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Project Title:  Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as an Analogue of Post-flight Sensorimotor Dysfunction Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 01/08/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Moore, Steven T. Ph.D. / Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Address:  Human Aerospace Laboratory 
Department of Neurology 
New York , NY 10029 
Email: s.moore@cqu.edu.au 
Phone: 212-241-1943  
Congressional District: 14 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Central Queensland University, Australia, July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bloomberg, Jacob  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Curthoys, Ian  University of Sydney 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM06:Can a seated manual/visual performance assessment after long-duration spaceflight be completed? (OBSOLETE - Merged with SM12 to create SM6.1, per IRP Rev F)
Task Description: This project has further developed an ambulatory, reversible analog of the effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor performance (Galvanic vestibular stimulation - GVS) utilizing electrical stimulation of the vestibular (balance) nerve. The results form the basis of the current proposal.

Aim 1A (complete): Tolerance to GVS. Sixty subjects were exposed to the GVS analog for up to 20-min. The vast majority of subjects (92%) did not experience significant symptoms of motion sickness. Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Moore, ST. Tolerance to extended Galvanic vestibular stimulation: optimal exposure for astronaut training. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 82:770-774.

Aim 1B (complete): Cognitive effects of GVS. Sixty subjects were exposed to subthreshold (0 or 1 mA) and 60 subjects to suprathreshold (3.5 or 5 mA) GVS while performing a range of cognitive tests; reaction time, dual tasking, mental rotation, match to sample, perspective taking, Stroop, and manual tracking. Consistent with imaging studies, tasks performed in cortical areas shown to receive vestibular input were impaired by GVS (perspective taking and match to sample), whereas attention and tracking abilities were unaffected (as observed in spaceflight studies). Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS, Moore, ST. (2012) Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function. Exp Brain Res, 216:275-285.

Aim 2 (complete): GVS as an analog of post-flight spatial disorientation. The GVS system was recently validated in the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames during high-fidelity shuttle landing simulations. When exposed to GVS, pilot subjects (N=11; including a veteran shuttle commander of 3 flights) experienced spatial disorientation and subsequent decrements in landing performance equivalent to that observed in actual shuttle landings. Moore ST, Dilda V, MacDougall HG (2011) Galvanic vestibular stimulation as an analog of spatial disorientation after spaceflight. Aviat Space Environ Med, 82; 535-542.

Aim 3 (complete): Adaptation to repeated exposures to GVS. In the 3rd and final aim of this study, we have studied adaptation to the GVS analog over a period of 9 months. Ten subjects were exposed to 120 min of 5 mA GVS over a period of 12 weeks (10 min per session). In addition, 0 and 1 mA controls group have received the same duration of exposure. All participants were tested on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), dynamic visual acuity (DVA), and reflex eye movement response. Subjects have completed a 6-week and 6-month follow-up session. Results suggest that: (i) Subjects adapt to GVS over a period of approx. 5 weeks, with a return to baseline performance on CDP and DVA. (ii) Low-level reflex responses, such as torsional eye movement and mediolateral sway, were not affected by repeated GVS exposure. (iii) Pre-exposure preference score on CDP (relative dependence on visual/vestibular input to balance) is a strong predictor of time to adapt. (iv) GVS adaptation provided a protective effect in novel inertial environments, which persisted at least 6-months post-training. (v) GVS -trained subjects exhibited dual adaptation (to a perturbed and normal vestibular environment) with the ability to rapidly switch between states.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 1. Development of a self-contained ambulatory current generator for the safe application of low-level pseudorandom electrical current between surface-mounted mastoidal electrodes. The GVS system has been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and is approved for use as an investigational device for the purpose of replicating sensorimotor effects of gravity transitions. This device is also used by another National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Principal Investigator (PI) (Dr. Mulavara).

2. Preliminary studies demonstrating: adaptation to repeated GVS induces a similar central reweighting of sensory input as that observed in microgravity, resulting in a dual-adapted state (vestibular-perturbed and baseline) analogous to veteran astronauts; rapid switching between states; a protective effect when performing a visuomotor task in a novel vestibular environment; and persistence of dual-adaptation 6 months post-training. This pre-adaptation approach to novel vestibular environment has potential applicability for vestibular patients, utilizing the same 'dual-adaptation' premise. We have begun pilot studies applying our GVS paradigm in patients with intractable vertigo, with promising results (patient reports of diminished dizziness in daily life).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Aim 1A (complete): Tolerance to GVS. Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Moore, ST. Tolerance to extended Galvanic vestibular stimulation: optimal exposure for astronaut training. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 82:770-774.

