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Project Title:  A Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic System for Non-Invasively Assessing Bone Quality Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 11/01/2004  
End Date: 10/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 03/12/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gruber, Barry  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(2) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(2) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The bone loss which parallels extended space missions represents a serious threat to astronaut health, both during flight and on return to gravitational fields. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis would enable prompt treatment and thus dramatically reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, the principal method used to diagnose osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a 2-D representation of bone mineral density (BMD), but not bone's physical properties per se. Recent advances in quantitative ultrasound have enabled a true characterization of bone quality, including both BMD and mechanical strength. Currently funded by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), we have developed a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest. The objectives of this study are to develop an unique diagnostic modality for non-invasively evaluating both human bone's mineral density and stiffness, particularly to improve the resolution, to shorten the ultrasound scanning time (e.g., < 5 min), to validate image based characterization of bone's physical properties with true bone quality as based on material testing, and to initiate human subject testing. In essence, this next phase of research will focus on developing the SCAD prototype as a real-time, high-resolution, and portable bone image modality for determining bone quality. A series of four interrelated specific aims are proposed to achieve the goals.

Specific Aims: The aims of the study are to develop and establish the efficacy of a real-time Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnosis system for assessing bone status, to identify the complexity of surface morphology, and to correlate image based parameter to bone quality.

S.A. #1: Develop a rapid SCAD system capable of generating high-resolution acoustic images for trabecular structural and strength properties in the region of interest (ROI).

S.A. #2: Develop the system capable of extracting trabecular broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and ultrasound wave velocity (UV) images at multiple skeletal sites, i.e., calcaneus, wrist, and knee, providing evaluation of loss and fracture risk.

S.A. #3: Evaluate the capability of the SCAD system in testing bone's structure and strength in cadavers by micro-CT determined microstructure, nanoindentor tested integrity, and modulus.

S.A. #4: Correlate the degree of osteoporosis and disuse osteopenia in human to determine the relationship to age, gender, degree of bone loss, and rational effects at ROI using SCAD and DXA.

The SCAD system was further developed in this research period. The new system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic determined parameters and BMD, bone strength, and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved in this new configuration. Several milestones are achieved.

(1) Improvement of scanning speed by computer chip and hardware design and time sequence and control in the software design. The goal of this study was to accelerate the bone scan with reduced time and incorporate with identifying 3D surface topology of bone for accurate calculation of ultrasound wave velocity and attenuation. The hardware and programming were successfully developed, in which the scan time for 80 x 80 pixel region of confocal ultrasound was reduced to 5 min with all the surface topology information. The irregular surfaces of calcaneus can be clearly depicted using surface mapping. SCAD parameters were highly correlated to BMD, bone volume fraction, and bone modulus.

(2) Bone surface topology mapping and its role in trabecular bone quality assessment using scanning confocal ultrasound. The goal of this study was to identify 3D surface topology of bone for accurate calculation of ultrasound wave velocity. The irregular surfaces of calcaneus can be clearly depicted using surface mapping and SCAD parameters were highly correlated to BMD, bone volume fraction, and bone modulus.

(3) Automatic region of interests based on the ultrasound broad band attenuation. This feature is capable of determining ultrasonic parameters through bone more accurately and automatically with friendly user-device interface, which can be easily incorporated into future in vivo clinical application.

(4) Explore the capability of ultrasound assessment for bone quality in bedrested subjects. QUS provides a method for characterizing the quality of bone non-invasively. The team continues to conduct the study for longitudinal assessment of bone mass and quality for bedrest subjects. The performance of a scanning confocal QUS system was evaluated in a 90 day microgravity analog study with the comparison to standard DXA in localized regions of interest, e.g., calcaneus. The subject pool included 11 disuse (control) and 18 disuse plus vibration (low magnitude, high frequency treatment) subjects at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, TX. QUS scanning for the calcaneus region showed a unique pattern in the acoustic images. Strong correlation was observed between pooled broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the heel region and pooled whole body BMD (determined by the DXA), R2=0.7. Longitudinally, subtle changes were significantly predicted by the ultrasound wave velocity (UV) measurements at 0, 60, and 90 days, in which 1.5% UV reduction in 60 days bed rest. These results suggested that BMD is one of the major contributors for bone loss in the skeleton and QUS could be used to longitudinally monitor bone loss in bed rest environment. A manuscript is under review.

