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Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 12/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 03/31/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/29/13)

NOTE: End date is now 8/14/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 6/15/2012)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: This project addresses questions regarding methods and technologies for training crews to maintain crew cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (BHP Team GAP5; IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1) and metrics for monitoring crew cohesion (BHP Team GAP2; IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1). Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance; (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews; and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives (BHP Team Gap 2 and Team Gap5) by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues. Organized as a multi-year project, primary tasks for the first year included the development of recommendations for training crews to optimize cohesion and team performance, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measuring crew cohesion over time. Second and third years of the project focus on applying recommendations derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Overarching project goals are to: (1) mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, (2) diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and (3) provide just-in-time training to improve any noted cohesion decrements during spaceflight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Working together on long-duration space exploration missions in conjunction with ground control requires the ability to communicate, coordinate, and cooperate for extended durations under complex, dynamic conditions such as extreme isolation and confinement (NASA, 2009). Factors related to team cohesion (e.g., interpersonal conflict, impaired communication) were noted as contributors in both the Challenger and Columbia shuttle accidents. Determining the best strategies for equipping crew members with the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal tools necessary to cope under such intense conditions while maintaining optimal performance, and developing a means to unobtrusively monitor crew adaptation over time are critical to the success of such missions. The multipronged research approach will yield (1) an understanding of the factors that contribute to a lack of cohesion and (2) the identification of stressors relevant to spaceflight crews, which will aid in pinpointing training strategies and methodologies to equip team members with the competencies necessary for coping with isolated, confined environments for long durations. Additionally, the focus on self-correction and regulation will enable teams to maintain levels of cohesion and team performance as well as to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion decrements over the course of long duration spaceflight.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: The following is a submission of the overall final report of the research project. This research project (Project PEGASUS) is dedicated to providing valid, evidence based training recommendations for optimizing and maintaining crew cohesion and team performance during long duration spaceflight (LDSF) missions. The specific objectives associated with Project PEGASUS include: (1) Identify evidence-based guidelines and best practices for training to maximize team cohesion and team performance; (2) Design, develop, and validate theoretically driven, evidence based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews; and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence based toolkit for measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of LDSF missions.

This report includes the tasks that have been conducted for the project, as well as updates following the previous Y4 annual report completed. The first phases of the project involved investigating the characteristics of the LDSF environment, by reviewing the literature of team performance in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments. Our literature review was organized by investigating three constructs—categorized as thrusts—that are considered important for effective team performance in ICE environments: (1) cohesion, (2) stress, and (3) self-regulation.

The literature review helped in the development of inquiries for the structured interviews with subject matter experts. These subject matter experts were astronauts with NASA who had previous experience with LDSF mission in the International Space Station (ISS). These interviews involved astronauts to provide insight into their experiences of these missions, including stress that they experience during taskwork and in the work environment, preparing crewmembers for spaceflight missions, and working with fellow teammates before and during the mission. Additionally, we also gained insight about what conditions of training interventions they deemed useful for preparing the team for their spaceflight mission. Based on our literature review and talking with the subject matter experts, we concluded that Team Dimensional Training (TDT), a structured debriefing strategy that is associated with team self-correction, can help personnel in the spaceflight context for learning and maintaining optimal collective performance.

The main update associated with this final report involves the conduction and conclusion of our field study, which investigated TDT in a Mission Control setting. This involves data collection, analysis, and interpretation of results. Findings indicate that participants rate the TDT debriefing strategy to allow for more open and participative debriefing, and also rated the TDT strategy with higher levels of learning value than the baseline debriefing condition. Additionally, findings indicate that the TDT strategy has resulted in quicker certification times for trainees in comparison to the baseline condition.

Overall, our efforts in this four year research project involved gaining insight into the characteristics and challenges associated with long duration spaceflight. Our efforts also included the validation of training countermeasures (i.e., TDT) aiming to benefit personnel in the spaceflight work environment to prepare for future missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz A, Grossman R, Oglesby J, Coultas C, Lazzara E, Benishek L, Salas E. "Developing team training and cohesion measurement best practices for long duration spaceflight." 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3057.pdf , Feb-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Thayer A, Smith-Jentsch KA. "The Influence of Team Composition on Team Flexible Coordination." Accepted for presentation at 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 15-17, 2014.

29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 15-17, 2014. , May-2014

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Grossman R, Hughes AM, Coultas CW. "Measuring team cohesion: observations from the science." Hum Factors. 2015 May;57(3):365-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720815578267 ; PubMed PMID: 25875429 , May-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kozlowski SWJ, Miller CA, Mathieu JE, Vessey WB. "Teams in space exploration: A new frontier for the science of team effectiveness." Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2015 Jun;24(3):200-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721414566448 , Jun-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell JE, Salas E, Driskell T. "Foundations of teamwork and collaboration. " Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):334-48. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000241 ; PMID: 29792452 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Fiore SM, Wiltshire TJ, Oglesby JM, O’Keefe WS, Salas E. "Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in Mission Control." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2014 Apr;85(4):456-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3819.2014 , Apr-2014
Books/Book Chapters Driskell T, Driskell JE, Salas E. "Lexicon as a predictor of team dynamics." in "Team dynamics over time." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, L.B. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 2017. p. 231-257. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-085620160000018010 , Aug-2017
NASA Technical Documents Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Dietz AS, Carter-Berenson D, Oglesby J, Fiore SM, Salas E. "Training 'the right stuff': An assessment of team training needs for long-duration spaceflight crews." Houston, TX: NASA Johnson Space Center, 62 p. 2015 Sep. NASA/TM-2015-218589. , Sep-2015
Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 12/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 08/30/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/29/13)

