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Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 08/31/2022  
Task Last Updated: 11/12/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center (Retired 12/19, but still involved) 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Co-PI: Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Hanifin, John  Ph.D. Thomas Jefferson University 
Rahman, Shadab  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
St Hilaire, Melissa  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: December 2019 - Smith Johnston, MD, retired from NASA but has stayed active on this project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/31/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 2/3/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per D. Risin/HRP/NSSC information (Ed., 09/14/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 09/30/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 04/27/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 03/31/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/3/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/11/18)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 12/13/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: This research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: "Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS." This NRA solicited both "Ground Based and Flight-Definition" research with the specific instructions that the "ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the ISS. The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the spaceflight environment."

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs would be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members' working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers' circadian and sleep disruption. NASA ordered and received for a set of SSLAs intended to have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures are testing the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, the initial SSLA was installed on ISS in 2016. Since then, a total of 51 SSLAs have been installed on ISS, bringing the total retrofit to 60% replacement of GLAs on the US portion of ISS. Since the onset of the SSLA retrofit, the investigators have started the inflight ISS study to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human spaceflight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

This research addresses NASA's Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: "Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload" and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: "We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations." The results of this research also specifically address other high priority risks of the Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element, including the Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk of an Incompatible Habitat Design. Appropriately designed lighting systems will serve as a countermeasure to mitigate such risks in future Exploration missions. Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes. [Ed. note November 2021: Human Research Program risks and gaps have since been revised per more recent IRPs; see above noted Risks and Gaps and the Human Research Roadmap: https://humanresearchroadmap.nasa.gov/ ]

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight along with risk of incompatible habitat design can be considered threats to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2020). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014; Flynn-Evans et al., 2016). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems. Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

References

Dijk DJ, Neri DF, Wyatt JK, Ronda JM, Riel E, A. R-D, Hughes RJ, Elliott AR, Prisk GK, West JB and Czeisler CA (2001) Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. Am J Physiol 281:R1647-R1664.

McPhee J and Charles J, eds. 2010. Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions: Evidence Reviewed by the NASA Human Research Program. NASA SP-2009-3405 edition.

Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP and Czeisler CA (2014) Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study. Lancet Neurology 13:904-912.

Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey AA, Sullivan JP and Czeisler CA (2016) Circadian misalignment affects sleep and medication use before and during spaceflight. npj Microgravity 2:15019; doi:15010.11038/npjmgrav.12015.15019.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: Circadian disruption and sleep deficiency are inherent to spaceflight including long-duration missions on the ISS. Light exposure can both reset the circadian pacemaker and provide an acute stimulant response and is therefore a powerful potential non-invasive, passive, and safe sleepiness countermeasure for use during space missions. Several decades of NASA-funded research have culminated in installation of a tuneable multi-LED (light emitting diode) Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLA) to replace the ageing fluorescent General Luminaire Assemblies (GLA) aboard ISS. One of the main reasons for development and installation of the SSLAs was an ability to change the spectrum and irradiance of white light to modulate the circadian phase resetting and acute stimulant effects of light, while maintaining good vision.

In the current study, we have completed the initial assessments of the stability and utility of this new lighting system and begun to measure its physiological impact on circadian phase, sleep, and performance. There were no significant differences in aMT6s acrophases between the current and historical crewmembers during the in-flight nominal schedule but there was a trend for a significantly later phase in the historical versus the current group by nearly 4 hours. Consequently, as expected, sleep duration was higher and reaction time was quicker under the normal versus the shifted schedule. When correlated with the proportion of SSLA units installed, the increase in sleep duration and reduction in waketime after sleep on set (WASO) correlated with a higher number of SSLA units. The asMT6s acrophase time also approached a more normal phase and reduced in variability and reaction time, and attentional failures were less apparent.

While preliminary, these results are encouraging with evidence for greater normalization of circadian phase, longer sleep, and quicker reaction times under the new lighting that appear to get better as the proportion of SSLA units installed increases. Further work remains, however, as none of the crewmembers reported here experienced the ISS environment with more than 75% of the SSLA installation complete (and most had much less exposure) and therefore the benefits of a completely retrofitted environment have not been studied. Moreover, the amount by which work schedules were shifted in the current crewmembers was modest compared to historical schedules and therefore the efficacy of the lighting to alleviate circadian misalignment and sleep loss following more challenging schedule changes is unknown.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2022
Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 08/31/2022  
Task Last Updated: 10/29/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center (Retired 12/19, but still involved) 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Co-PI: Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Hanifin, John  Ph.D. Thomas Jefferson University 
Rahman, Shadab  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
St Hilaire, Melissa  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: December 2019 - Smith Johnston, MD, retired from NASA but has stayed active on this project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/31/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 2/3/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2020 per D. Risin/HRP/NSSC information (Ed., 09/14/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 09/30/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 04/27/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 03/31/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/3/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/11/18)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 12/13/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: This research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: "Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS." This NRA solicited both "Ground Based and Flight-Definition" research with the specific instructions that the "ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the ISS. The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the spaceflight environment."