(5) Initiation of SCAD assessment in large and critical bone sites, e.g., proximal femur. These works will help to refine a non-invasive diagnosis for bone loss, and may potentiate the development of a flight instrument for the precise determination of bone quality during extended space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important.

Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic tool, i.e., ultrasound bone quality detector, will have a great impact as an early diagnostic to prevent bone fracture. This research will address critical questions in the Critical Path Roadmap and NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Risks map related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing.

The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAD for assessing bone's quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAD determined data and micro-CT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research.

Our principal goal is to continue the development and evaluation of the SCAD system for ground-based determination of bone's physical properties, and for determining even subtle changes of bone during extended flights, as well as early diagnosis of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risks.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critical role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. In this year's research, we are able to develop a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the human calcaneus) for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAD is successfully used in the bedrest subjects (UTMB, Galveston, TX) and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lam H, Qin YX. "The effects of frequency-dependent dynamic muscle stimulation on inhibition of trabecular bone loss in a disuse model." Bone. 2008 Dec;43(6):1093-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.07.253 ; PMID: 18757047 , Dec-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Rubin C, Gruber B, Qin YX. "Evaluation of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in human calcaneal bone of advanced age using mechanical testing, microCT, and DXA." J Biomech. 2008;41(2):368-75. PMID: 17953972 , Mar-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Xia Y, Lin W, Qin YX. "Bone surface topology mapping and its role in trabecular bone quality assessment using scanning confocal ultrasound." Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jul;18(7):905-13. PMID: 17361323 , Jul-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX, Xia Y, Muir J, Lin W, Rubin CT. "Quantitative ultrasound imaging monitoring progressive disuse osteopenia and mechanical stimulation mitigation in calcaneus region through a 90-day bed rest human study." J Orthop Translat. 2019 Jul;18:48-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2018.11.004 ; PubMed PMID: 31508307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6718925 , Jul-2019
Books/Book Chapters Mittra E, Yaghoubi S, Qin Y- X. "Positron Emission Tomography of Bone in Small Animals." in "A practical manual for musculoskeletal research." Ed. K. Leung et al. Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ : World Scientific, 2008. p. 331-346., Aug-2008
Books/Book Chapters Ferreri S, Judex S, Qin YX. "Nanoindentation: Techniques and technical considerations for musculoskeletal research." in "A practical manual for musculoskeletal research." Ed. K. Leung et al. Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ : World Scientific, 2008. p. 789-812., Aug-2008
Books/Book Chapters Leung K, Qin Y-X, Cheung W-H, Qin L. Eds. "A practical manual for musculoskeletal research." Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ : World Scientific, 2008., Aug-2008
Books/Book Chapters Qin YX, Xia Y, Lin W, Mittra E, Rubin C, Gruber B. "Noninvasive ultrasound imaging for bone quality assessment using scanning confocal acoustic diagnosis, microCT, DXA measurements, and mechanical testing." in "Medical Biometrics. First International Conference, ICMB 2008, Hong Kong, China, January 4-5, 2008. Proceedings." Ed. D. Zhang. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007. Lecture Notes in Comupter Science (book series), volume 4901, p. 216-223, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77413-6_28 , Dec-2007
Patents US7727152 B2. June 1, 2010. http://www.google.com/patents/US7727152 (originally reported Mar 2009 as 'Patent in final stages, December 2008.') Jun-2010 Qin Y-X, Lin,W, Rubin CT. "Method and apparatus for scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic for bone quality."
Project Title:  A Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic System for Non-Invasively Assessing Bone Quality Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 11/01/2004  
End Date: 10/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 06/10/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gruber, Barry  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(2) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(2) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The bone loss which parallels extended space missions represent serious threat to astronaut health, both during flight and on return to gravitational fields. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis would enable prompt treatment and thus dramatically reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, the principal method used to diagnose osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a 2-D representation of bone mineral density (BMD), but not bone's physical properties per se. Recent advances in quantitative ultrasound have enabled a true characterization of bone quality, including both BMD and mechanical strength. Currently funded by the NSBRI, we have developed a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the calcaneus). The objectives of this study are to further develop this unique diagnostic for use in the human, including an improved resolution, faster scan times (e.g., < 5 min for the calcaneus), the ability to scan multiple sites of the skeleton, and to validate image based characterization of bone’s physical properties to true bone quality as based on material testing. In essence, this next phase of research will focus on developing the SCAD prototype as a real-time, high-resolution, and portable bone image modality for determining bone quality. A series of four interrelated specific aims are proposed: 1) Determining the surface topology for accurately measuring wave velocity; 2) Capable of extracting trabecular BUA and UV images at multiple skeletal sites, i.e., calcaneus, wrist, and hip, to provide direct assessment of bone loss and fracture risk; 3) Measuring bone’s structural and strength properties, e.g., in the cadaver samples, using SCAD, microCT and mechanical testing for bone quality prediction; and 4) Performing clinical diagnostic assessment by comparing SCAD and DXA in osteoporosis and disuse subjects.