NOTE: End date is now 8/14/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 6/15/2012)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: This project addresses questions regarding methods and technologies for training crews to maintain crew cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (BHP Team GAP5; IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1) and metrics for monitoring crew cohesion (BHP Team GAP2; IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1). Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance, (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives (BHP Team Gap 2 and Team Gap5) by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues. Organized as a multi-year project, primary tasks for the first year included the development of recommendations for training crews to optimize cohesion and team performance, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measuring crew cohesion over time. Second and third years of the project focus on applying recommendations derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Overarching project goals are to: (1) mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, (2) diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and (3) provide just-in-time training to improve any noted cohesion decrements during spaceflight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Working together on long-duration space exploration missions in conjunction with ground control requires the ability to communicate, coordinate, and cooperate for extended durations under complex, dynamic conditions such as extreme isolation and confinement (NASA, 2009). Factors related to team cohesion (e.g. interpersonal conflict, impaired communication) were noted as contributors in both the Challenger and Columbia shuttle accidents. Determining the best strategies for equipping crew members with the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal tools necessary to cope under such intense conditions while maintaining optimal performance, and developing a means to unobtrusively monitor crew adaptation over time are critical to the success of such missions. The multipronged research approach will yield (1) an understanding of the factors that contribute to a lack of cohesion and (2) the identification of stressors relevant to spaceflight crews, which will aid in pinpointing training strategies and methodologies to equip team members with the competencies necessary for coping with isolated, confined environments for long durations. Additionally, the focus on self-correction and regulation will enable teams to maintain levels of cohesion and team performance as well as to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion decrements over the course of long duration spaceflight.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Year 4 (Y4) efforts have focused on: (1) data collection for a field study investigating the impact of debriefing conditions on team learning and performance, (2) laboratory experiments investigating team composition and strain and its relation to team performance, (3) the development of guidelines for measuring team cohesion to monitor long duration space flight (LDSF) teams, and (4) the development of team training guidelines and best practices framework.

Regarding efforts within the three main thrusts provided in the initial proposal, efforts within Thrust 1 (Cohesion) were focused on (1) continued literature analysis for the development of cohesion measurement, (2) the development of team training guidelines and best practices, and (3) experimental testing investigating the factors associated with team cohesion. Efforts associated with Thrust 2 (Stress) involved: (1) developing guidelines for team level stress measurement, and (2) experimental testing investigating the factors contributing to team member strain. Efforts involved in Thrust 3 (Self-Regulation) primarily involved data collection for a field study investigating the validity of utilizing Team Dimensional Training (TDT) in a NASA Mission Control setting. TDT is a structured debriefing style for guiding teams to develop shared and accurate teamwork knowledge and facilitate their development of teamwork skills. Additionally, the self-regulation thrust involved data collection and analysis of multiple laboratory experiments investigating the role of team composition and team member strain on team performance, and analyses of archival analog data. Project Pegasus has received a no-cost extension until the end of the year 2013 to provide an opportunity for collecting performance data in the TDT field validation study.

Y4 progress so far has included several core tasks including: Literature and archival data analysis (Task 3), the development of cohesion measurement guidelines for LDSF teams (Task 4), laboratory experimental investigations focusing on composition factors and its relation to team performance (Task 5), and data collection for the validation study of the TDT debriefing strategy (Task 9).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Fiore SM, Wiltshire TJ, Oglesby JM, O’Keefe WS, Salas E. "Macrocognition in Mission Control teams: Understanding complex collaborative problem solving processes." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. Presentation.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Salas E, Smith-Jentsch K, Fiore SM, Oglesby JM, Dietz A, Sierra MJ, Grossman R. "Optimizing crew performance in long duration space exploration: Best practices for team training." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch K, Joseph DL, Salas E. "Crew member personality fit and job strain: Exploring crew personality composition as a stress countermeasure for long-duration spaceflight." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA, Salas E. "To laugh or not to laugh: The potential impact of crew member humor on team process and performance during long-duration spaceflight." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Thayer AL, Smith-Jentsch KA, Salas E. "Team composition and coordination: An empirical examination in air traffic control teams." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Joseph DL, Smith-Jentsch K. "Neuroticism fit and stress: Can two wrongs make a right?" 2013 INGRoup Conference, Atlanta, GA, July 11-13, 2013.

2013 INGRoup Conference, Atlanta, GA, July 11-13, 2013. , Jul-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dalal D, Joseph DL, Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ. "Leader-follower assertiveness fit: An asset or a handicap?" 2013 (28th annual conference) Meeting of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX, April 10-15, 2013.

2013 (28th annual conference) Meeting of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX, April 10-15, 2013. , Apr-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Salas E. "Countdown to Mars: Sequencing team training for the long haul." 2013 (28th annual conference) Meeting of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX, April 10-15, 2013.