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs would be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members' working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers' circadian and sleep disruption. NASA ordered and received for a set of SSLAs intended to have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures are testing the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, the initial SSLA was installed on ISS in 2016. Since then, a total of 51 SSLAs have been installed on ISS, bringing the total retrofit to 60% replacement of GLAs on the US portion of ISS. Since the onset of the SSLA retrofit, the investigators have started the inflight ISS study to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human spaceflight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

This research addresses NASA's Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: "Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload" and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: "We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations." The results of this research also specifically address other high priority risks of the Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element, including the Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk of an Incompatible Habitat Design. Appropriately designed lighting systems will serve as a countermeasure to mitigate such risks in future Exploration missions. Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight along with risk of incompatible habitat design can be considered threats to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2020). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014; Flynn-Evans et al., 2016). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems. Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

References

Dijk DJ, Neri DF, Wyatt JK, Ronda JM, Riel E, A. R-D, Hughes RJ, Elliott AR, Prisk GK, West JB and Czeisler CA (2001) Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. Am J Physiol 281:R1647-R1664.

McPhee J and Charles J, eds. 2010. Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions: Evidence Reviewed by the NASA Human Research Program. NASA SP-2009-3405 edition.

Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP and Czeisler CA (2014) Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study. Lancet Neurology 13:904-912.

Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey AA, Sullivan JP and Czeisler CA (2016) Circadian misalignment affects sleep and medication use before and during spaceflight. npj Microgravity 2:15019; doi:15010.11038/npjmgrav.12015.15019.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: Grant Establishment: Three institutions are collaborating on this multidisciplinary research: Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) in Philadelphia, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston, and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. The start date for the grant was December 1, 2014. Subcontracts were then established between TJU, BWH, and Lockheed Martin. The aims were to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters (CQ), and an in-flight study in the daily living environment of the ISS.

Ground Based Analog Study: This study aims tested the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLAs) in ISS CQs installed in laboratories at TJU. In a controlled 5-day inpatient study using astronaut-aged volunteers, we tested the hypotheses that compared to the static, daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol for a typical ISS work day (18 h wake: 6 h sleep) will improve visual performance, circadian entrainment, onset of melatonin production, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as morning alertness and performance. Separate human use protocols were submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at TJU and NASA. Previously, NASA and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded the PI and Co-PI to develop a high fidelity, in-laboratory analog environment to study the visual, biological, and behavioral effects of the SSLAs. Specifically, a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Sleeping Quarters (CQ) was developed with precise replication of CQ volume, geometry, and surface reflectance with an SSLA providing illumination. Astronaut-aged study subjects were able to be upright in this CQ and work, read, or use a computer just as crewmembers do onboard the ISS. In addition, a second CQ was developed that allows subjects to be semi-recumbent during wakefulness in SSLA lighting or fully recumbent when sleeping in darkness. Data from controlled studies in these high fidelity in-laboratory analog conditions represent the only published ground-based human data on the efficacy of the SSLAs to date (Brainard et al., Acta Astronaut., 2013; Brainard et al., Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med., 2016). In that earlier work, however, only a single subject could be studied at a time in the facility. In the current work, a second high-fidelity recumbent CQ was built and installed in the test facility enabling us to study up to two subjects at a time, with the intent of improving our speed for acquiring data in the analog facility. The SSLAs were each adjusted for their spectral output to be as close as possible to the NASA’s vendor requirements for ISS (NASA Revision C, S684-13489, 2013). These specifications include Correlated Color Temperature (CCT or K) and luminance in candelas (cd) for three basic settings: 1) General Illumination: 4500 K SSLA white light, 210 cd; 2) Phase Shift/Alertness: 6500 K SSLA (blue-enriched) white light, 420 cd; 3) Pre-Sleep: 2700 K SSLA (blue-depleted) white light, 90 cd.

Based on published and unpublished data, the Co-PIs determined that the 90 cd luminance at crewmember’s eye level inside of a CQ would be too bright to serve as an effective Pre-Sleep countermeasure. This issue was discussed with our project management team at JSC on several occasions. It was determined that in spaceflight, the SSLA luminance could be lowered from 90 cd using a combination of SSLA dimming buttons and a cloth shade system that is currently used on the fluorescent lighting system in the CQs onboard ISS. Based on a series of SSLA lighting measures and our prior pilot study in the CQs, we chose a Pre-Sleep luminance of 7.7 cd (20 lux at eye level) for our Pre-Sleep setting.

This study included male and female volunteers in good physical and mental health with normal color vision. Volunteers were selected in the age range of astronauts (range 26-54 years). Prior to admission to the laboratory, subjects were asked to maintain a regular 8:16 h, sleep:wake schedule and wear a wrist-borne, non-invasive activity and light monitor for at least 10 days. Over 550 subjects expressed interest in participating in this study. Approximately half of those individuals were not eligible based on phone interviews. Among those who were potentially eligible, 70 signed consent paperwork. Twenty-eight of those subjects completed the screening process and were randomly assigned into a lighting condition of either dynamic (N=16) or static (N=12) lighting. Among those subjects, 19 were male and 9 were female (age range 26 – 53 years). Twenty-five of these subjects successfully completed the entire five day study.