In this year’s research, a new generation of the prototype of scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system was developed, including feature of bone surface topology mapping and the automatic region of interest identification in measured ultrasound imaging. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration.

(1) Bone surface topology mapping and its role in trabecular bone quality assessment using scanning confocal ultrasound. The objective of this study was to identify 3D surface topology of bone for accurate calculation of ultrasound wave velocity. The irregular surfaces of calcaneus can be clearly depicted using surface mapping and SCAD parameters were highly correlated to bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction and bone modulus.

(2) Automatic region of interests based on the ultrasound broad band attenuation. This feature is capable of determining ultrasonic parameters through bone more accurately and automatically with friendly user-device interface, which can be easily incorporated into future in vivo clinical application.

(3) Exploring the capability of ultrasound assessment for bone quality in bedresting subjects. QUS provides a method for characterizing the quality of bone non-invasively. The objective of this work was to evaluate bone mass changes in a longitudinal 90-day bed rest (UTMB, Galveston, TX). QUS scanning for the calcaneus region showed a unique pattern of acoustic image. Strong correlation was observed between pooled BUA in the heel region and pooled whole body BMD (determined by the DXA), R2=0.84. Longitudinal subtle changes were significantly predicted by the UV measurements at 0, 60, and 90 days, in which 1.5% UV reduction in 60 days bed rest.

(4) Initiation of SCAD assessment in large and critical bone sites, e.g., proximal femur. These works will help to refine a non-invasive diagnosis for bone loss, and may potentiate the development of a flight instrument for the precise determination of bone quality during extended space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important.

Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic tool, i.e., ultrasound bone quality detector, will have a great impact as an early diagnostic to prevent bone fracture. This research will address critical questions in the Critical Path Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing.

The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAD for assessing bone’s quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAD determined data and microCT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research.

Our principal goal is to continue the development and evaluation of the SCAD system for ground-based determination of bone's physical properties, and for determining even subtle changes of bone during extended flights.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. In this year’s research, we are able to develop a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the human calcaneus) for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAD is successfully used in the bedrest subjects (UTMB, Galveston, TX) and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Rubin C, Gruber B, Qin YX. "Evaluation of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in human calcaneal bone of advanced age using mechanical testing, microCT, and DXA." J Biomech. Epub 2007 Oct 22. PMID: 17953972 , Oct-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ni Q, De Los Santos A, Lam H, Qin Y-X. "Assessment of simulated and functional disuse on cortical bone by nuclear magnetic resonance." Adv Space Res. 2007;40(11):1703-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.07.021 , Oct-2007
Project Title:  A Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic System for Non-Invasively Assessing Bone Quality Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2007 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 11/01/2004  
End Date: 10/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 08/21/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gruber, Barry  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(2) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(2) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The bone loss which parallels extended space missions represent serious threat to astronaut health, both during flight and on return to gravitational fields. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis would enable prompt treatment and thus dramatically reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, the principal method used to diagnose osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a 2-D representation of bone mineral density (BMD), but not bone's physical properties per se. Recent advances in quantitative ultrasound have enabled a true characterization of bone quality, including both BMD and mechanical strength. Currently funded by the NSBRI, we have developed a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the calcaneus). The objectives of this study are to further develop this unique diagnostic for use in the human, including an improved resolution, faster scan times (e.g., < 5 min for the calcaneus), the ability to scan multiple sites of the skeleton, and to validate image based characterization of bone’s physical properties to true bone quality as based on material testing. In essence, this next phase of research will focus on developing the SCAD prototype as a real-time, high-resolution, and portable bone image modality for determining bone quality.