2013 (28th annual conference) Meeting of the Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX, April 10-15, 2013. , Apr-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Rico R, Smith-Jentsch K, Mihm D. "Antecedents and outcomes of team situational models." 73rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Orlando, FL, August 9-13, 2013.

73rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Orlando, FL, August 9-13, 2013. , Aug-2013

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Fiore SM, Wiltshire TJ, Oglesby JM, O’Keefe WS, Salas E. "Examining complex collaborative problem solving processes in Mission Control." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. Under review as of September 2013. , Sep-2013
Books/Book Chapters Gregory ME, Feitosa J, Driskell T, Salas E, Vessey WB. "Designing, delivering, and evaluating team training in organizations: Principles that work. Chapter 14." in "Developing and Enhancing Teamwork in Organizations: Evidence-based Best Practices and Guidelines." Ed. E. Salas, S. I. Tannenbaum, D. Cohen, G. Latham. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass, 2013., Jun-2013
Books/Book Chapters Driskell T, Salas E, Vessey WB. "Team training in virtual environments: A dual approach." in "Handbook of virtual environments: Design, implementation, and applications. 2nd ed." Ed. K.M. Stanney, K.S. Hale. Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, in press as of September 2013., Sep-2013
NASA Technical Documents Fiore S, Wiltshire T, Oglesby J, Salas E. "University of Central Florida’s contribution to NASA's complex and collaborative team problem solving technical interchange meeting (TIM): July 30-31, 2012." University of Central Florida’s contribution to NASA's complex and collaborative team problem solving technical interchange meeting (TIM): July 30-31, 2012. July 30-31, 2012. , Jul-2012
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Dietz AS, Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch K, Salas E. "Guiding principles for team stress measurement." 56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 56th Annual Meeting Proceedings. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2012. p. 1074-1078. , Oct-2012

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Oglesby J, Salas E. "The issue of monotony and low workload in spaceflight: Considerations for the mission to Mars." 56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 56th Annual Meeting Proceedings. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2012. p. 1782-1786. , Oct-2012

Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 12/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 06/15/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: NA
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/29/13)

NOTE: End date is now 8/14/2013 per NSSC information (Ed., 6/15/2012)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: This project addresses questions regarding methods and technologies for training crews to maintain crew cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (BHP Team GAP5; IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1) and metrics for monitoring crew cohesion (BHP Team GAP2; IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1). Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance, (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives (BHP Team Gap 2 and Team Gap5) by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues. Organized as a multi-year project, primary tasks for the first year included the development of recommendations for training crews to optimize cohesion and team performance, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measuring crew cohesion over time. Second and third years of the project focus on applying recommendations derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Overarching project goals are to: (1) mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, (2) diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and (3) provide just-in-time training to improve any noted cohesion decrements during spaceflight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Working together on long-duration space exploration missions in conjunction with ground control requires the ability to communicate, coordinate, and cooperate for extended durations under complex, dynamic conditions such as extreme isolation and confinement (NASA, 2009). Factors related to team cohesion (e.g. interpersonal conflict, impaired communication) were noted as contributors in both the Challenger and Columbia shuttle accidents. Determining the best strategies for equipping crew members with the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal tools necessary to cope under such intense conditions while maintaining optimal performance, and developing a means to unobtrusively monitor crew adaptation over time are critical to the success of such missions. The multipronged research approach will yield (1) an understanding of the factors that contribute to a lack of cohesion and (2) the identification of stressors relevant to spaceflight crews, which will aid in pinpointing training strategies and methodologies to equip team members with the competencies necessary for coping with isolated, confined environments for long durations. Additionally, the focus on self-correction and regulation will enable teams to maintain levels of cohesion and team performance as well as to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion decrements over the course of long duration spaceflight.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Year 3 (Y3) efforts have focused on: (1) the development and planning of field and lab-based studies in order to provide empirical support from which our guidelines and intervention techniques will be grounded, (2) continued analysis of archival analogue data collected from US Submarine teams and US air traffic controller teams, (3) the development of a cohesion measurement toolkit to monitor cohesion levels over time, and (4) convening the first of two workshops dedicated to bringing together a diverse community of experts around the topic of team training in complex environments.

Efforts within Thrust 1 (Cohesion) were dedicated to continued literature analysis. Findings from this analysis supported the development of an initial cohesion toolkit that includes an attitudinal measure, a behavioral measure, and a sociometric measure. In addition, Y3 efforts resulted in the successful identification and development of an experimental methodology appropriate for studies dedicated to exploring issues related to long duration spaceflight (LDSF) crew functioning and performance. Data from laboratory studies will be analyzed in order to assess the reliability and validity of the cohesion toolkit. Efforts related to Thrust 2 (Stress) involved: (1) constructing a theoretical conceptualization of team-level stress, (2) identifying guidelines for the measurement of team-level stress, (3) examining the implications of boredom and monotony for future long-duration missions, and (4) analyzing the indicators of team stress from an archival Air Traffic Controller data set. In addition, a manuscript submitted during Y2 was revised and submitted for review for publication in a peer-reviewed outlet relevant to NASA. Thrust 3 (Self-Regulation) efforts were dedicated to designing and implementing a study aimed at empirically validating a strategy for debriefing teams. The strategy under investigation is Team Dimension Training (TDT). Briefly, TDT is a strategy for guiding teams in a structured process of self-correction to facilitate team members in developing shared and accurate knowledge about the components of effective teamwork and accelerate their mastery of targeted teamwork skills. Furthermore, Project Pegasus has received a one year no-cost extension to continue this effort in order to scientifically determine the degree to which estimates of TDT’s validity obtained in prior research will generalize to the NASA population.

