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Project Title:  Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 09/30/2033  
Task Last Updated: 11/19/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Macias, Brandon  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2101 NASA Parkway, HAC/B21N-1207 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: brandon.r.macias@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-2026  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Became civil servant fall 2020; previously KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center. Prior to that until 2016, was at the University of California, San Diego. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Brunstetter, Tyson  O.D., Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hargens, Alan  Ph.D. University of California, San Diego 
Huang, Alex  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Karanjia, Rustum  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Martin, Bryn  Ph.D. University of Idaho, Moscow 
Sadda, Srinivas  M.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Gibson, Charles  O.D. Coastal Eye Associates 
Kramer, Larry  M.D. University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston 
Greenwald, Scott   Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Jasien, Jessica   Ph.D. JesTech./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lytle, Jason   Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Marshall-Goebel, Karina  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Pardon, Laura  O.D., Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Young, Millennia  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: December 2021 report: Added Dr. Millennia Young to support biostatistics with the retirement of Al Feiveson, who was removed from the project during the last annual reporting period.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SANS-101:Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2033 per HHC element/JSC (Ed., 12/16/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 1/24/2026 per HHC element/JSC (Ed., 4/8/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2025 per PI (Ed., 12/21/19)

Task Description: This proposal will identify if ocular structure and function alterations occur at a greater frequency and magnitude during one-year missions compared to six-month and two-month expeditions and whether the recovery profile is dependent upon mission duration. In addition, this project will determine if changes in vascular structure and function are greater after one-year missions and if they contribute to alterations in ocular structure and function. The identification of structural and functional changes related to the development, progression, and recovery of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) will provide NASA the information necessary to inform the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions with duration of up to three years and to identify possible countermeasures.

SPECIFIC AIMS: Conducting SANS research on two-month, six-month, and one-year crewmembers will enable us to objectively generate data to help NASA determine if and how SANS findings change with mission duration. Data from these missions will enable the development of a non-linear trend model that can be extrapolated to make predictions for spaceflights that are up to three years in duration. Therefore, the results of the "Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye" (iSAFE) study will help NASA to define the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions and to identify possible countermeasures. Specific Aim 1: To determine if ocular structural changes develop to a greater degree (frequency or magnitude) during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions compared to findings during shorter length missions, and if recovery is prolonged after longer missions. Specific Aim 2: To determine if ocular vascular structure is altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions, and if recovery is more prolonged. Specific Aim 3: To determine if ocular function is altered to a greater degree during long duration one-year spaceflight missions, and the recovery profile. Specific Aim 4: To determine if measures of vascular structure and function are altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions, and if these vascular adaptations correlate with alterations in ocular structure and function. RELEVANCE AND MAP TO THE NASA HUMAN RESEARCH ROADMAP: This multi-project proposal is in response to NASA research announcement Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), 80JSC017N0001-BPBA, Appendix C, Topic 1: Analyses of the Temporal Nature of Human Adaptation to Long-Duration Low-Earth Orbit Mission Virtual NASA Specialized Center of Research (VNSCOR). This proposal addresses multiple Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan Gaps, including:

• SANS101: Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight.

• SANS102: Determine the relationship between the fluid-shifts induced ocular changes and fluid shifts in the CNS, including whether elevated intracranial pressure or brain edema play a role.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye (iSAFE) research study will advance NASA’s understanding of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS), an important human health and performance risk. This goal will be accomplished by quantifying how ocular alterations develop, progress, and recover as a function of spaceflight duration and by identifying underlying mechanisms. Results from this study are anticipated to lead to a temporal model of SANS progression during long-term missions and to inform the development of countermeasures. Given the unique environment of the International Space Station, commonly used ophthalmic instruments are being implemented in novel operational environments (e.g., electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography, pneumotonometry). This work may lead to the adoption of these new hardware, software, or protocol elements in clinical practice, benefiting patients on Earth. SANS shares characteristics with several terrestrial ophthalmic diseases, such as papilledema, and iSAFE study results could provide new insights into mechanisms underlying these conditions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: • The iSAFE Principal Investigator (PI) team has continued to work with the NASA Research Operations and Integration (ROI) Element to integrate this project into the Complement of Integrated Protocols for Human Research (CIPHER) studies. This effort included providing inputs to the Scientific Research Document (SRD); the iSAFE SRD is now baselined for all mission durations: Short, Standard, and Extended.