A series of four interrelated specific aims are proposed: 1) Determining the surface topology for accurately measuring wave velocity; 2) Capable of extracting trabecular BUA and UV images at multiple skeletal sites, i.e., calcaneus, wrist, and hip, to provide direct assessment of bone loss and fracture risk; 3) Measuring bone’s structural and strength properties, e.g., in the cadaver samples, using SCAD, microCT and mechanical testing for bone quality prediction; and 4) Performing clinical diagnostic assessment by comparing SCAD and DXA in osteoporosis and disuse subjects.

In this year’s research, a new generation of the prototype of scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system was developed, including feature of bone surface topology mapping and the automatic region of interest identification in measured ultrasound imaging. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration.

(1) Bone surface topology mapping and its role in trabecular bone quality assessment using scanning confocal ultrasound. The objective of this study was to identify 3D surface topology of bone for accurate calculation of ultrasound wave velocity. The irregular surfaces of calcaneus can be clearly depicted using surface mapping and SCAD parameters were highly correlated to bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction and bone modulus.

(2) Automatic region of interests based on the ultrasound broad band attenuation. This feature is capable of determining ultrasonic parameters through bone more accurately and automatically with friendly user-device interface, which can be easily incorporated into future in vivo clinical application. (3) Exploring the capability of ultrasound assessment for bone quality in bedresting subjects. QUS provides a method for characterizing the quality of bone non-invasively. The objective of this work was to evaluate bone mass changes in a longitudinal 90-day bed rest (UTMB, Galveston, TX). QUS scanning for the calcaneus region showed a unique pattern of acoustic image. Strong correlation was observed between pooled BUA in the heel region and pooled whole body BMD (determined by the DXA), R2=0.84. Longitudinal subtle changes were significantly predicted by the UV measurements at 0, 60, and 90 days, in which 1.5% UV reduction in 60 days bed rest.

(4) Initiation of SCAD assessment in large and critical bone sites, e.g., proximal femur. These works will help to refine a non-invasive diagnosis for bone loss, and may potentiate the development of a flight instrument for the precise determination of bone quality during extended space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important.

Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic tool, i.e., ultrasound bone quality detector, will have a great impact as an early diagnostic to prevent bone fracture. This research will address critical questions in the Critical Path Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing.

The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAD for assessing bone’s quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAD determined data and ?CT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research.

Our principal goal is to continue the development and evaluation of the SCAD system for ground-based determination of bone's physical properties, and for determining even subtle changes of bone during extended flights.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2007 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. In this year’s research, we are able to develop a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the human calcaneus) for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAD is successfully used in the bedrest subjects (UTMB, Galveston, TX) and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound is developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin Y X, Xia Y, Lin W, Mittra E, Gruber B, Rubin C. "Trabecular bone density and strength assessment using non-invasive scanning confocal ultrasound imaging." 5th World Congress of Biomechanics, Munich, Germany, 29 July - 4 August 2006.

J Biomech. 2006;39, Suppl 1:S450. , Jul-2006

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin Y- X, Peng T, Serra-Hsu F, Xia Y, Lynch T. "Ultrasound wave propagation and pulsed phase locked loop." American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine meeting, 2006.

Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2006;25:34. , Jul-2006

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin YX, Xia Y, Lin W, Gruber B, Judex S, Rubin C. "Quantitative prediction of bone density and strength in human calcanei using a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic system." 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, September 23-27, 2005.

