extreme motivation, and “as needed” support from mission control. Many studies have documented the processes of skill decay and the forgetting of acquired knowledge. However, all these studies have been conducted on Earth.

It is an understatement to say that space is a very different environment than the one people are accustomed to on Earth. Yet, almost all current crew training is done on Earth. Zero-G is only one aspect of the difference that cannot be properly simulated in Earth-based training, but it is a feature of space operations that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of Earth-based training and on the ability of crewmembers to retain their knowledge and to acquire new skills in space.

In addition to zero-G, the phenomenon of space adaptation, the stresses of confinement, noise, reduced-quality sleep, and the ever-present threat to basic survival are all factors that affect people’s behavior and cognitive capabilities. Little to no data are available on how people learn in space or how retention and retrieval of Earth-based training are affected by being in space over a long period of time.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: In 2018, 14 subjects from the 2017 astronaut candidate (ASCANs) class and 10 “crew-like” subjects were enrolled in the study (Study 1), and data collection for these subjects began in January and February of 2018. In summer of 2019, 11 ASCANs and 8 “crew-like” subjects completed the study. Analysis of this data is ongoing to provide a comparison of the ASCAN data with the crew-like and university subject group.

In 2019, data from the university subject group was published showing long retention as well as specificity and generalizability of both the perceptual and motoric tasks (Healy, Kole, Schnieder & Barshi, 2019; see Bibliography section).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Healy AF, Kole JA, Schneider VI, Barshi I. "Training, retention, and transfer of data entry perceptual and motor processes over short and long retention intervals." Mem Cognit. 2019 Nov;47(8):1606-18. First Online 18 June 2019. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00955-z ; PubMed PMID: 31215009 , Nov-2019
Project Title:  Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2013  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/18/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barshi, Immanuel  Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center 
Address:  Mail Stop: 262-4 
Human Systems Integration Division  
Moffett Field , CA 94035-1000 
Email: Immanuel.Barshi@nasa.gov 
Phone: 650.604.3921  
Congressional District: 18 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Ames Research Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Dempsey, Donna  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center /SF311 
McGuire, Kerry  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center /SF4 
Landon, Lauren  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories/ NASA Johnson Space Center 
Healy, Alice  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Kole, James  Ph.D. University of Northern Colorado 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: September 2018 report: Co-Investigators removed from the study are Dr. Kritina Holden (HRP HFBP), Dr. Brandon Vessey (HRP HFBP), Dr. Victor Hurst IV (HRP ExMC), and Vicky Byrne. Co-Investigators added to the study are Dr. Lauren Landon (HRP HFBP), Dr. Kerry McGuire (HRP ExMC), Dr. Alice Healy (University of Colorado), and Dr. James Kole (University of Northern Colorado).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/JSC HRP (previously 12/30/2016); title also changed to “Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention” (previously "Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention: 1 Yr ISS Investigation")--[Ed., 10/4/17 and 5/7/18, per info sent July 2017]

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Risk/Gaps per E. Connell/HRP (Ed., 3/20/14)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/1/13 (from 5/22/13) per M. Whitmore/JSC (Ed., 2/24/14)

Task Description: This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Given that only two crewmembers will be spending the full year in space, the research proposed here is more of a case study than a typical research project. However, using repeated measures within-subject design, important insights can be gained concerning the retention and transferability or generalizability of material learned, as well as the effectiveness of Earth-based pre-launch training. In addition, information obtained in this research could help in the design of proper intervals for onboard refresher training, and suggest domains best served by Just-In-Time training (JITT).

This proposal will be led by the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP). The outcomes from this study will address gaps within the SHFE Element, as well as within the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) and Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Elements, and will be a cooperative effort with those Elements. Products and tools developed by these Elements in their work under HRP will be leveraged to benefit the proposed research.

The specific aims are as follows:

Aim A. Test the retention and transfer of specific technical content learned pre-launch to assess the need for and possible schedule of onboard refresher and JIT training.

Aim B. Compare the process of knowledge/skill decay on orbit with that of a closely-matched subject on Earth.

Aim C. Collect naturalistic data from onboard crew and ground control personnel on training-related crew performance including: performance errors, requests for ground support, need to review material previously learned, and training success stories.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed due to a time constraint. This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, we have not been able to collect data in flight to document the effectiveness of preflight crew training. Crewmembers have been largely successful in their performance, but that success could have primarily been the result of excellent innate capabilities, extreme motivation, and “as needed” support from mission control. Many studies have documented the processes of skill decay and the forgetting of acquired knowledge. However, all these studies have been conducted on Earth.

It is an understatement to say that space is a very different environment than the one people are accustomed to on Earth. Yet, almost all current crew training is done on Earth. Zero-G is only one aspect of the difference that cannot be properly simulated in Earth-based training, but it is a feature of space operations that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of Earth-based training and on the ability of crewmembers to retain their knowledge and to acquire new skills in space.