The data gathered from this first study run include successful collection of complete pre-study actigraphy, and inpatient study actigraphy from each subject. A total of 268 neurocognitive and performance tests were collected from each subject across the five day inpatient study (over 6,700 total). In addition, 95 Karolinska sleepiness scales (KSS) were collected from each subject across the inpatient study (2,375 total). Complete sets of blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each subject for the measurement of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Melatonin contents of 548 plasma samples from 25 participants who completed a full study run have been analyzed. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor sleep states and wakefulness using electrodes placed on the scalp, face, chin, and chest. Electrodes were positioned according to the International 10-20 System. The actigraphy, neurocognitive, and performance tests and urinary 6-sulfatoxymeltonin measures match similar or identical tests that were used onboard ISS during the flight study. Subject recruitment and enrolling is now completed. Data analysis is in process on the numerous dependent variables from the 5-day study. Portions of data from this study have been uploaded to the NASA Large File Transfer service.

The testing of visual performance and color vision under different SSLA light settings has been done separately from the five day studies. Two separate cohorts of 8 healthy male and female, astronaut-aged subjects have completed within-subjects study designs that test their visual performance and color vision. The data from each of these studies is being analyzed.

ISS Flight Study: The aims of this study are to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using SSLAs for inflight crewmembers onboard ISS missions. Specifically, we are assessing the acceptability, use and operational impact of deployment of the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being during ISS flight missions. This inflight study will test the hypotheses that, compared to current static daily fluorescent lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol will maintain acceptable visual performance and color discrimination for operational tasks, improve circadian entrainment, improve circadian adaptation following a sleep shift challenge such as a ‘slam-shift,’ improve sleep duration and efficiency, and enhance wake-time alertness and cognitive performance.

Ethical approvals were obtained from NASA and Partners Healthcare for the flight study. The flight study successfully went through an ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) feasibility assessment. Subsequently, the Human Research Program (HRP) Science Management Panel selected this study for flight on 9/3/15. The first ISSMP teleconference was held on 9/30/15 involving representatives from JSC’s ISSMP, BWH, and TJU. This teleconference was held monthly through the set up and running of the study. A total of eight crew members consented to participate in the flight study. Seven astronauts have completed pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight testing. As of October, 2020, 77 SSLAs have been successfully installed providing a 92% retrofit of the ISS.

This ISS flight study on crewmembers is a sophisticated human photobiological study. All photobiological studies, whether in spaceflight or on Earth, rely on precise characterization of the independent variable of the study: light. For this study, the relevant light stimulus is light emitted by the new SSLAs and the remains of the original ISS fluorescent lighting system. A spectrophotometer/irradiance meter is an essential tool for ensuring that consistent emission of light spectrum and light intensity are maintained during the inflight ISS research. The key measures for this flight study are light irradiance, illuminance, and spectral power distribution of the four settings of the SSLAs, as well as the single setting of the current fluorescent lights. Working with the study collaborators, ISSMP has selected and deployed the meter for the flight study on ISS. A total of 37 sets of lighting measures have been taken by crewmembers and transmitted from ISS to the study team on Earth.

Considerable work between the study collaborators and the hardware group of Research Operations & Integration (ROI) element [Ed. note October 2020: ROI was formerly ISSMP; element change in 2019) has gone into making flight worthy versions of visual performance and color vision tests. Those tests were used successfully on the ISS. The Lanthony Desaturated 15-Hue test is the method to be used for testing crewmember color discrimination under the different SSLA light settings compared to that of the current fluorescent lighting on ISS. Historical data of actigraphy, sleep logs, cognitive testing, and urine samples have been identified from previous flight studies that will act as the control data in the flight study. Discussions are ongoing about data sharing for these historical data. Through September 2019, seven crewmembers have completed all post-flight data collection, including actiwatch/sleep logs, cognition, urine sampling, and visual testing. Data are being analyzed on these dependent measures. The urine samples have been returned to Earth and will be analyzed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin at BWH in the near range. After completion of their flight mission, each of the seven crewmembers met personally with one or two representatives from BWH and TJU for debriefing at JSC. The project is scheduled to end on December 31, 2020. It is anticipated that data analysis and development of manuscripts will continue after that end date.

References:

Brainard GC, Coyle W, Ayers M, Kemp J, Warfield B, Maida J, Bowen C, Bernecker C, Lockley SW, Hanifin JP (2013) Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation. Acta Astronautica 92:21–28.

Brainard, GC, Barger LK, Soler RR and Hanifin JP (2016) The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 22(6):535-544.

NASA Revision C, S684-13489, (2013) ISS Interior Solid State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) Specification, Revision A, July 2011, S684-13489, Johnson Space Center, Houston, pp 1–60.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grant LK, St. Hilaire MA, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Rahman SA. "Differential phase resetting of metabolic markers relative to melatonin during simulated shift work." 2020 Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (SRBR), Virtual meeting, May 30-June 3, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (SRBR), Virtual meeting, May 30-June 3, 2020. , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rahman SA, Kent BA, St Hilaire MA, Clark T, Hanifin JP, Barger LK, Czeisler CA, Brainard GC, Lockley SW. "Lighting protocols for exploration – HERA campaign." 2020 Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (SRBR), Virtual meeting, May 30-June 3, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (SRBR), Virtual meeting, May 30-June 3, 2020. , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Jasser S, Warfield B, Kanumilli S, Panepinto L, Disoke F, Glodjo T, Atkinson K, Glatts C, Serruya M, Bowman L, Pineda C, Hanifin J. "From space flight lighting countermeasures to the patient bedside: developing light therapy for sleep and mood disruption in brain injury." 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, the Netherlands, June 21–24, 2018.