• The Test Readiness Review (TRR) document supporting the implementation of the iSAFE Study activities in NASA Johnson Space Center Building 21 was submitted to ROI.

• The iSAFE PI team supported the TRR for the Payloads Development Laboratory (PDL) in NASA Johnson Space Center Building 9, which is now approved. This TRR permits the use of the PDL for training crewmember operators to perform ERGs and pneumatonometry.

• Supported the informed consent briefings (ICB) for 5 potential CIPHER subjects (03/04/2021, 04/29/2021 [x2], 11/15/2021, 12/01/2021) and developed an iSAFE overview video that has been integrated into the CIPHER ICB presentation.

• Supported a hardware checkout of the ERG units designated for flight, flight backup, ground use by ROI, and for baseline data collection.

• ERG and pneumatonometry flight hardware/units passed Science Verification Testing (SVT) and are now on the International Space Station.

• Two iSAFE operators completed Telescience Center orientation in preparation for remote guidance activities, and remote guidance scripts were drafted for ERG and pneumatonometry.

• Completed the Payloads Training Dry Run (PTDR) that was overseen by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, certifying proficiency of Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory (CVL) personnel (Co-Investigator Scott Greenwald) to train crewmember operators for ERG and pneumatonometry.

• Two crewmember operators have completed the “Training” sessions for ERG and pneumatonometry (11/03/2021, 11/12/2021).

• Preliminary dry runs of baseline data collection were completed in the NASA Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory.

• Steps have been taken to ensure readiness for implementation of inflight OCT angiography, which include obtaining the flight version of the OCT software and conducting preliminary remote guidance training for CVL personnel.

• Preliminary training occurred for iSAFE operators on Dynamic Vessel data collection and analysis.

• The plans for iSAFE were presented at the 2021 Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop and at the JSC Chapter of the NASA Alumni League, both virtual.

• Substantial progress has been made towards finalizing the iSAFE data analysis plan.

• Substantial progress has been made towards finalizing the suite of standard operating procedures (SOPs) and operator logs.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/13/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Greenwald SH, Pardon LP, Jasien JV, Brunstetter T, Mercaldo ND, Hargens A, Huang A, Karanjia R, Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Marshall-Goebel K, Martin BA, Kramer LA, Sadda S, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Macias BR. "Investigating structure and function of the eye (iSAFE)." 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Greenwald SH. "How a headward fluid shift during weightlessness may cause spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)." NASA Alumni League - JSC Chapter Meeting, Virtual, November 5, 2020.

Program. NASA Alumni League - JSC Chapter Meeting, Virtual, November 5, 2020. , Nov-2020

Project Title:  Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 01/24/2026  
Task Last Updated: 12/04/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Macias, Brandon  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2101 NASA Parkway, HAC/B21N-1207 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: brandon.r.macias@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-2026  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Became civil servant fall 2020; previously KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center. Prior to that until 2016, was at the University of California, San Diego. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Brunstetter, Tyson  O.D., Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hargens, Alan  Ph.D. University of California, San Diego 
Huang, Alex  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Karanjia, Rustum  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Martin, Bryn  Ph.D. University of Idaho, Moscow 
Sadda, Srinivas  M.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Gibson, Charles  O.D. Coastal Eye Associates 
Kramer, Larry  M.D. University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston 
Greenwald, Scott   Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Jasien, Jessica   Ph.D. JesTech./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lytle, Jason   Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Marshall-Goebel, Karina  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Pardon, Laura  O.D., Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: December 2020 report: Key Personnel Added to Project Team: Laura Pardon, Jessica Jasien, Jason Lytle, Karina Marshall-Goebel; Key Personnel Removed from Project Team: Michael Stenger, Alan Feiveson, Linda Loerch.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SANS-101:Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 1/24/2026 per HHC element/JSC (Ed., 4/8/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2025 per PI (Ed., 12/21/19)

Task Description: This proposal will identify if ocular structure and function alterations occur at a greater frequency and magnitude during one-year missions compared to six-month and six-week expeditions and whether the recovery profile is dependent upon mission duration. In addition, this project will determine if changes in vascular structure and function are greater after one-year missions and contribute to alterations in ocular structure and function. The identification of structural and functional changes will provide NASA the information necessary to inform the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions with duration of up to three years and to identify possible countermeasures.