In addition to zero-G, the phenomenon of space adaptation, the stresses of confinement, noise, reduced-quality sleep, and the ever-present threat to basic survival are all factors that affect people’s behavior and cognitive capabilities. Little to no data are available on how people learn in space or how retention and retrieval of Earth-based training are affected by being in space over a long period of time.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Crew subjects and crew-like subjects have completed three of six data collection sessions in this 16-month long study, including the baseline data collection Pre-Test Session, Training Session 1, and Training Session 2. Initial analysis of the data from these subjects shows that the data is good (not corrupted). Full analysis comparing the subject groups requires completion of the remaining three sessions, including Test Session 1, Test Session 2, and a Post-Test Session.

Initial results from the university subjects have been analyzed and presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Investigator's Workshop and the AHFE (International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics) 2018 Conference. The results of the memory task replicate the finding that distinctive responding protects against forgetting associations. However, researchers found no evidence that the protective function is due to holding the associations from the distinctive trials in working memory. The results of the data entry task show evidence for both specificity and generalizability of training for both perceptual and motoric processes of data entry even over very long delays. While the data analysis from the university subjects has provided interesting results, the aims of this study are to compare subject groups on Earth against each other and to compare subjects on Earth with subjects in spaceflight. Comparison of the first three subjects groups (university students, crew-like subjects, and crew subjects) will occur after all data collection for the crew and crew-like subjects is completed.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2013  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/05/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barshi, Immanuel  Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center 
Address:  Mail Stop: 262-4 
Human Systems Integration Division  
Moffett Field , CA 94035-1000 
Email: Immanuel.Barshi@nasa.gov 
Phone: 650.604.3921  
Congressional District: 18 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Ames Research Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Holden, Kritina  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Vessey, Brandon  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hurst, Victor  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dempsey, Donna  NASA/JSC/SF311 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/JSC HRP (previously 12/30/2016); title also changed to “Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention” (previously "Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention: 1 Yr ISS Investigation")--[Ed., 10/4/17 and 5/7/18, per info sent July 2017]

NOTE: Risk/Gaps per E. Connell/HRP (Ed., 3/20/14)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/1/13 (from 5/22/13) per M. Whitmore/JSC (Ed., 2/24/14)

Task Description: This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Given that only two crewmembers will be spending the full year in space, the research proposed here is more of a case study than a typical research project. However, using repeated measures within-subject design, important insights can be gained concerning the retention and transferability or generalizability of material learned, as well as the effectiveness of Earth-based pre-launch training. In addition, information obtained in this research could help in the design of proper intervals for onboard refresher training, and suggest domains best served by Just-In-Time training (JITT).

This proposal will be led by the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP). The outcomes from this study will address gaps within the SHFE Element, as well as within the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) and Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Elements, and will be a cooperative effort with those Elements. Products and tools developed by these Elements in their work under HRP will be leveraged to benefit the proposed research.

The specific aims are as follows:

Aim A. Test the retention and transfer of specific technical content learned pre-launch to assess the need for and possible schedule of onboard refresher and JIT training.

Aim B. Compare the process of knowledge/skill decay on orbit with that of a closely-matched subject on Earth.

Aim C. Collect naturalistic data from onboard crew and ground control personnel on training-related crew performance including: performance errors, requests for ground support, need to review material previously learned, and training success stories.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed due to a time constraint. This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, we have not been able to collect data in flight to document the effectiveness of preflight crew training. Crewmembers have been largely successful in their performance, but that success could have primarily been the result of excellent innate capabilities, extreme motivation, and “as needed” support from mission control. Many studies have documented the processes of skill decay and the forgetting of acquired knowledge. However, all these studies have been conducted on Earth.

It is an understatement to say that space is a very different environment than the one people are accustomed to on Earth. Yet, almost all current crew training is done on Earth. Zero-G is only one aspect of the difference that cannot be properly simulated in Earth-based training, but it is a feature of space operations that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of Earth-based training and on the ability of crewmembers to retain their knowledge and to acquire new skills in space.

In addition to zero-G, the phenomenon of space adaptation, the stresses of confinement, noise, reduced-quality sleep, and the ever-present threat to basic survival are all factors that affect people’s behavior and cognitive capabilities. Little to no data are available on how people learn in space or how retention and retrieval of Earth-based training are affected by being in space over a long period of time.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Training the US crew member for the ISS 1YM was completed on schedule. Training of USOS (US Orbital Segment) crew members for Standard Duration Missions was started. Several USOS crew members signed the Informed Consent Form to participate in the study. However, following cuts in crew time imposed on the Program after the launch of the 1YM, the study was suspended and no on-orbit data were collected. Furthermore, training of crew members for following increments was also suspended.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention: 1 Yr ISS Investigation Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2013  
End Date: 12/30/2016  
Task Last Updated: 10/30/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barshi, Immanuel  Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center 
Address:  Mail Stop: 262-4 
Human Systems Integration Division  
Moffett Field , CA 94035-1000 
Email: Immanuel.Barshi@nasa.gov 
Phone: 650.604.3921  
Congressional District: 18 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Ames Research Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Holden, Kritina  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Vessey, Brandon  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hurst, Victor  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: Risk/Gaps per E. Connell/HRP (Ed., 3/20/14)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/1/13 (from 5/22/13) per M. Whitmore/JSC (Ed., 2/24/14)

Task Description: This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Given that only two crewmembers will be spending the full year in space, the research proposed here is more of a case study than a typical research project. However, using repeated measures within-subject design, important insights can be gained concerning the retention and transferability or generalizability of material learned, as well as the effectiveness of Earth-based pre-launch training. In addition, information obtained in this research could help in the design of proper intervals for onboard refresher training, and suggest domains best served by Just-In-Time training (JITT).

