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Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 11/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 03/31/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 11/30/2014; misunderstanding re previous note of 9/30/20 end date (Ed., 3/31/15)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2020 per L. Smith/HRP/JSC (Ed., 6/10/14)

NOTE: End date is 5/30/2014 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during, and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/912.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth. Several findings have arisen from this study, and resulted in publications. These contribute to the understanding of the role of nutrition in health and disease in all populations, including and well beyond astronauts.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTING FOR FINAL REPORT (March 2015)

This study is complete. The findings from the Nutrition SMO have shed light on a number of metabolic issues that are important for human long-duration space flight. Given the comprehensive nature of the Nutritional Status Assessment protocol, there are likely many lessons to be learned, beyond those already identified. These data will be a valuable resource for years to come.

Sample collection protocols were well executed, and samples were returned on Space Shuttle and SpaceX flights. 32 subjects completed the protocol. Individual data briefings have been provided to all available crewmembers. Findings have been briefed to the Human Health and Performance Directorate, the Human Research Program (HRP) and its Human Health Countermeasures Element, and the International Space Station Medical Project. Data have been published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at the HRP Investigators’ Workshop, and have been presented at national and international scientific meetings. A recent update to the nutrition evidence report, published in book form, includes large amounts of Nutrition SMO data (Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M. Human Adaptation to Spaceflight: The Role of Nutrition (NP-2014-10-018-JSC). Houston, TX: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 201) (available through open access at http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/human-adaptation-to-spaceflight-the-role-of-nutrition.pdf ; http://go.nasa.gov/QS1KW1 ). Data have been shared with other investigators, per data sharing agreements and documentation, and the database transferred to the Life Sciences Data Archive.

ANNUAL REPORT FROM JULY 2014

As of July 2014, 32 subjects have completed the protocol, and all samples have been returned to Earth from ISS. Some analyses are pending, and should be completed in the coming months. Individual data briefings have been provided to most crewmembers. Preliminary findings have been briefed to the Space Life Sciences Directorate, the Human Research Program (HRP) and its Human Health Countermeasures Element, and the International Space Station Medical Project, and have been presented at the HRP Investigators’ Workshop. Preliminary data have also been published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international scientific meetings, and transferred to the Life Sciences Data Archive.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Hudson EK, Shackelford L, Morgan JL. "Men and women in space: bone loss and kidney stone risk after long-duration space flight." J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jul;29(7):1639-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2185 ; PubMed PMID: 24470067 , Jul-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte HD, Pierson D, Sams CF, Smith SM. "Plasma cytokine concentrations indicate that in-vivo hormonal regulation of immunity is altered during long-duration spaceflight." J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2014 Oct;34(10):778-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2013.0129 ; PubMed PMID: 24702175 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4186776 (originally reported as Epub 2014 Apr 4) , Oct-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Launius R, Coen GK, Charles JB, Smith SM. "Body mass changes during long-duration spaceflight." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Sep;85:897-904. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3979.2014 ; PMID: 25197887 , Sep-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Abrams SA, Davis-Street JE, Heer M, O'Brien KO, Wastney ME, Zwart SR. "50 years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research." Annu Rev Nutr. 2014 Jul 17;34:377-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105440 ; PubMed PMID: 24995691 , Jul-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Magnesium and space flight." Nutrients. 2015 Dec 8;7(12):10209-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu7125528 ; PubMed PMID: 26670248; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4690080 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Castaneda-Sceppa C, O'Brien KO, Abrams SA, Gillman P, Brooks NE, Cloutier GJ, Heer M, Zwart SR, Wastney ME. "Calcium kinetics during bed rest with artificial gravity and exercise countermeasures." Osteoporos Int. 2014 Sep;25(9):2237-44. Epub 2014 May 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-014-2754-x ; PubMed PMID: 24861908; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4521405 , Sep-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Spatz J, Pietrzyk RA, Hudson EK, Zwart SR. "Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions." Bone. 2015 Dec;81:712-20. Epub 2015 Oct 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.002 ; PubMed PMID: 26456109 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Heacox HN, Gillman PL, Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Excretion of zinc and copper increases in men during 3 weeks of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity." J Nutr. 2017 Jun;147(6):1113-20. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.247437 ; PMID: 28490676; PMCID: PMC5443469 , Jun-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Patel ZS, Brunstetter TJ, Tarver WJ, Whitmire AM, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Huff JL. "Red risks for a journey to the red planet: The highest priority human health risks for a mission to Mars." npj Microgravity. 2020 Nov 5;6(1):33. Review. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-020-00124-6 ; PMID: 33298950; PMCID: PMC7645687 , Nov-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Frings-Meuthen P, Luchitskaya E, Jordan J, Tank J, Lichtinghagen R, Smith SM, Heer M. "Natriuretic peptide resetting in astronauts." Circulation. 2020 May 12;141(19):1593-5. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044203 ; PMID: 32392103 , May-2020
Books/Book Chapters Heer M, Titze J, Smith SM, Baecker N. "Nutrition, physiology and metabolism in spaceflight and analog studies." Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 69 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18521-7 , Jul-2015
Books/Book Chapters Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Nutrition and Bone Health in Space." in "Nutrition and Bone Health, 2nd ed." Ed. M. Holick, J. Nieves. New York : Springer, 2015. p. 687-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_41 (originally reported as 'in press, as of July 2014.')., Jan-2015
NASA Technical Documents Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M. "Human Adaptation to Spaceflight: The Role of Nutrition." Houston, TX : National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2014. (NP-2014-10-018-JSC). ISBN:9780160926297. http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/human-adaptation-to-spaceflight-the-role-of-nutrition.pdf ; accessed 3/31/2015. , Dec-2014
NASA Technical Documents Smith SM, Zwart SR, Douglas GL, Heer M. "Human adaptation to spaceflight: The role of food and nutrition. Second edition." Houston, TX: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2021. 255 p. NP-2021-03-003-JSC. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/human_adaptation_2021_final.pdf , Apr-2021
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 11/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 08/15/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 11/30/2014; misunderstanding re previous note of 9/20/20 end date (Ed., 3/31/15)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2020 per L. Smith/HRP/JSC (Ed., 6/10/14)