J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Sep;20 Suppl:S230. , Sep-2005

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Xia Y, Lin W, Qin YX. "Trabecular bone quality assessment using scanning confocal ultrasound." 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, September 23-27, 2005.

J Bone Min Res. 2005 Sep;20 Suppl:S229. , Sep-2005

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin YX, Xia Y, Lin W, Mittra E, Gruber B, Rubin CT. "Trabecular bone density and strength assessment using non-invasive scanning confocal ultrasound imaging technology." ASBMR-NIH-INSERM meeting on Bone Quality, 2005.

ASBMR-NIH Bone Quality Workshop. 2005;31. , Jul-2005

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lin W, Mittra E, Qin YX. "Determination of ultrasound phase velocity in trabecular bone using time dependent phase tracking technique." J Biomech Eng. 2006 Feb;128(1):24-9. PMID: 16532614 , Feb-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Akella S, Qin YX. "The effects of embedding material, loading rate and magnitude, and penetration depth in nanoindentation of trabecular bone." J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Oct;79(1):86-93. PMID: 16758456 , Oct-2006
Books/Book Chapters Qin YX, Mittra E. "Bone Density Measurement." in "Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation, 2nd Edition." Ed. J.G. Webster. Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Interscience, 2006, p. 550-558., Mar-2006
Patents Provisional Patent: 4/13/06 Serial No. 60/791,642. Patent. Apr-2006 Qin Y- X, Xia Y, Lin W. "Scanning Acoustic Topology Mapping for Determining Tissue Surface Features and Wave Transmit Thickness."
Project Title:  A Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic System for Non-Invasively Assessing Bone Quality Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2006 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 11/01/2004  
End Date: 10/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 11/09/2005 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gruber, Barry  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(2) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(2) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The bone loss which parallels extended space missions represent serious threat to astronaut health, both during flight and on return to gravitational fields. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis would enable prompt treatment and thus dramatically reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, the principal method used to diagnose osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a 2-D representation of bone mineral density (BMD), but not bone's physical properties per se. Recent advances in quantitative ultrasound have enabled a true characterization of bone quality, including both BMD and mechanical strength. Currently funded by the NSBRI, we have developed a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the calcaneus). Both animal and human trials indicate strong correlations between SCAD and microCT determined parameters of bone’s material properties, including BMD (R=0.87) and yield strength (R=0.9). The objectives of this study are to further develop this unique diagnostic for use in the human, including an improved resolution, faster scan times (e.g., < 5 min for the calcaneus), the ability to scan multiple sites of the skeleton, and to validate image based characterization of bone’s physical properties to true bone quality as based on material testing. In essence, this next phase of research will focus on developing the SCAD prototype as a real-time, high-resolution, and portable bone image modality for determining bone quality. A series of four interrelated specific aims are proposed: 1) Bone surface topology will be determined via acoustic surface mapping which can be used for accurately measuring wave velocity. 2) The system capable of extracting trabecular BUA and UV images at multiple skeletal sites, i.e., calcaneus, wrist, and hip, will be further developed to provide direct assessment of bone loss and fracture risk. 3) Using cadaver specimens, bone’s structural and strength properties, as measured by SCAD, will be validated by microCT and mechanical testing, as well as, nanoindentation. 4) Comparisons to standard diagnostics will be performed by clinical assessment on osteoporosis subjects using both SCAD and DEXA. This work will help to refine a non-invasive diagnostic for bone loss, and may potentiate the development of a flight instrument for the precise determination of bone quality during extended space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important. Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic tool, i.e., ultrasound bone quality detector, will have a great impact as an early diagnostic to prevent bone fracture. This research will address critical questions in the Critical Path Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAD for assessing bone’s quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAD determined data and CT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research. Our principal goal is to continue the development and evaluation of the SCAD system for ground-based determination of bone's physical properties, and for determining even subtle changes of bone during extended flights.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2006 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. In this year’s research, we are able to develop a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the human calcaneus) for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAD is successfully used in the bedrest subjects (UTMB, Galveston, TX) and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound is developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin Y- X, Xia Y, Lin W, Mittra E, Gruber B, Rubin CT. "Trabecular Bone Density and Strength Assessment Using Non-Invasive Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Imaging Technology." ASBMR-NIH Bone Quality Workshop, May 2005.