Aim 1B (complete): Cognitive effects of GVS. Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS, Moore, ST. (2012) Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function. Exp Brain Res, 216:275-285.

Aim 2 (complete): GVS as an analog of post-flight spatial disorientation. Moore ST, Dilda V, MacDougall HG (2011) Galvanic vestibular stimulation as an analog of spatial disorientation after spaceflight. Aviat Space Environ Med, 82; 535-542.

Aim 3 (complete): Adaptation to repeated exposures to GVS. Postural and locomotor function recovered in an exponential pattern over 12 weeks of weekly 10-min GVS exposures, and this improvement was maintained at week 18 and 36 follow-ups. The exponential pattern of postural recovery was similar to that observed in shuttle astronauts post-flight. GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the CNS reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical somatosensory and visual information to regain postural and locomotor function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaptation and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months, analogous to veteran astronauts. GVS trained subjects performed significantly better than untrained controls (p=0.01) on a visuomotor task in a full motion simulator during unpredictable motion, suggesting a protective effect of GVS exposure in novel vestibular environments.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS, Moore ST. "Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function." Exp Brain Res. 2012 Jan;216(2):275-85. Epub 2011 Nov 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-011-2929-z ; PubMed PMID: 22076407 , Jan-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Moore ST. "Tolerance to extended Galvanic vestibular stimulation: optimal exposure for astronaut training." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 Aug;82(8):770-4. PubMed PMID: 21853854 , Aug-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore ST, Dilda, V, MacDougall HG. "Galvanic vestibular stimulation as an analogue of spatial disorientation after spaceflight." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 May;82(5):535-42. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2011/00000082/00000005/art00006 ; PubMed PMID: 21614868 , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dilda V, Morris TR, Yungher DA, MacDougall HG, Moore ST. "Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training." PLoS One. 2014 Nov 19;9(11):e112131. eCollection 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112131 ; PubMed PMID: 25409443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4237321 , Nov-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore ST, Dilda V, Morris TR, Yungher DA, MacDougall HG. "Pre-adaptation to noisy Galvanic vestibular stimulation is associated with enhanced sensorimotor performance in novel vestibular environments." Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Jun 8;9:88. eCollection 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2015.00088 ; PubMed PMID: 26106308; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4458607 , Jun-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore ST, Dilda V, Hakim B, Macdougall HG. "Validation of 24-hour ambulatory gait assessment in Parkinson's disease with simultaneous video observation." Biomed Eng Online. 2011 Sep 21;10:82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-10-82 ; PubMed PMID: 21936884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3184280 , Sep-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Morris TR, Cho C, Dilda V, Shine JM, Naismith SL, Lewis SJ, Moore ST. "A comparison of clinical and objective measures of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease." Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012 Jun;18(5):572-7. Epub 2012 Mar 23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.03.001 ; PubMed PMID: 22445248 , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shine JM, Naismith SL, Palavra NC, Lewis SJ, Moore ST, Dilda V, Morris TR. "Attentional set-shifting deficits correlate with the severity of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease." Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013 Mar;19(3):388-90. Epub 2012 Aug 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.07.015 ; PubMed PMID: 22906729 , Mar-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shine JM, Matar E, Bolitho SJ, Dilda V, Morris TR, Naismith SL, Moore ST, Lewis SJ. "Modeling freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease with a virtual reality paradigm." Gait Posture. 2013 May;38(1):104-8. Epub 2012 Dec 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.10.026 ; PubMed PMID: 23218729 , May-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore ST, Yungher DA, Morris TR, Dilda V, MacDougall HG, Shine JM, Naismith SL, Lewis SJ. "Autonomous identification of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from lower-body segmental accelerometry." J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013 Feb 13;10:19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-0003-10-19 ; PubMed PMID: 23405951; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3598888 , Feb-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore ST, MacDougall HG. "Journey to Mars: Physiological effects and operational consequences of long-duration microgravity exposure." J Cosmol. 2010 Oct- Nov;12:3781-93. http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars127.html , Nov-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shine JM, Moore ST, Bolitho SJ, Morris TR, Dilda V, Naismith SL, Lewis SJ. "Assessing the utility of Freezing of Gait Questionnaires in Parkinson's Disease." Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012 Jan;18(1):25-9. Epub 2011 Aug 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.08.002 ; PubMed PMID: 21872523 , Jan-2012
Project Title:  Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as an analogue of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/01/2008  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/04/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Moore, Steven T. Ph.D. / Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Address:  Human Aerospace Laboratory 
Department of Neurology 
New York , NY 10029 
Email: s.moore@cqu.edu.au 
Phone: 212-241-1943  
Congressional District: 14 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Central Queensland University, Australia, July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bloomberg, Jacob  NASA JSC 
Curthoys, Ian  University of Sydney 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM06:Can a seated manual/visual performance assessment after long-duration spaceflight be completed? (OBSOLETE - Merged with SM12 to create SM6.1, per IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The recent NASA Small Assessment Team (SAT) and the draft NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan evaluated sensorimotor risks for future exploration class missions. A high priority was placed on the development and validation of ground-based operational tests to determine the effects of long-term microgravity exposure on sensorimotor performance, particularly manned control or supervision of spacecraft during docking and landing maneuvers. Head down bed rest (HDBR) was suggested as the ground-based analogue with which to conduct these tests. However, our recent artificial gravity study has demonstrated that HDBR does not reproduce sensorimotor deficits observed following spaceflight. There is currently no operational analogue of post-flight sensorimotor effects, and the primary aim of this proposal is to deliver such a system to facilitate the sensorimotor risk assessments mandated by the NASA SAT and HRP, as well as for crew training and countermeasure development. To this end we have developed a prototype ambulatory system that generates a reversible sensorimotor deficit. The system uses Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which modulates afferent vestibular input with a pseudorandom current delivered via surface electrodes placed on the skin behind each ear. The GVS analogue has been designed such that the sensorimotor perturbation delivered accurately reproduces postural, locomotor, gaze and perceptual deficits observed in astronauts following short and long duration missions, without inducing significant motion sickness symptoms. In this proposal we aim to bring the GVS sensorimotor analogue to operational readiness by answering the following critical questions: (i) What are the optimal parameters for a single exposure to the GVS analogue? (ii) What is the long-term response to GVS? (iii) How well does the GVS analogue reproduce post-flight deficits in shuttle landing performance?