SPECIFIC AIMS

Conducting Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) research on one-year, six-month, and short-duration (2-month) crew members will enable us to objectively generate data to help NASA determine if and how SANS symptoms worsen with mission duration. These new data from longer missions will enable us to develop a non-linear trend model that can be extrapolated to make predictions for even longer missions, up to three years, and therefore help NASA to define the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions, and to identify possible countermeasures by the following specific aims:

Specific Aim 1: To determine if ocular structural changes develop to a greater degree (frequency or magnitude) during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions compared to findings during shorter length missions and if recovery is prolonged after longer missions.

Specific Aim 2: To determine if ocular vascular structure is altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions, and if recovery is more prolonged.

Specific Aim 3: To determine if ocular function is altered to a greater degree during long duration one-year spaceflight missions, and the recovery profile.

Specific Aim 4: To determine if measures of vascular structure and function are altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions and if these vascular adaptations correlate with alterations in ocular structure and function.

RELEVANCE & MAP TO HUMAN RESEARCH ROADMAP

This multi-project proposal is in response to NASA research announcement Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), 80JSC017N0001-BPBA, Appendix C, Topic 1: Analyses of the Temporal Nature of Human Adaptation to Long-Duration Low-Earth Orbit Mission Virtual NASA Specialized Center of Research (VNSCOR). This proposal addresses multiple Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan Gaps, including: SANS101: Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight. SANS102: Determine the relationship between the fluid-shifts induced ocular changes and fluid shifts in the CNS, including whether elevated intracranial pressure or brain edema play a role.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye (iSAFE) research study will advance NASA’s understanding of Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS), an important human health and performance risk, by quantifying how ocular alterations develop as a function of spaceflight duration and identifying causative mechanisms. Results from this study are anticipated to lead to a temporal model of SANS progression during long-term missions and to inform the development of countermeasures. Given the unique environment of the International Space Station, commonly used ophthalmic instruments are being implemented in novel operational environments. This work may lead to clinical practice adopting these new hardware, software, or protocol elements, benefiting patients on Earth. SANS shares characteristics with several terrestrial ophthalmic diseases, such as papilledema, and iSAFE study results could provide new insights into mechanisms underlying these conditions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: Within this reporting period:

• The iSAFE Principal Investigator (PI) team has worked with NASA Research Operations and Integration (ROI) Element to integrate this project into the Compliment of Integrated Protocols for Human Exploration Research on varying mission durations (CIPHER) project. The CIPHER study has received select-for-flight approval by the Human Research Program Control Board.

• We completed an informed consent briefing (ICB) with a crewmember while iSAFE had a select-for-flight status for the 6-month duration mission cohort. This status was reversed due to flight schedule conflicts, at which point iSAFE was integrated into the prime CIPHER study, as mentioned above.

• Supported the CIPHER Study PI “Face-to-Face” meeting (1/31/2020), which represented a major step toward coordinating the full complement of studies. Based on the outcome of this meeting, we updated our Institutional Review Board documents and experiment procedures to ensure compatibility and appropriate data sharing with the other studies.

• Optical biometry hardware was acquired for ground baseline data collection.

• The FORUM electronic medical records system was implemented for analyzing and securely storing visual field analysis data.

• Worked with ROI to achieve milestones that have made research hardware (i.e., Electroretinography and pneumotonometry systems) flight ready.

• Worked with ROI to baseline the Experimental Document for iSAFE 6-month cohort.

• The plans for iSAFE were presented at the 2020 Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop in Galveston, TX.

• Substantial progress has been made towards completing the iSAFE data analysis plan.

• Substantial progress has been made towards completing the Standard operating procedures (SOPs) and workflows for the collection of electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, pneumotonometry (intraocular pressure), and visual field analysis data.