Thus, Y3 progress included several core tasks: analysis of data sets collected from analogous samples and reviews of existing literature (Task 3), the development of a preliminary cohesion toolkit (Task 4), preparation for experimental studies and collection of data from these studies (Task 5), conducting the first project workshop (Task 8), and coordinating with our NASA sponsors to initiate the validation study of the TDT debriefing technique (Task 9).

Besides the publications listed in the Bibliography below, we have an Unpublished White Paper: Bedwell, W.L., Grossman, R., Potocnik, M.J., Dietz, A.S., & Salas, E. "Workshop Executive Summary: Best Practices for Enhancing Team Performance." November 2011.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Keeton KE, Tani D, Goodwin G, Smith-Jentsch K. (W.L. Bedwell & A.S. Dietz (Co-Chairs) "Extreme teams: Is a paradigm shift required?" 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 19-23, 2011.

Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 19-23, 2011. (pp. 2109-2122). , Sep-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz AS, Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch K, Salas E. "Guiding principles for team stress measurement." Paper accepted for presentation at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.

56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012. In press as of June 2012. , Jun-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Oglesby J, Salas E. "The issue of monotony and low workload in spaceflight: Considerations for the mission to Mars." Poster accepted for presentation at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012.

56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Boston, MA, October 22-26, 2012. In press as of June 2012. , Jun-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grossman R, Bedwell WL, Burke CS, Thayer A, Dietz AS, Salas E. "Modeling Cohesion in Long-Duration Spaceflight." Poster presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Salas E, Smith-Jentsch K, Fiore SM, Bedwell WL, Sierra MJ, Dietz A, Oglesby J, Grossman R. "Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement." Poster presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Salas E. "Team Dimensional Training validation: A field study with flight controllers." Poster presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grossman R, Bedwell WL, Dietz AS, Benishek L, Oglesby JM, Spencer J, Salas E. "Best Practices for Team Training." Poster presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grossman R, Bedwell W, Benishek L, Oglesby J, Salas E. "The many faces of cohesion: Toward a unified conceptualization." In Grossman, R. & Thayer, A. (co-chairs), & Bedwell, W. (discussant). Team constructs: Before we can understand them, we must define them. Symposium conducted at the 33rd Annual Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (IOOB) Conference, Orlando, FL, March 9-11, 2012.

33rd Annual Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (IOOB) Conference, Orlando, FL, March 9-11, 2012. , Mar-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "The nature of team stress in air traffic control teams." Presented at the 33rd Annual Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (IOOB) Conference, Orlando, FL, March 9-11, 2012.

33rd Annual Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (IOOB) Conference, Orlando, FL, March 9-11, 2012. , Mar-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Kozlowski SWJ. (Co-Chairs). "The science of teams: Learning from the extremes." Symposium conducted at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA, Dietz A.S. "Understanding team stress: Lessons learned from air traffic control teams." In W. L. Bedwell & S. W. Kozlowski (Co-Chairs), The science of teams: Learning from the extremes. Symposium conducted at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Bedwell WL, Sierra MJ, Jones RP, Oglesby JM, Fiore SM, Salas E. "Entrainment at the extremes: Understanding adaptation needs of astronaut crews." In W. L. Bedwell & S. W. Kozlowski (Co-Chairs), The science of teams: Learning from the extremes. Symposium conducted at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Salas E. "Beyond low-earth orbit: Team training needs analysis applications & advances." In K. Kraiger (Chair), By land, sea, and air: Advancements and applications of training needs assessment. Symposium conducted at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Rinke LM, Sierra MJ, Dalal SG. "Is shared cognition always beneficial?: Why team member personality matters." In D. DiazGranados & K. A. Smith-Jentsch (Co-Chairs), How and when does team composition affect performance? Symposium conducted at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Bedwell WL, Salas E, Fiore SM. "Improving team performance through structured debriefings: A field test of team dimensional training." In S. T. Vanderark (Chair)-- Co-operative advances in behavioral health and performance research and operations. Panel presentation at the 83rd Annual Scientific Meeting, Aerospace Medical Association, Atlanta, GA, May 13-17, 2012.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2012 Mar; 83(3):254. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2012/00000083/00000003/art00006 , Mar-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "Beyond the Individual: A Theory of Team-Level Stress." Paper presented at the 7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012.

7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012. , Jul-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "A Multilevel Analysis of What's Missing from Team Training Transfer Theory and Research." Poster presented at the 7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012.

7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012. , Jul-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL. "Adaptive Team Performance: The Role of Learning." Paper presented at the 7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012.

7th Annual Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Conference, Chicago, IL, July 12­-14, 2012. , Jul-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ. "Teams under stress: Cues, consequences, and correction." Presentation at Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Resiliency Programs: a Workshop Series, Washington, DC, November 9, 2011.

Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Resiliency Programs: a Workshop Series, Washington, DC, November 9, 2011. http://www.iom.edu/Activities/PublicHealth/WorkforceResilience/2011-NOV-09.aspx , Nov-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shuffler ML, DiazGranados D, Salas E. "There’s a science for that: Team development interventions in organizations." Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2011 Dec;20(6):365-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721411422054 , Dec-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kraiger K, Smith-Jentsch KA. "The science of training in organizations: What matters in practice." Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2012 Jun;13(2): 74-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1529100612436661 , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dietz AS, Driskell JE, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Salas E. "Stress and Teams: A Framework for Understanding, Optimizing, and Diagnosing Teamwork under Stress." Human Factors. Under review as of June 2012 , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Bedwell WL, Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA, Salas E, Carter D, Keeton K. "Teams in space: A multiteam perspective on training needs analysis." Small Group Research. Under revision as of June 2012. , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA, Young BL. "Determinants of individual motivation and learning during team training: A multilevel perspective." Journal of Applied Psychology. Under review as of June 2012. , Jun-2012
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Weaver SJ, Shuffler M. "Learning, training, and development in organizations." in "The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Psychology (Vol. 1)." Ed. S.W.J. Kozlowski. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2012. Chapter 11. , May-2012
Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 08/14/2012  
Task Last Updated: 06/16/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: NA
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: This project addresses questions regarding methods and technologies for training crews to maintain crew cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (BHP Team GAP5; IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1) and metrics for monitoring crew cohesion (BHP Team GAP2; IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1). Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance, (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives (BHP Team Gap 2 and Team Gap5) by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues. Organized as a multi-year project, primary tasks for the first year included the development of recommendations for training crews to optimize cohesion and team performance, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measuring crew cohesion over time. Second and third years of the project focus on applying recommendations derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Overarching project goals are to: (1) mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, (2) diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and (3) provide just-in-time training to improve any noted cohesion decrements during spaceflight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Working together on long-duration space exploration missions in conjunction with ground control requires the ability to communicate, coordinate, and cooperate for extended durations under complex, dynamic conditions such as extreme isolation and confinement (NASA, 2009). Factors related to team cohesion (e.g. interpersonal conflict, impaired communication) were noted as contributors in both the Challenger and Columbia shuttle accidents. Determining the best strategies for equipping crew members with the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal tools necessary to cope under such intense conditions while maintaining optimal performance, and developing a means to unobtrusively monitor crew adaptation over time are critical to the success of such missions. The multipronged research approach will yield (1) an understanding of the factors that contribute to a lack of cohesion and (2) the identification of stressors relevant to spaceflight crews, which will aid in pinpointing training strategies and methodologies to equip team members with the competencies necessary for coping with isolated, confined environments for long durations. Additionally, the focus on self-correction and regulation will enable teams to maintain levels of cohesion and team performance as well as to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion decrements over the course of LDSF.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Year two (Y2) efforts have focused on: (1) identifying team training strategies relevant for long-duration space flight based on a team training needs analysis conducted in Year One, (2) developing and pilot testing a guided team self-correction training strategy designed to enhance team cohesion and performance, (3) continued analysis of archival analogue data collected from US Navy Submarine teams and US air traffic control teams, (4) planning for the first of two workshops dedicated to bringing together a diverse community of experts around the topic of team training in complex environments, and (5) development and planning in coordination with NASA grant officers and analogue population representatives for experimental studies to investigate toolkit strategies and cohesion measures. Efforts within Research Thrust 1 (Cohesion) were dedicated to identifying relevant team training strategies and methods for optimizing team performance based on the team training needs analysis conducted in Year 1. Efforts related to Thrust 2 (Stress) focused on identifying team training strategies relevant for mitigating and managing the negative impact of stress on crew cohesion and performance during long duration space flight. These efforts were summarized into manuscript form and are currently under review for publication in a peer-reviewed outlet relevant to NASA. Thrust 3 (Self-regulation) efforts focused on development and pilot testing of a guided team-self correction training program. Specifically, training materials were developed and two sets of training workshops were held to pilot test training materials (December 2010; February, 2011). The pilot tests included a sample of flight controllers, BHP operations personnel, and astronauts with long-duration flight experience. Furthermore, significant work was dedicated to development of experimental plans for both lab-based and analogue sample studies. For example, a full experimental plan and MOR was developed for planned studies to be completed as part of NEEMO 15. While the potential to participate in NEEMO 15 did not come to fruition, we are working with NASA sponsors to identify an alternative sample. Additionally, in support of transition to operations efforts, the team training concept was briefed at the Flight Operations Integration Group (FOIG) meeting held in February 2011.

Thus, Y2 progress included several core tasks: scientific advisory board convened for tele-meeting (Task 2), analysis of data sets collected from analogous samples and reviews of existing literature (Task 3), preparation for experimental studies (Task 5), development and piloting of a guided team self-correction instructional strategy based on the team training needs analysis completed in Year One (Task 6), planning for the first project workshop (Task 8), and coordination with both NASA BHP and analogue population officials to begin planning and development of training validation studies (Task 9).