This proposal will be led by the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP). The outcomes from this study will address gaps within the SHFE Element, as well as within the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) and Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Elements, and will be a cooperative effort with those Elements. Products and tools developed by these Elements in their work under HRP will be leveraged to benefit the proposed research.

The specific aims are as follows:

Aim A. Test the retention and transfer of specific technical content learned pre-launch to assess the need for and possible schedule of onboard refresher and JIT training.

Aim B. Compare the process of knowledge/skill decay on orbit with that of a closely-matched subject on Earth.

Aim C. Collect naturalistic data from onboard crew and ground control personnel on training-related crew performance including: performance errors, requests for ground support, need to review material previously learned, and training success stories.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed due to a time constraint. This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, we have not been able to collect data in flight to document the effectiveness of preflight crew training. Crewmembers have been largely successful in their performance, but that success could have primarily been the result of excellent innate capabilities, extreme motivation, and “as needed” support from mission control. Many studies have documented the processes of skill decay and the forgetting of acquired knowledge. However, all these studies have been conducted on Earth.

It is an understatement to say that space is a very different environment than the one people are accustomed to on Earth. Yet, almost all current crew training is done on Earth. Zero-G is only one aspect of the difference that cannot be properly simulated in Earth-based training, but it is a feature of space operations that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of Earth-based training and on the ability of crewmembers to retain their knowledge and to acquire new skills in space.

In addition to zero-G, the phenomenon of space adaptation, the stresses of confinement, noise, reduced-quality sleep, and the ever-present threat to basic survival are all factors that affect people’s behavior and cognitive capabilities. Little to no data are available on how people learn in space or how retention and retrieval of Earth-based training are affected by being in space over a long period of time.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: In FY14, the following progress has been made:

- NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocol was developed, submitted, and approved.

- Software for pre-test and training was developed and approved by the NASA Payload Display Review Team.

- Informed consent briefings were held with 1 year crewmembers.

- Other ISS Mission Planning documents were generated (e.g. Experiment Document LS20539).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/11/2021) 

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Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Thaxton S, Holden K, Barshi I. "Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) ISS One-Year Mission Investigations." Presented at the 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3292.pdf , Feb-2014

Project Title:  Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Training Retention: 1 Yr ISS Investigation Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2013  
End Date: 12/30/2016  
Task Last Updated: 07/03/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barshi, Immanuel  Ph.D. / NASA Ames Research Center 
Address:  Mail Stop: 262-4 
Human Systems Integration Division  
Moffett Field , CA 94035-1000 
Email: Immanuel.Barshi@nasa.gov 
Phone: 650.604.3921  
Congressional District: 18 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Ames Research Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Holden, Kritina  Lockheed Martin-NASA Johnson Space Center 
Vessey, Brandon  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hurst, Victor  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: Risk/Gaps per E. Connell/HRP (Ed., 3/20/14)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/1/13 (from 5/22/13) per M. Whitmore/JSC (Ed., 2/24/14)

Task Description: This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Given that only two crewmembers will be spending the full year in space, the research proposed here is more of a case study than a typical research project. However, using repeated measures within-subject design, important insights can be gained concerning the retention and transferability or generalizability of material learned, as well as the effectiveness of Earth-based pre-launch training. In addition, information obtained in this research could help in the design of proper intervals for onboard refresher training, and suggest domains best served by Just-In-Time training (JITT).

This proposal will be led by the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Element within the Human Resarch Program (HRP). The outcomes from this study will address gaps within the SHFE Element, as well as within the Behavoral Health and Performance (BHP), and Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Elements, and will be a cooperative effort with those Elements. Products and tools developed by these Elements in their work under HRP will be leveraged to benefit the proposed research.

The specific aims are as follows:

Aim A. Test the retention and transfer of specific technical content learned pre-launch to assess the need for and possible schedule of onboard refresher and JIT training.

Aim B. Compare the process of knowledge/skill decay on orbit with that of a closely-matched subject on Earth.

Aim C. Collect naturalistic data from onboard crew and ground control personnel on training-related crew performance including: performance errors, requests for ground support, need to review material previously learned, and training success stories.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed due to a time constraint. This proposal focuses on the research opportunity afforded by the 2015 year-long mission of two crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2014.

(Ed. note 2/24/14--start date changed from 5/22/2013 to 10/1/2013 so that task now started in FY2014 instead of FY2013.)

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014