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Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 09/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 05/24/2022 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch/ 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn, Germany 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2022 per HRP HHC element and PI (Ed., 7/8/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2021 per PI (Ed., 2/25/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per PI (Ed., 5/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2019 per PI (Ed., 6/5/18)

Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program (HRP), Space Medicine, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), NASA engineers, individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: Sample collection protocols were well executed in orbit, with many subjects completing pre-, in-, and postflight data collections. This protocol was terminated prematurely after E56/57, ending collection of valuable data with impact to the International Space Station (ISS) Program, the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), Space Medicine, Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), other investigations, and to individual astronauts. Data have been provided to other investigations (e.g., CardioOx, MARROW, TBone, Cartilage, SOLO, Telomeres) and requests from NASA's Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA). Between Biochem Profile and the Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (Nutrition SMO), these have yielded 35 primary peer-reviewed publications, with more in work. Notable publications this year include collaborations with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) sponsored TBone Team, collaborations with the NASA Immune Lab, and identification of the effect of oral contraceptives on serum albumin, likely contributing to risk of venous thromboembolism. The findings have been incorporated into books, chapters, and many review articles. Extended sample analyses continue, along with reviewing, compiling, and presenting/publishing data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Auñón-Chancellor SM, Heer M, Melin MM, Smith SM. "Albumin, oral contraceptives, and venous thromboembolism risk in astronauts." J Appl Physiol. 2022 May 1;132(5):1232-9. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00024.2022 ; PMID: 35389755 , May-2022
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Szpara ML, Rooney BV, Diak DM, Shipley MM, Renner DW, Krieger SS, Nelman-Gonzales MA, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Crucian BE. "Dermatitis during spaceflight associated with HSV-1 reactivation." Viruses. 2022 Apr;14(4):789. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040789 ; PMID: 35458519; PMCID: PMC9028032 , Apr-2022
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Krieger SS, Zwart SR, Mehta S, Wu H, Simpson RJ, Smith SM, Crucian B. "Alterations in saliva and plasma cytokine concentrations during long-duration spaceflight. " Front Immunol. 2021 Aug 24;12:725748. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.725748 ; PMID: 34504500; PMCID: PMC8422944 , Aug-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Nutrition as fuel for human spaceflight. " Physiology (Bethesda). 2021 Sep 1;36(5):324-330. https://doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00011.2021 ; PMID: 34431417 , Sep-2021
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 09/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 05/10/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch/ 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn, Germany 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2022 per HRP HHC element and PI (Ed., 7/8/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2021 per PI (Ed., 2/25/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per PI (Ed., 5/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2019 per PI (Ed., 6/5/18)

Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program (HRP), Space Medicine, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), NASA engineers, individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: The Biochemical Profile study continues to deliver on what it was designed to do: provide a broad swath of biochemical data from a large number of astronauts to help assess the effects of space flight on the human body. Continued data analysis yields primary papers, along with data supporting other NASA investigators, including both Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Biology program (SBP).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Gabel L, Liphardt A-M, Hulme PA, Heer M, Zwart SR, Sibonga JD, Smith SM, Boyd SK. "Pre-flight exercise and bone metabolism predict unloading-induced bone loss due to spaceflight." Br J Sports Med. 2021 Feb 17;56:196-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103602 ; PMID: 33597120 , Feb-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals da Silveira WA, Fazelinia H, Rosenthal SB, Laiakis EC, Kim MS, Meydan C, Kidane Y, Rathi KS, Smith SM, Stear B, Ying Y, Zhang Y, Foox J, Zanello S, Crucian B, Wang D, Nugent A, Costa HA, Zwart SR, Schrepfer S, Elworth RAL, Sapoval N, Treangen T, MacKay M, Gokhale NS, Horner SM, Singh LN, Wallace DC, Willey JS, Schisler JC, Meller R, McDonald JT, Fisch KM, Hardiman G, Taylor D, Mason CE, Costes SV, Beheshti A. "Comprehensive multi-omics analysis reveals mitochondrial stress as a central biological hub for spaceflight impact." Cell. 2020 Nov 25;183(5):1185-201.E20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.002 ; PMID: 33242417; PMCID: PMC7870178 , Nov-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Luxton JJ, McKenna MJ, Taylor LE, George KA, Zwart SR, Crucian BE, Drel VR, Garrett-Bakelman FE, Mackay MJ, Butler D, Foox J, Grigorev K, Bezdan D, Meydan C, Smith SM, Sharma K, Mason CE, Bailey SM. "Temporal telomere and DNA damage responses in the space radiation environment." Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 8;33(10):108435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108435 ; PMID: 33242411 , Dec-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Luxton JJ, McKenna MJ, Lewis A, Taylor LE, George KA, Dixit SM, Moniz M, Benegas W, Mackay MJ, Mozsary C, Butler D, Bezdan D, Meydan C, Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Mason CE, Bailey SM. "Telomere length dynamics and DNA damage responses associated with long-duration spaceflight." Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 8;33(10):108457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108457 ; PMID: 33242406 , Dec-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Gertz ML, Chin CR, Tomoiaga D, MacKay M, Chang C, Butler D, Afshinnekoo E, Bezdan D, Schmidt MA, Mozsary C, Melnick A, Garrett-Bakelman F, Crucian B, Lee SMC, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Meydan C, Mason CE. "Multi-omic, single-cell, and biochemical profiles of astronauts guide pharmacological strategies for returning to gravity." Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 8;33(10):108429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108429 ; PMID: 33242408 , Dec-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Paul AM, Cheng-Campbell M, Blaber EA, Anand S, Bhattacharya S, Zwart SR, Crucian BE, Smith SM, Meller R, Grabham P, Beheshti A. "Beyond low-Earth orbit: Characterizing immune and microRNA differentials following simulated deep spaceflight conditions in mice." iScience. 2020 Dec 18;23(12):101747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101747 ; PMID: 33376970 ; PMCID: PMC7756144 , Dec-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Douglas GD, Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Space food for thought: Challenges and considerations for food and nutrition on exploration missions." J Nutr. 2020 Sep 1;150(9):2242-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa188 ; PMID: 32652037 , Sep-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lee SMC, Ribeiro LC, Martin DS, Zwart SR, Feiveson AH, Laurie SS, Macias BR, Crucian BE, Krieger S, Weber D, Grune T, Platts SH, Smith SM, Stenger MB. "Arterial structure and function during and after long-duration spaceflight." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2020 Jul 1;129(1):108-23. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00550.2019 ; PMID: 32525433 [Associated Letter to the Editor and response: J Appl Physiol (1985). 2020 Nov 1;129(5):1111-1113.] , Jul-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian BE, Makedonas G, Sams CF, Pierson DL, Simpson R, Stowe RP, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Krieger SS, Rooney B, Douglas G, Downs M, Nelman-Gonzalez M, Williams TJ, Mehta S. "Countermeasures-based improvements in stress, immune system dysregulation and latent herpesvirus reactivation onboard the International Space Station – Relevance for deep space missions and terrestrial medicine." Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 Aug;115:68-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.05.007 ; PMID: 32464118 , Aug-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Afshinnekoo E, Scott RT, MacKay MJ, Pariset E, Cekanaviciute E, Barker R, Gilroy S, Hassane D, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Nelman-Gonzalez M, Crucian BE, Ponomarev SA, Orlov OI, Shiba D, Muratani M, Yamamoto M, Richards SE, Vaishampayan PA, Meydan C, Foox J, Myrrhe J, Istasse E, Singh N, Venkateswaran K, Keune JA, Ray HE, Basner M, Miller J, Vitaterna MH, Taylor DM, Wallace D, Rubins K, Bailey SM, Grabham P, Costes SV, Mason CE, Beheshti A. "Fundamental biological features of spaceflight: Advancing the field to enable deep-space exploration." Cell. 2020 Nov 25;183(5):1162-84. Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.050 ; PMID: 33242416 , Nov-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Patel ZS, Brunstetter TJ, Tarver WJ, Whitmire AM, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Huff JL. "Red risks for a journey to the red planet: the highest priority human health risks for a mission to Mars." npj Microgravity. 2020 Nov 5;6(1):33. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-020-00124-6 ; PMID: 33298950; PMCID: PMC7645687 , Nov-2020
NASA Technical Documents Smith SM, Zwart SR, Douglas GL, Heer M. "Human adaptation to spaceflight: The role of food and nutrition. Second edition." Houston, TX: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2021. 255 p. NP-2021-03-003-JSC. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/human_adaptation_2021_final.pdf , Apr-2021
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 12/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 05/06/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. UTMB 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn, Germany 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2021 per PI (Ed., 2/25/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per PI (Ed., 5/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2019 per PI (Ed., 6/5/18)

Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program (HRP), Space Medicine, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), NASA engineers, individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: This protocol was terminated after E56/57, ending collection of valuable data with impact to the ISS Program, HRP, OCHMO, Space Medicine, ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems), other investigations, and to individual astronauts. We are completing data analysis, and working to publish these findings in both primary and collaborative publications.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Biochemical Profile: Providing insight into human adaptation to spaceflight on ISS missions." Presented at 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer MA, Zwart SR. "Nutrition and human space flight: Evidence from 4-6 month missions to the International Space Station." Submitted to Nutrition 2020--Live Online, June 1-4, 2020.

Abstracts. Nutrition 2020--Live Online, June 1-4, 2020. , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Romaniello SJ, Gordon GW, Skulan J, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Anbar AD. "Evaluating spaceflight-induced bone loss in astronauts using Ca isotopes." Presented at the Goldschmidt 2019 Conference, Barcelona, Spain, August 18-23, 2019.

Abstracts. Goldschmidt 2019 Conference, Barcelona, Spain, August 18-23, 2019. , Aug-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shelhamer M, Bloomberg J, LeBlanc A, Prisk GK, Sibonga J, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Norsk P. "Selected discoveries from human research in space that are relevant to human health on Earth." npj Microgravity. 2020 Feb 12;6:5. eCollection 2020. Review. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-020-0095-y ; PubMed PMID: 32128361; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7016134 , Feb-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Keyak JH, Zwart SR, Smith SM, Lang TF. "Use of quantitative computed tomography to assess for clinically-relevant skeletal effects of prolonged spaceflight on astronaut hips." J Clin Densitom. 2020 Apr-Jun;23(2):155-64. Epub 2019 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 31558405 , May-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Sibonga J, Matsumoto T, Jones J, Shapiro J, Lang T, Shackelford L, Smith SM, Young M, Keyak J, Kohri K, Ohshima H, Spector E, LeBlanc A. "Resistive exercise in astronauts on prolonged spaceflights provides partial protection against spaceflight-induced bone loss." Bone. 2019 Nov;128:112037. Epub 2019 Aug 7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.07.013 ; PubMed PMID: 31400472 , Nov-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Frings-Meuthen P, Luchitskaya E, Jordan J, Tank J, Lichtinghagen R, Smith SM, Heer M. "Natriuretic peptide resetting in astronauts." Circulation. 2020 May 12;141(19):1593-5. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044203 ; PMID: 32392103 , May-2020
Books/Book Chapters Heer M, Baecker N, Smith SM, Zwart SR. "Nutritional countermeasures for spaceflight-related stress." in "Stress Challenges and Immunity in Space: From Mechanisms to Monitoring and Preventive Strategies." Ed. A. Choukèr. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020. p. 593-616. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16996-1_33 , Jan-2020
Books/Book Chapters Smith SM, Lane HW, Zwart SR. "Spaceflight metabolism and nutritional support." in "Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight. 2nd edition." Ed. M.R. Barratt, E. Baker, S.L. Pool. New York: Springer, 2020. Ch. 13. p. 413-439. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9889-0_13 , Jan-2020
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 12/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/09/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn, Germany 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per PI (Ed., 5/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2019 per PI (Ed., 6/5/18)

Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program (HRP), Space Medicine, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), NASA engineers, individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Sample collection protocols were well executed on orbit, with many subjects completing pre-, in-, and postflight data collections. On orbit time constraints have led to some missing sessions. Sample returns were completed via SpaceX cargo return vehicles. Initial findings have been reported at several HRP IWS meetings and Investigator Working Group meetings (Twins, One Year Mission). The Twins study publication in 2019 was a major milestone. Data and samples have been provided to other investigations. Summary data have been provided to other groups working on NASA funded research, for collaborative publications to provide comparative human and animal data. Data have been provided to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems) engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center for their work on water reclamation from urine. Experiment has completed last sample collections. Reviewing, compiling, and presenting/publishing data will continue as analyses are completed.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Biochemical profile: providing insight into vitamin status on ISS." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Zwart SR. "Biochemical Profile: Providing insight into bone biochemistry on ISS missions." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Garrett-Bakelman FE, Darshi M, Green SJ, Gur RC, Lin L, Macias BR, McKenna MJ, Meydan C, Mishra T, Nasrini J, Piening BD, Rizzardi LF, Sharma K, Siamwala JH, Taylor L, Vitaterna MH, Afkarian M, Afshinnekoo E, Ahadi S, Ambati A, Arya M, Bezdan D, Callahan CM, Chen S, Choi AMK, Chlipala GE, Contrepois K, Covington M, Crucian BE, De Vivo I, Dinges DF, Ebert DJ, Feinberg JI, Gandara JA, George KA, Goutsias J, Grills GS, Hargens AR, Heer M, Hillary RP, Hoofnagle AN, Hook VYH, Jenkinson G, Jiang P, Keshavarzian A, Laurie SS, Lee-McMullen B, Lumpkins SB, MacKay M, Maienschein-Cline MG, Melnick AM, Moore TM, Nakahira K, Patel HH, Pietrzyk R, Rao V, Saito R, Salins DN, Schilling JM, Sears DD, Sheridan CK, Stenger MB, Tryggvadottir R, Urban AE, Vaisar T, Van Espen B, Zhang J, Ziegler MG, Zwart SR, Charles JB, Kundrot CE, Scott GBI, Bailey SM, Basner M, Feinberg AP, Lee SMC, Mason CE, Mignot E, Rana BK, Smith SM, Snyder MP, Turek FW. "The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight." Science. 2019 Apr 12;364(6436):eaau8650. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/364/6436/eaau8650.long ; PubMed PMID: 30975860 , Apr-2019
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 12/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/24/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2019 per PI (Ed., 6/5/18)

Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program (HRP), Space Medicine, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Study continues nominally with crews collecting samples, SpaceX sample returns, and subsequent analyses. Last participating crewmember will launch in 2018. Data continue to have value for the ISS Program, HRP, OCHMO, Space Medicine, other investigations, and to individual astronauts.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "B-vitamin status on International Space Station (ISS) Missions." Nutrition 2018 Conference, Boston, MA, June 9-12, 2018.

Nutrition 2018 Conference, Boston, MA, June 9-12, 2018. , Jun-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Heacox HN, Gillman PL, Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Excretion of zinc and copper increases in men during 3 weeks of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity." J Nutr. 2017 Jun;147(6):1113-20. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.247437 ; PMID: 28490676; PMCID: PMC5443469 , Jun-2017
Books/Book Chapters Zwart SR, Smith SM. "Nutrition and Metabolism." in "Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics." Ed. L. Young, J. Sutton. Cham: Springer, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_53-2 , May-2018
Books/Book Chapters Lane HW, Smith SM, Kloeris VL. "Metabolism and nutrition." in "Space physiology and medicine: From evidence to practice." Ed. A. Nicogossian, et al. New York: Springer, 2016. p. 307-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6652-3_11 , Dec-2016
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/16/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results help the ISS Program, the Human Research Program, Space Medicine, individual astronauts, and other experiments. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: We continue with pre, in, and postflight sample and data collection. Sample returns continue now that SpaceX flights have resumed.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM. "Nutrition Considerations for Spaceflight and Twin Studies sessions." Panel discussion. International Space Medicine Summit at Rice University, Houston, TX, November 2016.