NOTE: End date is 5/30/2014 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during, and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/912.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth. Several findings have arisen from this study, and resulted in publications. These contribute to the understanding of the role of nutrition in health and disease in all populations, including and well beyond astronauts.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: All samples have been collected, although return of last subjects from ISS not scheduled until December 2013 on SpaceX3.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Morgan JLL, Smith SM. "Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station." Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;98(1):217-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.056465 ; PubMed PMID: 23719548 , Jul-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, McCoy T, Gazda D, Morgan JL, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Spaceflight calcium: Implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth." Nutrients. 2012 Dec 18;4(12):2047-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4122047 ; PubMed PMID: 23250146 , Dec-2012
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 05/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 09/06/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 5/30/2014 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Nutrition.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth. Several findings have arisen from this study, and resulted in publications. These contribute to the understanding of the role of nutrition in health and disease in all populations, including and well beyond astronauts.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Sample collections and data analysis continue to go well. Awaiting SpaceX sample returns for next set of sample analyses and data updates. Several publications have already been completed from this study.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Ploutz-Snyder L, Zwart SR. "Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry." J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep;27(9):1896-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.1647 ; PubMed PMID: 22549960 , Sep-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Gibson CR, Mader TH, Ericson K, Ploutz-Snyder R, Heer M, Smith SM. "Vision changes after spaceflight are related to alterations in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent one-carbon metabolism." J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):427-31. Epub 2012 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 22298570 , Mar-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Heer M, Wang Z, Huntoon CL, Zwart SR. "Long-duration space flight and bed rest effects on testosterone and other steroids." J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;97(1):270-8. Epub 2011 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 22049169 , Jan-2012
Journal/Magazine covers Smith SM, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Ploutz-Snyder L, Zwart SR. "Cover in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research for article, 'Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry.' " J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep;27(9):1896-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.1647 , Sep-2012
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 05/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 09/07/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 5/30/2014 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Nutrition.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Sample and data collection and analysis continue. As of September 2011, 22 subjects have completed the protocol. Multiple sets of preliminary findings have been presented, published, and/or submitted for publication.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Booth SL, Peterson JW, Wang Z, Smith SM. "Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight." J Bone Miner Res. 2011 May;26(5):948-54. PMID: 21541997 [2010 Nov 18. Epub ahead of print] ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.289 , May-2011
Books/Book Chapters Heer M, Baecker N, Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Nutritional Countermeasures for Spaceflight Related Stress." in "Stress Challenges and Immunity in Space. From Mechanisms to Monitoring and Preventive Strategies." Ed. A. Chouker. Heidelberg, Germany : Springer, 2012. p. 387-403. (originally reported as "in press" in September 2011) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22272-6_29 , Jan-2012
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 05/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 10/06/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Booth, Sarah  Tufts University  
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Goodwin, Thomas  
Center Contact:  
thomas.j.goodwin@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 5/30/2014 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Nutrition.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Sample and data collection continue, with 15 of 24 subjects having completed all collection sessions, and with flight samples returned to Earth. One manuscript was published, highlighting the relationship between fish intake during flight and bone loss. A second manuscript is in revision, documenting effects of spaceflight on vitamin K status. Preliminary data were presented at the 2010 HRP Investigator Workshop in February 2010, and were also reviewed with Human Health and Countermeasures Element Scientist and other Scientific Discipline Leads in May 2010.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Pierson DL, Mehta SK, Zwart SR. "Intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids: effect on bone during actual and simulated weightlessness." Experimental Biology 2010, Anaheim, CA, April 24-28, 2010.