Abstracts. 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, the Netherlands, June 21–24, 2018. , Jun-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC, Clark T, St Hilaire MA, Rahman SA, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Kemp J, Disoke F, Glodjo T, Jasser S, Ayers M, Panepinto L, Kanumilli S, Nelson N, Hasher D, Vadalia S, Balaicuis J, Byrne B, Pineda C, Gerner E, Maida J, Johnston S, Moomaw R, Barger L, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep, and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2019.

Abstracts. 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rahman SA, St Hilaire MA, Clarke T, Hanifin J, Barger LK, Czeisler CA, Brainard GC, Lockley SW. "Lighting protocols for exploration – HERA campaign." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2019.

Abstracts. 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Lockley SW, Amundadottir ML, Rahman SA, St Hilaire MA, Rajaratnam SMW, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Andersen M, Gooley JJ. "Time-based dynamics of non-visual effects of light in humans: The importance of exposure duration." 16th European Biological Rhythms Society Congress, Lyon, France, August 25-29, 2019.

Abstracts. 16th European Biological Rhythms Society Congress, Lyon, France, August 25-29, 2019. , Aug-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grant LK, St Hilaire MA, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Rahman SA. "Differential phase resetting of metabolic markers relative to central clock markers during simulated shift work." 16th European Biological Rhythms Society Congress, Lyon, France, August 25-29, 2019.

Abstracts. 16th European Biological Rhythms Society Congress, Lyon, France, August 25-29, 2019. , Aug-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kent BA, Rahman SA, St Hilaire MA, Clark T, Hanifin JP, Barger LK, Czeisler CA, Brainard GC, Lockley SW. "The effects of dynamic lighting on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms during the NASA HERA campaign." Harvard University, Division of Sleep Medicine, Farrell Prize Day, October 28, 2019.

Harvard University Farrell Prize Day, October 28, 2019. , Oct-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Garcia D, Norwood K, Clark T, St Hilaire M, Rahman S, Kemp J, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Disoke F, Jasser S, Maida J, Johnston S, Moomaw R, Barger L, Czeisler C, Lockley SW. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep, and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." Presented at the 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 27-30. 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 27-30. 2020. , Jan-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rahman SA, Kent BA, St Hilaire M, Clark T, Hanifin JP, Barger LK, Czeisler CA, Brainard GC, Lockley SW. "Lighting protocols for exploration – HERA campaign." 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Grant LK, Gooley JJ, St Hilaire MA, Rajaratnam SMW, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Rahman SA. "Menstrual phase-dependent differences in neurobehavioral performance: the role of temperature and the progesterone/estradiol ratio." Sleep. 2020 Feb 13;43(2):zsz227. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz227 ; PMID: 31670824; PMCID: PMC7457328 , Feb-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hanifin JP, Lockley SW, Cecil K, West K, Jablonski M, Warfield B, James M, Ayers M, Byrne B, Gerner E, Pineda C, Rollag M, Brainard GC. "Randomized trial of polychromatic blue-enriched light for circadian phase shifting, melatonin suppression, and alerting responses." Physiol Behav. 2019 Jan 1;198:57-66. Epub 2018 Oct 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.10.004 ; PMID: 30296404 , Jan-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA. "Exposure to short wavelength-enriched white light and exercise improves alertness and performance in operational NASA flight controllers working overnight shifts." J Occup Environ Med. 2021 Feb 1;63(2):111-8. (2020 Oct 14 Epub ahead of print.) https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002054 ; PMID: 33065729 , Feb-2021
Awards Brainard G. (George Brainard, PhD) "Fellow of the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) on August 9, 2019 in Louisville, KY. This honor is a lifetime award that formally recognizes his valuable contributions to the technical activities of the IES and to the broader lighting industry." Aug-2019
Books/Book Chapters Barger LK, Dinges DF, Czeisler CA. "Sleep and Circadian Effects of Space." in "Handbook of Bioastronautics." Ed. L.R. Young, J.P. Sutton. Cham: Springer, first online 24 October 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_86-2 , Oct-2020
Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 11/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/28/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Co-PI: Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Hanifin, John  Ph.D. Thomas Jefferson University 
Rahman, Shadab  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
St. Hilaire, Melissa  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: October 2015: No changes.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/11/18)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 12/13/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: This research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: "Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS." This NRA solicited both "Ground Based and Flight-Definition" research with the specific instructions that the "ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the ISS. The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the spaceflight environment."