International Space Medicine Summit at Rice University, Houston, TX, November 2016. , Nov-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Zwart SR. "Bone Biochemistry on ISS Missions and Biochemical Profile. " Presented at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Books/Book Chapters Heer M, Titze J, Smith SM, Baecker N. "Nutrition, physiology and metabolism in spaceflight and analog studies." Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 69 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18521-7 , Jul-2015
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/03/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO were not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provides a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Sample collection protocols have been well executed on orbit, with subjects completing pre-, in-, and postflight data collections. On orbit time constraints have led to some missing sessions. Sample returns commenced on SpaceX-3. With SpaceX’s return to flight in 2016, we anxiously await the first sample return in more than a year.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Spatz J, Pietrzyk RA, Hudson EK, Zwart SR. "Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions." Bone. 2015 Dec;81:712-20. Epub 2015 Oct 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.002 ; PubMed PMID: 26456109 , Dec-2015
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/22/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA (NASA Research Announcement). Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station (ISS) missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO was not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provide a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to spaceflight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: Sample collection protocols have been well executed on orbit, with subjects completing pre-, in-, and postflight data collections. On orbit time constraints have led to some missing sessions. Sample returns were initiated on SpaceX-3, and continued on subsequent SpaceX missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2015
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/08/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Universities Space Research Association 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Martina Heer is a Co-I on this project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA. Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO was not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provide a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The findings from this study will help us better understand physiological adaptation to space flight, and will help evaluate countermeasure effectiveness. These results will also inform the general, medical, and scientific communities on human health and physiological issues in an altered gravity environment. There could be significant potential implications of these findings.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Sample collection protocols have been well executed on orbit, with the first subjects completing planned activities earlier this year, with others in process. The first sample return is planned for May 2014 on SpaceX-3.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014
Project Title:  Space Biochemistry Profile Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2020  
Task Last Updated: 10/29/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Zwart, Sara  Universities Space Research Association 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food and Nutrition:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to Inadequate Food and Nutrition (IRP Rev L)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(4) Renal Stone:Risk of Renal Stone Formation (IRP Rev J/M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) FN-101:Determine the nutritional requirements that would support optimal physiological and psychological performance and prevent disease during different phases of an exploration mission: outbound weightless journey, in-flight EVA, surface operations and return weightless journey, during and after the mission (IRP Rev M)
(2) IM-401:Test, optimize and validate nutrition-based preventive/mitigative countermeasures (IRP Rev L)
(3) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: As long-duration spaceflights continue and the operational suite of countermeasures is modified, the food system is updated, and the duration of missions lengthens, it will be important to evaluate and monitor a broad set of biomarkers for key physiological systems. The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective (aka “Nutrition SMO”) was initiated in 2006, and has yielded significant clinical, operational, and research data. This proposal aims to extend the Nutrition SMO, under the guidelines provided in the NRA. Nutrition SMO data have been used to help identify or explain medical, scientific, and even engineering issues that have occurred during or after International Space Station missions. The data have been used by Medical Operations on multiple occasions, to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, to test for nutrient toxicities (secondary to supplement use), to evaluate blood and urine chemistries after instances of kidney stones and gout symptoms in crewmembers, and to evaluate the effects of using a new exercise device on bone and calcium metabolism. The ISS Program Office has used these data to determine factors contributing to the Urine Processor Assembly failure and to make forward operational decisions. Perhaps most striking, the data provided evidence that one-carbon metabolism may be altered in crewmembers who experienced vision changes post flight, the highest Human Research Program risk. The relationship between nutritional status and 1-carbon metabolism would likely never have been discovered if the Nutrition SMO was not being conducted. The impact of the data collected to date provide a strong rationale for continuing with an updated version of this protocol, eliminating some tests while expanding others, to provide a repository of data to other scientific Disciplines. We have extensive experience with these types of analyses, sample and data management, transfer to data archives, and data reduction for medical, management, and research purposes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: New project for FY2013.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/27/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2013