Specific work products during Year 2 are as follows:

Unpublished White Papers

WP4. Driskell, J. E., Dietz, A.S., Weaver, S. J., Bedwell, W. L., Sierra, M.J., & Salas, E. (2010). Stress training taxonomy. Unpublished white paper.

WP5. Weaver, S. J., Bedwell, W. L., Sierra, M. J., Dietz, A. S., & Carter, D. (2010). Project pegasus: Scientific advisory board conference call report. Unpublished white paper.

WP6. Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Sierra, M. J., Weaver, S. J., Bedwell, W. L., Dietz, A. S., Carter-Berenson, D., Olgesby, J., Fiore, S. M., Salas, E. (2011) Team training needs analysis (part 1 of 3): Task analysis. Unpublished white paper. i. **Revised after vetting with sponsors & participants

WP7. Sierra, M.J., Carter-Berenson, D., Smith-Jentsch, K., Bedwell, W.L., & Salas, E. (2011). TDT Dimensions mapped to SFRM dimensions and flight controller performance evaluation criteria (part 1 of 2). Unpublished white paper.

Team Dimensional Training (TDT) Materials for Pilot Testing (Dec 2010 & Feb 2011)

D5. Smith-Jentsch, K. A. Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Sierra, M. J., Carter-Berenson, D., Weaver S. J., Bedwell, W. L., Dietz, A. S., & Oglesby J. M. (2011). TDT facilitator workshop curriculum slides.

D6. Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Sierra, M. J., & Carter-Berenson, D. (2011). TDT prebriefing/debriefing facilitation guide.

D7. Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Sierra, M. J., & Carter-Berenson, D. (2011). TDT guidebook.

Formal Briefings

D8. Smith-Jentsch, K. A. (2011, February). Team dimensional training: A strategy for developing high performance LDSF teams. Briefing presented to the Flight Operations Integration Group.

Other

O1. DRAFT of Mission Objective Request for NEEMO 15 **Note: BHP has since decided to not participate in NEEMO 15

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Smith-Jentsch KA, Weaver SJ, Sierra MJ, Fiore SM, et al. "Long-duration space flight crews: A team training needs analysis." Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA, Carter-Berenson D, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL. "Disentangling the Unique Effects of Team Dimensional Training's Design Elements." Poster presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Salas E. (Panelist) "The unwieldy world of teams: Teamwork issues in applied settings." Panel presentation at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Salas E. (Panelist) "In extremis teams: What do we need to know?" Panel presentation at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Salas E, Weaver SJ. (Co-Chairs) "Teams in the wild: Do existing theories, methods, and inferences still fit?" Panel presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Salas E. "Training multi-team systems to self-correct." Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Weaver SJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "Composition, cohesion, and climate in air traffic control teams." Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011.

26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, April 14-16, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz AS, Driskell JE, Salas E. "Identifying training strategies to mitigate and manage the negative effects of stress on performance in long-duration spaceflight." Paper presented at the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011.

16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011. http://www.wright.edu/isap/ , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Carter-Berenson D, Smith-Jentsch KA. "Meeting the needs of long-duration spaceflight crews through guided team self-correction." Paper presented at the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011.

16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011. http://www.wright.edu/isap/ , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Carter-Berenson DR, Smith-Jentsch KA, Sierra MJ, Bedwell WL, Weaver SJ, Dietz AS, Oglesby JM, Fiore S, Salas E. "Long duration space flight work characteristics: A team task analysis." Poster presented at the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011.

16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH, May 2-5, 2011. http://www.wright.edu/isap/ , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Smith-Jentsch K, Weaver SJ, Sierra MJ, Fiore SM, Dietz A, Carter-Berenson D, Oglesby J, Salas E. "Extreme teams: A training needs analysis for long-duration spaceflight." Poster presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz AS, Driskell JE, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Sierra MJ, Salas E. "Assessing the role and effects of stress in long-duration spaceflight teams: A framework and training taxonomy." Poster presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Oglesby JM, Bedwell WL, Dietz AS, Fiore SM. "Developing a research methodology for studying aerospace teamwork in the laboratory." Poster presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch K, Salas E, Fiore SM, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Sierra MJ, Dietz A, Carter-Berenson D, Oglesby J. "Integrated team training to support optimal crew performance in long duration space exploration." Poster presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sierra MJ, Carter-Berenson D, Smith-Jentsch KA. "The application of guided team self-correction in long-duration spaceflight." Poster presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Young BL, Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "Determinants of individual motivation and learning in the context of team training: A multilevel perspective." Paper presented at the 6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011.

6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011. , Jul-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL. "Teamwork Today: Do We Really Know Anything?" Panel presented at the 6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011.

6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011. , Jul-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Carter-Berenson D, Sierra MJ, Smith-Jentsch KA. "Organizational Analysis for Long-duration Spaceflight Teams: A Fresh MTS Perspective." Poster presented at the 6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011.

6th Annual Conference of the Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research (INGRoup), Minneapolis, MN, July 2011. , Jul-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Dietz AS. "Extreme teams: Is a paradigm shift required?" Panel accepted to the 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 2011.