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Our GVS paradigm disrupts normal functioning of the human vestibular system, essentially adding noise to veridical afferent information from the peripheral vestibular apparatus. In our studies we have shown that GVS replicates the sensorimotor dysfunction observed in astronauts post-flight (gait, gaze, balance, manual control). The GVS approach may be useful for modeling spatial disorientation in commercial aviation. Another potential application is modeling of vestibular pathology.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Specific Aim 1. Optimal parameters for GVS exposure Data collection, analysis and writing of publications has been completed for this aim.

Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Moore ST. Tolerance to extended Galvanic vestibular stimulation: optimal exposure for astronaut training Aviat Space Environ Med 2011; In Press.

Dilda, V, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS, Moore ST. Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function . J Appl Physiol 2011 - in review .

Specific Aim 2. Long-term response to the GVS analogue

We have recruited 20 subjects for this experiment and will begin data collection the first week of April 2011.

Specific Aim 3. GVS as an analogue of spatial disorientation during orbiter landings

Data collection, analysis and writing of publications has been completed for this aim.

Moore ST, Dilda, V, MacDougall HG. Galvanic vestibular stimulation as an analogue of spatial disorientation after spaceflight. Aviat Space Environ Med 2011; In Press.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Dilda V, MacDougall HG, Curthoys IS, Moore ST. "Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function." J Appl Physiol. In review, as of March 2011. , Mar-2011
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Dilda V, MacDougall HG, Moore ST. "Tolerance to extended Galvanic vestibular stimulation: optimal exposure for astronaut training." Aviat Space Environ Med. In press, as of March 2011. , Mar-2011
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Moore ST, Dilda V, MacDougall HG. "Galvanic vestibular stimulation as an analogue of spatial disorientation after spaceflight." Aviat Space Environ Med. In press, as of March 2011. , Mar-2011
Awards Moore ST, MacDougall HG, Ondo WG. "Journal of NeuroScience Methods, Top cited paper 2008-2010. 'Ambulatory monitoring of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.' J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Jan 30;167(2):340-8. " Nov-2010
Awards Dilda V. "Valentina Dilda: ESA Young Researchers Award, June 2010." Jun-2010
Project Title:  Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as an analogue of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/01/2008  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/21/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Moore, Steven T. Ph.D. / Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Address:  Human Aerospace Laboratory 
Department of Neurology 
New York , NY 10029 
Email: s.moore@cqu.edu.au 
Phone: 212-241-1943  
Congressional District: 14 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Central Queensland University, Australia, July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bloomberg, Jacob  NASA JSC 
Curthoys, Ian  University of Sydney 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM06:Can a seated manual/visual performance assessment after long-duration spaceflight be completed? (OBSOLETE - Merged with SM12 to create SM6.1, per IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The recent NASA Small Assessment Team (SAT) and the draft NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan evaluated sensorimotor risks for future exploration class missions. A high priority was placed on the development and validation of ground-based operational tests to determine the effects of long-term microgravity exposure on sensorimotor performance, particularly manned control or supervision of spacecraft during docking and landing maneuvers. Head down bed rest (HDBR) was suggested as the ground-based analogue with which to conduct these tests. However, our recent artificial gravity study has demonstrated that HDBR does not reproduce sensorimotor deficits observed following spaceflight. There is currently no operational analogue of post-flight sensorimotor effects, and the primary aim of this proposal is to deliver such a system to facilitate the sensorimotor risk assessments mandated by the NASA SAT and HRP, as well as for crew training and countermeasure development. To this end we have developed a prototype ambulatory system that generates a reversible sensorimotor deficit. The system uses Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which modulates afferent vestibular input with a pseudorandom current delivered via surface electrodes placed on the skin behind each ear. The GVS analogue has been designed such that the sensorimotor perturbation delivered accurately reproduces postural, locomotor, gaze and perceptual deficits observed in astronauts following short and long duration missions, without inducing significant motion sickness symptoms. In this proposal we aim to bring the GVS sensorimotor analogue to operational readiness by answering the following critical questions: (i) What are the optimal parameters for a single exposure to the GVS analogue? (ii) What is the long-term response to GVS? (iii) How well does the GVS analogue reproduce post-flight deficits in shuttle landing performance?