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs would be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members' working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers' circadian and sleep disruption. NASA ordered and received for a set of SSLAs intended to have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures are testing the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, the initial SSLA was installed on ISS in 2016. Since then, a total of 51 SSLAs have been installed on ISS, bringing the total retrofit to 60% replacement of GLAs on the US portion of ISS. Since the onset of the SSLA retrofit, the investigators have started the inflight ISS study to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human spaceflight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

This research addresses NASA's Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: "Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload" and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: "We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations." The results of this research also specifically address other high priority risks of the Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element, including the Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk of an Incompatible Habitat Design. Appropriately designed lighting systems will serve as a countermeasure to mitigate such risks in future Exploration missions. Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight along with risk of incompatible habitat design can be considered threats to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2018). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014; Flynn-Evans et al., 2016). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems. Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

References

Dijk DJ, Neri DF, Wyatt JK, Ronda JM, Riel E, A. R-D, Hughes RJ, Elliott AR, Prisk GK, West JB and Czeisler CA (2001) Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. Am J Physiol 281:R1647-R1664.

McPhee J and Charles J, eds. 2010. Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions: Evidence Reviewed by the NASA Human Research Program. NASA SP-2009-3405 edition.

Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP and Czeisler CA (2014) Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study. Lancet Neurology 13:904-912.

Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey AA, Sullivan JP and Czeisler CA (2016) Circadian misalignment affects sleep and medication use before and during spaceflight. npj Microgravity 2:15019; doi:15010.11038/npjmgrav.12015.15019.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Grant Establishment: Three institutions are collaborating on this multidisciplinary research: Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) in Philadelphia, Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in Boston, and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. The start date for the grant was December 1, 2014. Subcontracts were then established between TJU, BWH, and Lockheed Martin. The aim is to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters (CQ), and an in-flight study in the daily living environment of the ISS.

Ground Based Analog Study: This study aims to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLAs) in ISS CQs installed in laboratories at TJU. In a controlled 5-day inpatient study using astronaut-aged volunteers, we are testing the hypotheses that compared to the static, daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol for a typical ISS work day (18 h wake: 6 h sleep) will improve visual performance, circadian entrainment, onset of melatonin production, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as morning alertness and performance. Separate human use protocols were submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at TJU and NASA. Previously, NASA and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded the Principal Investigator (PI) and Co-PI to develop a high fidelity, in-laboratory analog environment to study the visual, biological, and behavioral effects of the SSLAs. Specifically, a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Sleeping Quarters (CQ) was developed with precise replication of CQ volume, geometry, and surface reflectance with an SSLA providing illumination. Astronaut-aged study subjects were able to be upright in this CQ and work, read, or use a computer just as crewmembers do onboard the ISS. In addition, a second CQ was developed that allows subjects to be semi-recumbent during wakefulness in SSLA lighting or fully recumbent when sleeping in darkness. Data from controlled studies in these high fidelity in-laboratory analog conditions represent the only published ground-based human data on the efficacy of the SSLAs to date (Brainard et al., Acta Astronaut., 2013; Brainard et al., Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med., 2016). In that earlier work, however, only a single subject could be studied at a time in the facility. In the current work, a second high-fidelity recumbent CQ was built and installed in the test facility enabling us to study up to two subjects at a time, to improve our speed for acquiring data in the analog facility. The SSLAs were each adjusted for their spectral output to be as close as possible to the NASA's vendor requirements for ISS (NASA Revision C, S684-13489, 2013). These specifications include Correlated Color Temperature (CCT or K) and luminance in candelas (cd) for three basic settings: 1) General Illumination: 4500 K SSLA white light, 210 cd; 2) Phase Shift/Alertness: 6500 K SSLA (blue-enriched) white light, 420 cd; 3) Pre-Sleep: 2700 K SSLA (blue-depleted) white light, 90 cd.

Based on published and unpublished data, the Co-PIs have determined that the 90 cd luminance at crewmember's eye level inside of a CQ would be too bright to serve as an effective Pre-Sleep countermeasure. This issue was discussed with our project management team at JSC on several occasions. It was determined that in spaceflight, the SSLA luminance could be lowered from 90 cd using a combination of SSLA dimming buttons and a cloth shade system that is currently used on the fluorescent lighting system in the CQs onboard ISS. Based on a series of SSLA lighting measures and our prior pilot study in the CQs, we chose a Pre-Sleep luminance of 7.7 cd (20 lux at eye level) for our Pre-Sleep setting.

This study includes male and female volunteers in good physical and mental health with normal color vision. Volunteers are selected in the age range of astronauts (range 26-54 years). Prior to admission to the laboratory, subjects are asked to maintain a regular 8:16 h, sleep:wake schedule and wear a wrist-borne, non-invasive activity and light monitor for at least 10 to 14 days. In August 2015, study recruitment was initiated. Over 550 subjects expressed interest in participating in this study. Approximately half of those individuals were not eligible based on phone interviews. Among those who were potentially eligible, 70 signed consent paperwork. Twenty-eight of those subjects completed the screening process and were randomly assigned into a lighting condition of either dynamic (N=16) or static (N=12) lighting. Among those subjects, 19 were male and 9 were female (age range 26 - 53 years). Twenty-five of these subjects successfully completed the entire five day study.