55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Las Vegas, NV, September 2011. , Sep-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dietz AS, Driskell J, Weaver SJ, Salas E, Sierra MJ, Keeton KE. "Teams in space: A framework for understanding and optimizing teamwork under stress." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. Under Review, as of June 2011. , Jun-2011
Books/Book Chapters Dietz AS, Bedwell WL, Oglesby JM, Salas E, Keeton KE. "Synthetic task environments for understanding performance at work: Principles and the road ahead. (In Progress)." in "Frontiers of methodology in organizational research." Ed. J.M. Cortina, R.S. Landis. New York, NY : Routledge Academic, in press. June 2011. Expected publication January 2012., Jun-2011
Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 08/14/2012  
Task Last Updated: 06/17/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: NA
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: This project addresses questions regarding methods and technologies for training crews to maintain crew cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (BHP Team GAP5; IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1) and metrics for monitoring crew cohesion (BHP Team GAP2; IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1). Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance, (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives (BHP Team Gap 2 and Team Gap5) by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues. Organized as a multi-year project, primary tasks for the first year include the development of recommendations for training crews to optimize cohesion and team performance, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measuring crew cohesion over time. Second and third years of the project focus on applying recommendations derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Overall, the project aims to mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, provide mechanisms to diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and provide just-in-time training in the context of long-duration missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Working together on long-duration space exploration missions in conjunction with ground control requires the ability to communicate, coordinate, and cooperate for extended durations under complex, dynamic conditions such as extreme isolation and confinement (NASA, 2009). Factors related to team cohesion (e.g. interpersonal conflict, impaired communication) were noted as contributors in both the Challenger and Columbia shuttle accidents. Determining the best strategies for equipping crew members with the cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal tools necessary to cope under such intense conditions while maintaining optimal performance, and developing a means to unobtrusively monitor crew adaptation over time are critical to the success of such missions. The multipronged research approach conducted during Year One as well as the proposed efforts for Year Two and Year Three will yield (1) an understanding of the factors that contribute to a lack of cohesion and (2) the identification of stressors relevant to spaceflight crews, which will aid in pinpointing training strategies and methodologies to equip team members with the competencies necessary for coping with isolated, confined environments for long durations. Additionally, the focus on self-correction and regulation will enable teams to maintain levels of cohesion and team performance as well as to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion decrements over the course of LDSF.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: Year one (Y1) efforts focused on (1) examining existing evidence regarding team cohesion, stress, and self-regulation in extreme environments, (2) conducting a team training needs analysis designed to identify critical training needs based upon the experiences of crew members with existing long-duration mission experience and projected similarities/differences between these experiences and projected LDSF missions to entities such as Mars, and (3) investigating the cohesion-performance relationship and empirically investigating the impact of a team training and debriefing strategy on team performance using two analogous populations (i.e., U.S. Navy submarine crews and air traffic control teams). Efforts within Research Thrust 1 (Cohesion) were dedicated to identifying factors affecting formation and maintenance of cohesion, examining the impact of cohesion on team performance, and initial identification of training strategies that may potentially optimize cohesion. Efforts related to Thrust 2 (Stress) focused on identifying key antecedents of stress, examining the impact of stress on team performance, and initial identification of training strategies that may mitigate the negative impact of stress on crew cohesion and performance. Thrust 3 (Self-regulation) efforts focused on understanding the role of self-regulation in team cohesion and the cohesion– performance relationship, as well as validation of the generalizability of training strategies aimed at enhancing team self-regulation in analogous populations.

Three overarching tasks were completed in Y1: a formal project kick-off meeting with sponsors and other key stake holders (Task 1), a scientific advisory board was formed (Task 2), and a team training needs analysis was conducted to identify critical training objectives, training strategy recommendations, and training methods for experimental validation in subsequent project work slated to occur in Y2 and Y3 (Task 3). The purpose of the kick-off meeting was to develop a shared understanding among the UCF research team and NASA sponsors regarding the project goals, to establish common ground, and to allow the team to make necessary adjustments based on sponsor requests. Task 2 was dedicated to identifying and convening a scientific advisory board (SAB) designed to provide a combination of scientific and operational expertise both supplementary and complementary to the expertise of the UCF team. Specifically, the objectives of the SAB are to provide suggestions, advice, feedback, and an external perspective throughout the life of the project in order to optimize the scientific merit and practicality of the research efforts conducted within the scope of this grant. SAB members have been identified and have received overview materials detailing project aims and progress to date. The SAB is scheduled to hold its first meeting in July, 2010. Results will be detailed in subsequent reports. Task 3 included a Team Training Needs Analysis (TTNA) designed to delineate and project critical training needs (i.e. team competencies) for extreme long-duration missions, thus allowing relevant training strategies to be mapped to identified needs. To this end, Task three included a review of existing published studies analyzing teamwork working in isolated, confined, environments, analog data analysis, and subject matter expert interviews conducted with a sample of long-duration astronauts.