• We supported presentations to control boards to earn an accelerated select for flight status for initiating research with the 6-month duration cohort.

• The drafting of operator logs to capture activity during ground and in flight data collection sessions is in progress.

• Substantial progress has been made in drafting of the iSAFE Test Readiness Review document.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/13/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Macias BR, Greenwald SH, Brunstetter R, Feiveson A, Hargens A, Huang A, Karanjia R, Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Marshall-Goebel K, Martin BA, Kramer LA, Sadda S, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Stenger MB. "Investigating structure and function of the eye (iSAFE)." Presented at the 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Project Title:  Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 09/30/2025  
Task Last Updated: 11/22/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Macias, Brandon  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2101 NASA Parkway, HAC/B21N-1207 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: brandon.r.macias@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-2026  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Became civil servant fall 2020; previously KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center. Prior to that until 2016, was at the University of California, San Diego. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Brunstetter, Tyson  O.D., Ph.D. U.S. Navy (Detailed to NASA Johnson Space Center) 
Feiveson, Alan  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hargens, Alan  Ph.D. University of California, San Diego 
Huang, Alex  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Karanjia, Rustum  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Martin, Bryn  Ph.D. University of Idaho, Moscow 
Sadda, Srinivas  M.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Loerch, Linda  M.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Gibson, Charles  O.D. Coastal Eye Associates 
Kramer, Larry  M.D. University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: November 2019 report--Key Personnel Added to Project Team: Larry Kramer, Charles Gibson. Key Personnel Removed from Project Team: Jocelyn Dunn.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SANS-101:Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2025 per PI (Ed., 12/21/19)

Task Description: This proposal will identify if ocular structure and function alterations occur at a greater frequency and magnitude during one-year missions compared to six-month and six-week expeditions and whether the recovery profile is dependent upon mission duration. In addition, this project will determine if changes in vascular structure and function are greater after one-year missions and contribute to alterations in ocular structure and function. The identification of structural and functional changes will provide NASA the information necessary to inform the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions with duration of up to three years and to identify possible countermeasures.

SPECIFIC AIMS

Conducting Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) research on one-year, six-month, and short-duration (2-month) crew members will enable us to objectively generate data to help NASA determine if and how SANS symptoms worsen with mission duration. These new data from longer missions will enable us to develop a non-linear trend model that can be extrapolated to make predictions for even longer missions, up to three years, and therefore help NASA to define the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions, and to identify possible countermeasures by the following specific aims:

Specific Aim 1: To determine if ocular structural changes develop to a greater degree (frequency or magnitude) during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions compared to findings during shorter length missions and if recovery is prolonged after longer missions.

Specific Aim 2: To determine if ocular vascular structure is altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions, and if recovery is more prolonged.

Specific Aim 3: To determine if ocular function is altered to a greater degree during long duration one-year spaceflight missions, and the recovery profile.

Specific Aim 4: To determine if measures of vascular structure and function are altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions and if these vascular adaptations correlate with alterations in ocular structure and function.

RELEVANCE & MAP TO HUMAN RESEARCH ROADMAP

This multi-project proposal is in response to NASA research announcement Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), 80JSC017N0001-BPBA, Appendix C, Topic 1: Analyses of the Temporal Nature of Human Adaptation to Long-Duration Low-Earth Orbit Mission Virtual NASA Specialized Center of Research (VNSCOR). This proposal addresses multiple Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan Gaps, including: SANS1: We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight. SANS12: We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye (iSAFE) research study will advance NASA’s understanding of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS), an important human health and performance risk, by quantifying how ocular alterations develop as a function of spaceflight duration and identifying causative mechanisms.

• Results from this study are anticipated to lead to a temporal model of SANS progression during long-term missions and to inform the development of countermeasures.

• Given the unique environment of the International Space Station (ISS), commonly used ophthalmic instruments are being implemented in novel operational environments. This work may lead to clinical practice adopting these new hardware, software, or protocol elements, benefiting patients on Earth.