The data gathered from this first study run include successful collection of complete pre-study actigraphy, and inpatient study actigraphy from each subject. A total of 268 neurocognitive and performance tests were collected from each subject across the five day inpatient study (over 6,700 total). In addition, 95 Karolinska sleepiness scales (KSS) were collected from each subject across the inpatient study (2,375 total). Complete sets of blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each subject for the measurement of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Melatonin contents of 548 plasma samples from 25 participants who completed a full study run have been analyzed. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor sleep states and wakefulness using electrodes placed on the scalp, face, chin, and chest. Electrodes were positioned according to the International 10-20 System. The actigraphy, neurocognitive, and performance tests and urinary 6 sulfatoxymeltonin measures match similar or identical tests that will be used onboard ISS during the flight study. Subject recruitment and enrolling has been stopped at this time. Data analysis is in process on the numerous dependent variables from the 5-day study. Portions of data from this study have been uploaded to the NASA Large File Transfer service.

The testing of visual performance and color vision under different SSLA light settings has been done separately from the five day studies. Two separate cohorts of 8 healthy male and female, astronaut-aged subjects have completed within-subjects study designs that test their visual performance and color vision. The data from each of these studies is being analyzed.

ISS Flight Study: Compared to the analog study, the flight study is at an earlier stage. The aims of this study are to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using SSLAs for inflight crewmembers onboard ISS missions. Specifically, we will assess the acceptability, use and operational impact of deployment of the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being during ISS flight missions. This inflight study will test the hypotheses that, compared to current static daily fluorescent lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol will maintain acceptable visual performance and color discrimination for operational tasks, improve circadian entrainment, improve circadian adaptation following a sleep shift challenge such as a 'slam-shift', improve sleep duration and efficiency, and enhance wake-time alertness and cognitive performance.

Ethical approvals have been obtained from NASA and Partners Healthcare for the flight study. The flight study successfully went through an ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) feasibility assessment on 8/8/15. Subsequently, the Human Research Program (HRP) Science Management Panel selected this study for flight on 9/3/15. The first ISSMP teleconference was held on 9/30/15 involving representatives from JSC's ISSMP, BWH, and TJU. Currently, this teleconference is held monthly. To date, seven crew members have consented to participate in the flight study. The first three astronauts have completed pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight testing. The other four consented crewmembers are in process in various phases of pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight testing. Fifty-one SSLAs have been successfully installed in the ISS.

This ISS flight study on crewmembers is a sophisticated human photobiological study. All photobiological studies, whether in spaceflight or on Earth, rely on precise characterization of the independent variable of the study: light. For this study, the relevant light stimulus is light emitted by the new SSLAs and the current ISS fluorescent lighting system. A spectrophotometer/irradiance meter is an essential tool for ensuring that consistent emission of light spectrum and light intensity are maintained during the inflight ISS research. The key measures for this flight study are light irradiance, illuminance, and spectral power distribution of the four settings of the SSLAs, as well as the single setting of the current fluorescent lights. Working with the study collaborators, ISSMP has selected and purchased the meter that is being used for the flight study. To date, 23 sets of lighting measures have been taken by crewmembers and transmitted from ISS to the study team on Earth.

Considerable work between the study collaborators and the hardware group of ISSMP has gone into making flight worthy versions of visual performance and color vision tests. These tests are now complete and are being used on the ISS. The Lanthony Desaturated 15-Hue test is the method to be used for testing crewmember color discrimination under the different SSLA light settings compared to that of the current fluorescent lighting on ISS. Additional planning for the flight study is ongoing with regular meetings with NASA personnel. Historical data of actigraphy, sleep logs, cognitive testing, and urine samples have been identified from previous flight studies that will act as the control data in the flight study. Discussions are ongoing about data sharing for these historical data.

References

Brainard GC, Coyle W, Ayers M, Kemp J, Warfield B, Maida J, Bowen C, Bernecker C, Lockley SW and Hanifin JP (2013) Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation. Acta Astronautica 92:21-28.

Brainard GC, Barger LK, Soler RR and Hanifin JP (2016) The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight. Curr Opin Pulm Med 22:535-544.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Jasser S, Kemp J, Disoke F, Ayers F, Glodjo T, Panepinto L, Vadalia S, Kanumilli S, Nelson N, Hasher D, Balaicuis J, Byrne B, Pineda C, Gerner E, Clark T, Maida J, Johnston S, Moomaw R, Barger L, Czeisler C, St. Hilaire M, Rahman S, Lockley S. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Glodjo TZ, Disoke F, Kemp J, Warfield B, Hanifin J, Lockley S, Brainard G. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog studies for the International Space Station: Vision Testing." Presented at the Thomas Jefferson University Sigma Xi Student Research Day, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 10, 2018.

Thomas Jefferson University Sigma Xi Student Research Day, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 10, 2018. , Apr-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Lockley S, Rahman S, St Hilaire M, Clark T, Hanifin J, Barger L, Czeisler C, Brainard G. "Lighting protocols for exploration – HERA campaign." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pattison PM, Tsao JY, Brainard GC, Bugbee B. "LEDs for photons, physiology and food." Nature. 2018 Nov;563(7732):493-500. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0706-x ; PubMed PMID: 30464269 [Note: reported originally in Sept 2018 as "in press"] , Nov-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Weaver MD, Barger LK, Malone SK, Anderson LS, Klerman EB. "Dose-dependent associations between sleep duration and unsafe behaviors among US high school students." JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Dec 1;172(12):1187-9. PubMed PMID: 30285029; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6366445 , Dec-2018
Awards Brainard GC. (George C. Brainard) "Exemplary Service and Support Award. Illuminating Engineering Society, Standards and Research Department, Boston, MA, August 2018." Aug-2018
Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 11/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 10/02/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Hanifin, John  Ph.D. Thomas Jefferson University 
Rahman, Shadab  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
St. Hilaire, Melissa  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: October 2015: No changes
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 12/13/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: This proposed research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: “Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS.” This NRA solicits both “Ground Based and Flight-Definition” research with the specific instructions that the “ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the International Space Station (ISS). The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the spaceflight environment.”