Overall, Y1 efforts have been dedicated to identifying team training needs for LDSF missions that will guide training recommendations, instructional strategy development and validation, as well as metric development and experimentation in Y2 and Y3. The literature reviews, SME interviews, review of existing training curricula, and analyses of analog data to date have already identified several important task, person, and organizational factors that must be considered in developing training and measurement strategies that will be effective given the operational environment. For example, analyses of the SME interviews conducted in February 2010 revealed several key task characteristics that will moderate the type of training strategy and methods recommended for optimizing crew (ground and flight) performance and cohesion (BHP Gap Team5). Additionally, interim results derived using archival analog data have found support for the impact of a guided team-self correction training and debriefing strategy on both team and multi-team system performance (BHP Gap Team5). Additionally, interim results of these analyses demonstrate that this strategy improves both within team and between team performance through several mechanisms: by improving team knowledge stock, increasing team mental model accuracy, and improving effective usage of transactive memory systems. These results and additional interim findings from the second analog data set (Air Traffic Control) are currently being prepared as white papers for submission to sponsors. These results have been augmented by findings from the on-going review of extant literature. Furthermore, review work to date has revealed several themes regarding the measurement of team cohesion and its relationship to cohesion which will guide formation of the cohesion toolkit (BHP Gap Team2).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Salas E, Smith-Jentsch KA, Fiore S, Dietz A, Sierra MJ. "Team effectiveness in long duration spaceflight: A conceptual guiding framework." Poster presented at the annual NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 2010.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 2010. , Feb-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz A, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Salas E, Smith-Jentsch KA, Fiore SM. "Teams in ICE: Identifying focal stressors in long-duration spaceflight." Paper accepted for presentation to the 5th Annual INGRoup Conference, Arlington, VA, July 22-24, 2010.

INGRoup 2010 Conference, July 2010. , Jul-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith-Jentsch KA, Weaver SJ, Wiese C, Kraiger K. "Evidence of the reliability and validity of collective climates in work teams." Paper accepted for presentation to the 5th Annual INGRoup Conference, Arlington, VA, July 22-24, 2010.

INGRoup 2010 Conference, July 2010. , Jul-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Weaver SJ, Bedwell WL, Dietz AS, Salas E, Smith-Jentsch KA, Fiore SM. "The science of team performance & training: Fuel for the long voyage to Mars." Paper accepted for presentation to the 5th Annual INGRoup Conference, Arlington, VA, July 22-24, 2010.

INGRoup 2010 Conference, July 2010. , Jul-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dietz AS, Sierra MJ, Bedwell WL, Weaver SJ, Salas E, Smith-Jentsch KA, Fiore SM. "Identifying antecedents to stress in long-duration spaceflight: A multilevel, interactive, and temporal perspective." Lecture presentation at the 2010 Florida Student Conference on Human Factors & Applied Psychology, Daytona Beach, FL, April, 15, 2010.

Florida Student Conference on Human Factors & Applied Psychology, April 2010. , Apr-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Weaver SJ, Salas E. (Co-Chairs) "Training and measurement at the extremes: Developing and sustaining expert team performance in isolated, confined, extreme environments." Panel accepted for presentation at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Francisco, CA, September 27-October 1, 2010.

54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2010. , Sep-2010

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Dietz AS, Weaver SJ, Sierra MJ, Bedwell WL, Salas E, Smith-Jentsch KA, et al. "Unpacking the temporal and interactive effects of stress on individual and team performance." Paper accepted to the 54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Francisco, CA, September 27-October 1, 2010.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society annual meeting, September 2010. , Sep-2010

Project Title:  Optimizing Crew Performance in Long Duration Space Exploration: Best Practices for Team Training and Cohesion Measurement Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/15/2009  
End Date: 08/14/2012  
Task Last Updated: 07/23/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Fiore, Stephen  University of Central Florida 
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX09AK48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX09AK48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/15/2009-8/14/2012 (from 5/22/09-5/21/12) per JSC (3/10)

Task Description: Specific aims of this project are threefold: (1) identify evidence-based guidelines/best practices for training to maximize team cohesion, and team performance, (2) design, develop, and validate evidence-based instructional strategies to mitigate performance failures from cohesion decrements among spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, and (3) design, develop, and validate an evidence-based index measuring and diagnosing cohesion over the course of a mission. These specific project aims meet NASA goals and objectives by capturing cohesion levels shown to be integral to long duration spaceflight mission success as well as developing countermeasures designed to mitigate the negative impact of cohesion issues.

Primary tasks for the first year are the development of evidence-based best practices for training crews to optimize cohesion, mitigate negative impacts of long-duration missions, and measure crew cohesion. We will conduct a thorough literature search. Based on information from the review, corresponding quantitative analysis and qualitative synthesis will be conducted detailing the current state of science for building, maintaining, and facilitating effective cohesion in complex, dynamic environments.

Second and third years of the project will focus on applying best practices derived from year one research by developing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies to maximize crew cohesion and mitigate negative psychosocial impacts of long-duration missions. Project goals are to: (1) mitigate performance failures due to a lack of cohesion between spaceflight crews and coordinating ground crews, (2) diagnose cohesion decrements during exploration missions, and (3) provide just-in-time training to improve any noted cohesion decrements during spaceflight.

Overall, this multi-faceted approach will provide comprehensive, evidence-based guidance to NASA addressing (1) questions regarding methods and technologies for monitoring crew coping with the behavioral conditions of spaceflight (IRP Gap - BHP 2.2.1) and (2) best methods for training crews to maintain cohesion and optimal performance during exploration missions (IRP Gap - BHP 2.3.1.).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009