FASEB J. 2010 Apr;24:323.2. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/24/1_MeetingAbstracts/323.2?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zwart&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=24&resourcetype=HWCIT , Apr-2010

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Pierson D, Mehta S, Gonda S, Smith SM. "Capacity of omega-3 fatty acids or eicosapentaenoic acid to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation: From cells to bed rest to astronauts." J Bone Miner Res. 2010 May;25(5):1049-57. PMID: 19874203 , May-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mathew G, Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Stability of blood analytes after storage in BD SST tubes for 12 months." Clin Biochem. 2009 Nov;42(16-17):1732-4. Epub 2009 Jul 23. PMID: 19631634 , Nov-2009
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Booth SL, Peterson JW, Wang Z, Smith SM. "Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight." J Bone Miner Res (in revision), September 2010. , Sep-2010
Books/Book Chapters Smith SM, Zwart SR, Kloeris V, Heer MA, eds. "Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight." New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., c2009. (ISBN 978-1-60741-641-8), Sep-2009
Books/Book Chapters Agureev AN, Kloeris V, Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Food and nutrition issues for spaceflight." in "U.S. and Russian Cooperation in Space Biology and Medicine: Space Biology and Medicine, Volume 5." Ed. A.E. Nicogossian et al. Washington, DC : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2009. Chapter 5 (Section 6), p. 313-324., Dec-2009
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/13/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne  
Booth, Sarah  Tufts University  
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Nutrition.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Nutritional status is clearly altered after long-duration space flight. As indicated above, several nutrients demonstrate decreased status (despite adequate intake in some cases) after long-duration space flight. It is imperative that we determine the mechanism and kinetics of these changes if we are going to send crew members on exploration-class missions. The inclusion of in-flight blood/urine collections and expansion to include more parameters to better monitor nutritional status is required to better understand the role of nutrition in bone health, changes in body composition, oxidative damage, and defining nutritional requirements. Maintaining and monitoring nutritional status are important for ensuring crew health during space flight, and will be critical as we begin to embark on the longer duration exploration missions in the future. Understanding the interrelationship between nutritional status and other physiological systems inflight may also help to better understand human health for those on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: This study involves the collection of blood and urine samples before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by space flight. Analyzing the data will help us to define nutritional requirements for long-duration missions. This expanded set of measurements will also aid in the identification of nutritional countermeasures to counteract, for example, the deleterious effects of microgravity on bone and muscle and the effects of space radiation.

Sample collection protocols have been well executed, with periodic sample returns on Shuttle flights. Most samples are analyzed in a batch after flight. Individual data briefings have been provided to the first 6 completed subjects. Preliminary data have been presented to HRP and other organizations within JSC.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Wolf M, Rogers A, Rodgers S, Gillman PL, Hitchcox K, Ericson KL, Smith SM. "Stability of analytes related to clinical chemistry and bone metabolism in blood specimens after delayed processing." Clin Biochem. 2009 Jun;42(9):907-10. PMID: 19250930 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.02.010 , Jun-2009
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight." Adv Clin Chem. 2008;46:87-130. Review. PMID: 19004188 , Dec-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Nutrition issues for space exploration." Acta Astronaut. 2008 Sep;63(5-6):609-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2008.04.010 , Sep-2008
Project Title:  Nutritional Status Assessment: SMO 016 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2006 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 11/27/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  German Aerospace Center 
Coburn, Stephen  Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne 
Booth, Sarah  Tufts University 
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM08:We do not know the influence, direct, or synergistic, on the immune system of other physiological changes associated with spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N04:Does mission architecture and/or available countermeasures impact nutritional status of crewmembers during spaceflight? (IRP Rev E)
(5) N06:What impact does the spaceflight environment have on oxidative damage?
(6) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(7) N15:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for oxidative damage during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(8) N3.3:We need to determine changes in nutritional status due to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(9) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
(10) N7.2:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for cardiovascular health (IRP Rev E)
(11) N7.3:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for ocular health (IRP Rev E)
(12) N7.4:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for behavior and performance (IRP Rev E)
(13) N7.5:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for immune health
(14) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(15) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(16) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

Task Description: SMO 016. These studies are designed to provide information about the changes in nutritional status and calcium and bone metabolism during and after space flight. It is well known that the status of some vitamins (i.e., folate, vitamin K, vitamin D) is decreased after long-duration space flight. Never before have we been able to investigate most of these changes during flight. In-flight data will assist in the interpretation of post-flight data, and it will help to assess countermeasure efficiency during flight. The investigators will measure blood levels of vitamins, minerals, oxidative damage markers, markers of iron and calcium metabolism, bone- and calcium-regulating hormones, markers of cardiovascular risk (associated with nutritional status), stress hormones, and urinary markers of bone turnover. These will provide a complete profile of nutritional status and bone and calcium metabolism, and will be important for understanding the effects of the countermeasures under consideration as well as the mechanisms of alterations that occur during space flight. Data will be collected before, during and after flight. The main potential benefit of this research is obtaining more information about the bone loss and changes in nutritional status that occur during space flight, and knowledge of how effective bone-loss countermeasures are for extended duration space flight. The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Nutrition.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The information gained here will also be important for developing new treatments for metabolic disorders in the general population.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2006 
Task Progress: New project for FY2006.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2006