ASBMR-NIH Bone Quality Workshop. 2005:31, May 2005. , May-2005

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Qin Y- X, Xia Y, Lin W, Rubin C, Gruber B. "Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements." 148th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, October 2004.

J Acoustical Soc Am. 2004 Oct;116(4): 2492. , Oct-2004

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Xia Y, Lin W, Qin Y. "The influence of cortical end-plate on broadband ultrasound attenuation measurements at the human calcaneus for bone quality assessment." 51st Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Washington, DC, February 2005.

Transactions, 51st Ann Mtg Orthopaedic Res Soc. 2005;30:0711. , Feb-2005

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lin W, Mittra E, Qin Y- X. "Determination of Ultrasound Phase Velocity in Trabecular Bone Using Time Dependent Phase Tracking Technique." J Biomed Eng, in press, November 2005. , Nov-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Akella S, Qin Y- X. "The effects of embedding material, loading rate and magnitude, and penetration depth in nanoindentation of trabecular bone." J Biomed Mat Res, in press, November 2005. , Nov-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Rubin C, Qin YX. "Interrelationship of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in sheep trabecular bone." J Biomech. 2005 Jun;38(6):1229-37. PMID: 15863107 , Jun-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Xia Y, Lin W, Qin YX. "The influence of cortical end-plate on broadband ultrasound attenuation measurements at the human calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound." J Acoust Soc Am. 2005 Sep;118(3 Pt 1):1801-7. PMID: 16240838 , Sep-2005
Patents Provisional Application #60/271,957. Provisional Application Patent, January 2006. Jan-2006 Qin Y- X, Lin W, Rubin CT. "Method and apparatus for scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic for bone quality."
Project Title:  A Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic System for Non-Invasively Assessing Bone Quality Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2005 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 11/01/2004  
End Date: 10/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 12/14/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00405 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(2) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(2) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The bone loss which parallels extended space missions represent serious threat to astronaut health, both during flight and on return to gravitational fields. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis would enable prompt treatment and thus dramatically reduce the risk of fracture. Currently, the principal method used to diagnose osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a 2-D representation of bone mineral density (BMD), but not bone's physical properties per se. Recent advances in quantitative ultrasound have enabled a true characterization of bone quality, including both BMD and mechanical strength. Currently funded by the NSBRI, we have developed a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the calcaneus). Both animal and human trials indicate strong correlations between SCAD and microCT determined parameters of bone’s material properties, including BMD (R=0.87) and yield strength (R=0.9). The objectives of this competitive renewal study are to further develop this unique diagnostic for use in the human, including an improved resolution (up to 0.3mm3), faster scan times (e.g., < 2 min for the calcaneus), the ability to scan multiple sites of the skeleton (i.e., hip), and to validate image based characterization of bone’s physical properties to true bone quality as based on material testing. In essence, this next phase of funding will focus on developing the SCAD prototype as a real-time, high-resolution, and portable bone image modality for determining bone quality. A series of four interrelated specific aims are proposed: 1) Bone surface topology will be determined via acoustic surface mapping which can be used for accurately measuring wave velocity. 2) Focal depth of the confocal ultrasound will be enhanced, thus facilitating penetration to evaluate regions such as the femoral head and neck, discriminating between cortical and trabecular bone. 3) Using cadaver specimens, bone’s structural and strength properties, as measured by SCAD, will be validated by microCT and mechanical testing, as well as, nanoindentation. 4) Comparisons to standard diagnostics will be performed by clinical assessment on osteoporosis subjects using both SCAD and DEXA. This work will help to refine a non-invasive diagnostic for bone loss, and may potentiate the development of a flight instrument for the precise determination of bone quality during extended space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2005 
Task Progress: New project for FY2005.

[Ed. note: FY2005 record added in December 2010 for statistical reporting purposes]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2005