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts’ working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs will be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members’ working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers’ circadian and sleep disruption. NASA has now placed an order for a set of SSLAs to be manufactured that will have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures will test the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, once the new SSLAs are deployed on ISS in 2016, the investigators plan to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human spaceflight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

The proposed research addresses NASA’s Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: “Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload” and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: “We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations.” Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight can be considered a threat to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2017). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability, and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014; Flynn-Evans et al., NPG Microgravity, 2016). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems (American Medical Association, 2012). Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

References

Dijk DJ, Neri DF, Wyatt JK, Ronda JM, Riel E, A. R-D, Hughes RJ, Elliott AR, Prisk GK, West JB and Czeisler CA (2001) Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. Am J Physiol 281:R1647-R1664.

McPhee J and Charles J, eds. 2010. Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions: Evidence Reviewed by the NASA Human Research Program. NASA SP-2009-3405 edition.

Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP and Czeisler CA (2014) Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study. Lancet Neurology 13:904-912.

Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey AA, Sullivan JP and Czeisler CA (2016) Circadian misalignment affects sleep and medication use before and during spaceflight. npj Microgravity 2:15019; doi:15010.11038/npjmgrav.12015.15019.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Grant Establishment: Three institutions are collaborating on this multidisciplinary research: Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) in Philadelphia, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston, and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. The start date for the grant was December 1, 2014. Subcontracts were then established between TJU, BWH, and Lockheed Martin. The aim is to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters (CQ), and an in-flight study in the daily living environment of the ISS.

Ground Based Analog Study: This study aims to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLAs) in ISS CQs installed in laboratories at TJU. In a controlled 5-day inpatient study using astronaut-aged volunteers, we are testing the hypotheses that compared to the static, daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol for a typical ISS work day (18 h wake: 6 h sleep) will improve visual performance, circadian entrainment, onset of melatonin production, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as morning alertness and performance. Separate human use protocols were submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at TJU and NASA. Previously, NASA and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded the PI and Co-PI to develop a high fidelity, in-laboratory analog environment to study the visual, biological, and behavioral effects of the SSLAs. Specifically, a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Sleeping Quarters (CQ) was developed with precise replication of CQ volume, geometry, and surface reflectance with an SSLA providing illumination. Astronaut-aged study subjects were able to be upright in this CQ and work, read, or use a computer just as crewmembers do onboard the ISS. In addition, a second CQ was developed that allows subjects to be semi-recumbent during wakefulness in SSLA lighting or fully recumbent when sleeping in darkness. Data from controlled studies in these high fidelity in-laboratory analog conditions represent the only published ground-based human data on the efficacy of the SSLAs to date (Brainard et al., Acta Astronaut., 2013; Brainard et al., Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med., 2016). In that earlier work, however, only a single subject could be studied at a time in the facility. In the current work, a second high-fidelity recumbent CQ was built and installed in the test facility enabling us to study up to two subjects at a time, to improve our speed for acquiring data in the analog facility. The SSLAs were each adjusted for their spectral output to be as close as possible to the NASA’s vendor requirements for ISS (NASA Revision C, S684-13489, 2013). These specifications include Correlated Color Temperature (CCT or K) and luminance in candelas (cd) for three basic settings: 1) General Illumination: 4500 K SSLA white light, 210 cd ; 2) Phase Shift/Alertness: 6500 K SSLA (blue-enriched) white light, 420 cd ; 3) Pre-Sleep: 2700 K SSLA (blue-depleted) white light, 90 cd.

Based on published and unpublished data, the Co-Principal Investigators (Co-PIs) have determined that the 90 cd luminance at crewmember’s eye level inside of a CQ would be too bright to serve as an effective Pre-Sleep countermeasure. This issue was discussed with our project management team at JSC on several occasions. It was determined that in spaceflight, the SSLA luminance could be lowered from 90 cd using a combination of SSLA dimming buttons and a cloth shade system that is currently used on the fluorescent lighting system in the CQs onboard ISS. Based on a series of SSLA lighting measures and our prior pilot study in the CQs, we chose a Pre-Sleep luminance of 7.7 cd (20 lux at eye level) for our Pre-Sleep setting.

This study includes male and female volunteers in good physical and mental health with normal color vision. Volunteers are selected in the age range of astronauts (range 26-54 years). Prior to admission to the laboratory, subjects are asked to maintain a regular 8:16 h, sleep:wake schedule and wear a wrist-borne, non-invasive activity and light monitor for at least 10 to 14 days. In August 2015, study recruitment was initiated. To date, over 550 subjects have expressed interest in participating in this study. Approximately half of those individuals were not eligible based on phone interviews. Among those who were potentially eligible, 70 have signed consent paperwork. Twenty-eight of those subjects completed the screening process and were randomly assigned into a lighting condition of either dynamic (N=16) or static (N=12) lighting. Among those subjects, 19 were male and 9 were female (age range 26 – 53 years). Twenty-five of these subjects successfully completed the entire five day study.