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Our GVS paradigm disrupts normal functioning of the human vestibular system, essentially adding noise to veridical afferent information from the peripheral vestibular apparatus. In our studies we have shown that GVS replicates the sensorimotor dysfunction observed in astronauts post-flight (gait, gaze, balance, manual control). The GVS approach maybe useful for modeling spatial disorientation in commercial aviation. Another potential application is modeling of vestibular pathology.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: In the second year of this grant we completed Specific Aim 1 (Optimal parameters for GVS exposure). We found that (i) GVS is well tolerated by 92% of subjects (55/60), (ii) continuous exposure up to 20 min at 3.5 mA peak current and 12 min at 5 mA did not elicit adverse effects (iii) GVS, like microgravity exposure, does not affect basic cognitive function (reaction time, dual tasking, Stroop, mental rotation, manual tracking), (iv) but GVS does adversely affect complex spatial tasks (matching to sample and perspective taking). This last finding is interesting as deficits in perspective taking (the imagined movement of one's point of view in relation to another object) were implicated in the collision of the unmanned Progress module with Mir in 1997. We also completed Specific Aim 3 (GVS as an analog of spatial disorientation during orbiter landings). Pilot subjects (12) comprising veteran astronauts, NASA test pilots, and veteran USAF and Navy pilots) performed simulated shuttle landings in the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS, the largest flight simulator in existence, is used for shuttle pilot training. Subjects performed 8 pairs of identical landing profiles with and without GVS (16 landings per subject; 176 total; 88 with and 88 without GVS). Simulation parameters were a landing weight of 226,244 lbs (the VMS uses Imperial units), 9910 ft initial altitude, 295 kts initial airspeed, and target touchdown at 204 kts ('good' range 194 - 209 kts) at a vertical sink rate of less than 3.5 ft/s. Touchdown speed was significantly higher (p=0.026; ANOVA) with GVS (208.6 kts [SE 3.6]) compared to the no GVS condition (204.6 kts [SE 3.5]); vertical sink rate (no GVS 3.8 ft/s [SD 0.6]; with GVS 4.5 ft/s [SD 0.8]) was also higher with GVS, but not significantly so (p=0.085). The adverse effects of GVS on pilot performance were obvious. Unsuccessful (crash) landings increased from 2.3% (2/88) without GVS to 9% (7/88) with GVS. Hard landings, with touchdown speed in the 'red' (unacceptable) range (>214 kts), almost doubled from 14 (15.9%) without GVS to 27 (30.7%) with GVS; GVS also induced a 32% increase in the number of landings with a vertical sink rate in the unacceptable range (>5 ft/s), from 19 to 26. GVS was an effective analog of decrements in shuttle pilot performance (in particular, 'hard' landings) following microgravity exposure.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2010
Project Title:  Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as an analogue of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/01/2008  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/08/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Moore, Steven T. Ph.D. / Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Address:  Human Aerospace Laboratory 
Department of Neurology 
New York , NY 10029 
Email: s.moore@cqu.edu.au 
Phone: 212-241-1943  
Congressional District: 14 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Central Queensland University, Australia, July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bloomberg, Jacob  NASA JSC 
Curthoys, Ian  University of Sydney 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM06:Can a seated manual/visual performance assessment after long-duration spaceflight be completed? (OBSOLETE - Merged with SM12 to create SM6.1, per IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The recent NASA Small Assessment Team (SAT) and the draft NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan evaluated sensorimotor risks for future exploration class missions. A high priority was placed on the development and validation of ground-based operational tests to determine the effects of long-term microgravity exposure on sensorimotor performance, particularly manned control or supervision of spacecraft during docking and landing maneuvers. Head down bed rest (HDBR) was suggested as the ground-based analogue with which to conduct these tests. However, our recent artificial gravity study has demonstrated that HDBR does not reproduce sensorimotor deficits observed following spaceflight. There is currently no operational analogue of post-flight sensorimotor effects, and the primary aim of this proposal is to deliver such a system to facilitate the sensorimotor risk assessments mandated by the NASA SAT and HRP, as well as for crew training and countermeasure development. To this end we have developed a prototype ambulatory system that generates a reversible sensorimotor deficit. The system uses Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which modulates afferent vestibular input with a pseudorandom current delivered via surface electrodes placed on the skin behind each ear. The GVS analogue has been designed such that the sensorimotor perturbation delivered accurately reproduces postural, locomotor, gaze and perceptual deficits observed in astronauts following short and long duration missions, without inducing significant motion sickness symptoms. In this proposal we aim to bring the GVS sensorimotor analogue to operational readiness by answering the following critical questions: (i) What are the optimal parameters for a single exposure to the GVS analogue? (ii) What is the long-term response to GVS? (iii) How well does the GVS analogue reproduce post-flight deficits in shuttle landing performance?