• SANS shares characteristics with several terrestrial ophthalmic diseases, such as papilledema, and iSAFE study results could provide new insights into mechanisms underlying these conditions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: Within this reporting period NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was obtained. The Principal Investigator (PI) team on this project is working with NASA Research Operations and Integration Element to integrate this project with the other selected one year mission projects. In addition, for the standard duration 6-month mission group, the Research Operations and Integration feasibility assessment is complete and this mission group received select for flight approval by the Human Research Program Control Board. We acquired intraocular pressure, visual fields, and electroretinogram hardware for ground baseline data collection. In collaboration with Research Operations and Integration, we conducted initial training activities for the visual fields and electroretinogram hardware with the vendor.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/13/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Huang AS, Stenger MB, Macias BR. "Gravitational influence on intraocular pressure: Implications for spaceflight and disease." J Glaucoma. 2019 Aug;28(8):756-64. Epub 2019 May 31. https://doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001293 ; PubMed PMID: 31162175; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6786882 , Aug-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Stenger MB, Laurie SS, Sadda SR, Sadun AA, Macias BR, Huang AS. "Focus on the optic nerve head in spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome." Ophthalmology. 2019 Dec;126(12):1604-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.09.009 ; PubMed PMID: 31759496 , Dec-2019
Project Title:  Investigating Structure and Function of the Eye Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 05/30/2020  
Task Last Updated: 04/19/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Macias, Brandon  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2101 NASA Parkway, HAC/B21N-1207 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: brandon.r.macias@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-2026  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Became civil servant fall 2020; previously KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center. Prior to that until 2016, was at the University of California, San Diego. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Brunstetter, Tyson  O.D., Ph.D. U.S. Navy (Detailed to NASA Johnson Space Center) 
Dunn, Jocelyn  Ph.D. GeoControl Systems, Inc. 
Feiveson, Alan  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hargens, Alan  Ph.D. University of California, San Diego 
Huang, Alex  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Karanjia, Rustum  M.D., Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Martin, Bryn  Ph.D. University of Idaho, Moscow 
Sadda, Srinivas  M.D. Doheny Eye Institute 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Loerch, Linda  M.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SANS-101:Determine the relationship between fluid shifts (intravascular, interstitial, CSF) and ocular manifestations in astronauts during spaceflight (IRP Rev M)
Task Description: This proposal will identify if ocular structure and function alterations occur at a greater frequency and magnitude during one-year missions compared to six-month and six-week expeditions and whether the recovery profile is dependent upon mission duration. In addition, this project will determine if changes in vascular structure and function are greater after one-year missions and contribute to alterations in ocular structure and function. The identification of structural and functional changes will provide NASA the information necessary to inform the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions with duration of up to three years and to identify possible countermeasures.

SPECIFIC AIMS

Conducting Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) research on one-year, six-month, and short-duration (2-month) crew members will enable us to objectively generate data to help NASA determine if and how SANS symptoms worsen with mission duration. These new data from longer missions will enable us to develop a non-linear trend model that can be extrapolated to make predictions for even longer missions, up to three years, and therefore help NASA to define the risk posture for future interplanetary expeditions, and to identify possible countermeasures by the following specific aims:

Specific Aim 1: To determine if ocular structural changes develop to a greater degree (frequency or magnitude) during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions compared to findings during shorter length missions and if recovery is prolonged after longer missions.

Specific Aim 2: To determine if ocular vascular structure is altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions, and if recovery is more prolonged.

Specific Aim 3: To determine if ocular function is altered to a greater degree during long duration one-year spaceflight missions, and the recovery profile.

Specific Aim 4: To determine if measures of vascular structure and function are altered to a greater degree during long-duration one-year spaceflight missions and if these vascular adaptations correlate with alterations in ocular structure and function.

RELEVANCE & MAP TO HUMAN RESEARCH ROADMAP

This multi-project proposal is in response to NASA research announcement Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), 80JSC017N0001-BPBA, Appendix C, Topic 1: Analyses of the Temporal Nature of Human Adaptation to Long-Duration Low-Earth Orbit Mission Virtual NASA Specialized Center of Research (VNSCOR). This proposal addresses multiple Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan Gaps, including: SANS1: We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight. SANS12: We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: New project for FY2019.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/13/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2019