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The NASA Human Research Program has identified the development of ground-based analogs of the effects of microgravity exposure on sensorimotor function as a high priority. Our studies have demonstrated that ambulatory Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) shows significant potential as a high-fidelity simulation of postural, locomotor, perceptual and oculomotor deficits observed in astronauts after return from spaceflight. Successful completion of this project will deliver an effective, safe, and reversible analog of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction that could be integrated into astronaut training to improve the fidelity of ground-based mission simulations. In addition, the GVS system may also have potential as a reversible model of vestibular pathology.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: In the first year of this project we have obtained data from 19 subjects to determine tolerability of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and the effect of GVS on cognitive function. In April 2009 we will perform experiments in the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames during shuttle landings with and without GVS. Our subjects will include veteran astronauts, NASA test pilots, and US Air Force pilots.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009
Project Title:  Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as an analogue of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/01/2008  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 06/02/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Moore, Steven T. Ph.D. / Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Address:  Human Aerospace Laboratory 
Department of Neurology 
New York , NY 10029 
Email: s.moore@cqu.edu.au 
Phone: 212-241-1943  
Congressional District: 14 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Central Queensland University, Australia, July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Curthoys, Ian S.  University of Sydney 
Bloomberg, Jacob  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
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Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM06:Can a seated manual/visual performance assessment after long-duration spaceflight be completed? (OBSOLETE - Merged with SM12 to create SM6.1, per IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The recent NASA Small Assessment Team (SAT) and the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan evaluated sensorimotor risks for future exploration-class missions. A high priority was placed on the development and validation of ground-based operational tests to determine the effects of long-term microgravity exposure on sensorimotor performance, particularly manned control or supervision of spacecraft during docking and landing maneuvers. Head-down bed rest was suggested as the ground-based analog with which to conduct these tests. However, our recent artificial gravity study has demonstrated that head-down bed rest does not reproduce sensorimotor deficits observed following spaceflight.

There is currently no operational analog of post-flight sensorimotor effects, and the primary aim of this project is to deliver such a system to facilitate the sensorimotor risk assessment mandated by the NASA HRP, as well as for crew training and countermeasure development. To this end, we have developed a prototype ambulatory system that generates a reversible sensorimotor deficit. The system uses Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which modulates afferent vestibular input with a pseudorandom current delivered via surface electrodes placed on the skin behind each ear. The GVS analog has been designed such that sensorimotor perturbation delivered accurately reproduces postural, locomotor, gaze and perceptual deficits observed in astronauts following short- and long-duration missions, without inducing significant motion sickness symptoms.

In this project, we aim to bring the GVS sensorimotor analog to operational readiness by answering the following critical questions:

1. What are the optimal parameters for a single exposure to the GVS analog?

2. What is the long-term response to GVS?

3. How well does the GVS analog reproduce post-flight deficits in shuttle landing performance?

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

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 None in FY 2008