The data gathered from this first study run include successful collection of complete pre-study actigraphy, inpatient study actigraphy from each subject. A total of 268 neurocognitive and performance tests were collected from each subject across the five day inpatient study (over 6,700 total). In addition, 95 Karolinska sleepiness scales (KSS) were collected from each subject across the inpatient study (2,375 total). Complete sets of blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each subject for the measurement of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Melatonin contents of 548 plasma samples from 25 participants who completed a full study run have been analyzed. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor sleep states and wakefulness using electrodes placed on the scalp, face, chin, and chest. Electrodes were positioned according to the International 10-20 System. The actigraphy, neurocognitive, and performance tests and urinary 6 sulfatoxymeltonin measures match similar or identical tests that will be used onboard ISS during the flight study. Subject recruitment and enrolling has been stopped at this time. Data analysis is in process on the numerous dependent variables from the 5-day study.

The testing of visual performance and color vision under different SSLA light settings has been done separately from the five day studies. Two separate cohorts of 8 healthy male and female, astronaut-aged subjects have completed within-subjects study designs that test their visual performance and color vision. The data from each of these studies is being analyzed.

ISS Flight Study: Compared to the analog study, the flight study is at an earlier stage. The aims of this study are to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using SSLAs for inflight crewmembers onboard ISS missions. Specifically, we will assess the acceptability, use and operational impact of deployment of the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being during ISS flight missions. This inflight study will test the hypotheses that, compared to current static daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol will maintain acceptable visual performance and color discrimination for operational tasks, improve circadian entrainment, improve circadian adaptation following a sleep shift challenge such as a ‘slam-shift’, improve sleep duration and efficiency, and enhance wake-time alertness and cognitive performance.

Ethical approvals have been obtained from NASA and Partners Healthcare for the flight study. The flight study successfully went through an ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) feasibility assessment on 8/8/15. Subsequently, the Human Research Program (HRP) Science Management Panel selected this study for flight on 9/3/15. The first ISSMP teleconference was held on 9/30/15 involving representatives from JSC’s ISSMP, BWH, and TJU. Currently, this teleconference is held monthly. To date, five crew members have consented to participate in the flight study. The first astronaut has completed pre-flight and in-flight testing and is now in process on post-flight testing. Two more crewmembers have completed pre-flight testing and are active in in-flight testing. Twenty seven SSLAs have been successfully installed the ISS.

This ISS flight study on crewmembers is a sophisticated human photobiological study. All photobiological studies, whether in spaceflight or on Earth, rely on precise characterization of the independent variable of the study: light. For this study, the relevant light stimulus is light emitted by the new SSLAs and the current ISS fluorescent lighting system. A spectrophotometer/irradiance meter is an essential tool for ensuring that consistent emission of light spectrum and light intensity are maintained during the inflight ISS research. The key measures for this flight study are light irradiance, illuminance, and spectral power distribution of the four settings of the SSLAs, as well as the single setting of the current fluorescent lights. Working with the study collaborators, ISSMP has selected and purchased the meter that will be used for the flight study. To date, 9 sets of lighting measures have been taken by crewmembers and transmitted from ISS to the study team on Earth.

Considerable work between the study collaborators and the hardware group of ISSMP has gone into to making flight worthy versions of visual performance and color vision tests. These tests are now complete and are being used on ISS. The Lanthony Desaturated 15-Hue test is the method to be used for testing crewmember color discrimination under the different SSLA light settings compared to that of the current fluorescent lighting on ISS. Additional planning for the flight study is ongoing with regular meetings with NASA personnel. Historical data of actigraphy, sleep logs, cognitive testing, and urine samples have been identified from previous flight studies that will act as the control data in the flight study. Discussions are ongoing about data sharing for these historical data.

References

Brainard GC, Coyle W, Ayers M, Kemp J, Warfield B, Maida J, Bowen C, Bernecker C, Lockley SW and Hanifin JP (2013) Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation. Acta Astronautica 92:21-28.

Brainard GC, Barger LK, Soler RR and Hanifin JP (2016) The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight. Curr Opin Pulm Med 22:535-544.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Dauchy R, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Hill S, Wren-Dail M, Xiang S, Yuan L, Blask D. "Exploring the power of light and darkness: From the International Space Station to cancer risk." 4th International Conference on Artificial Light at Night, Napoca, Romania, September 26-28, 2016.

4th International Conference on Artificial Light at Night, Napoca, Romania, September 26-28, 2016. p. 15-16. http://artificiallightatnight.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/0/5/37053463/alan_booklet-vf.pdf ; accessed 11/2/17. , Sep-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rahman SA, St Hilaire MA, Flynn-Evans EE Barger LK, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Klerman EB, Lockley SW. "The ISS dynamic lighting schedule: an in-flight lighting countermeasure to facilitate circadian adaptation, improve sleep and enhance alertness and performance on the International Space Station." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Vadalia S, Brainard G, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Jasser S, Kemp J, Hasher D, Balaicuis J, Panepinto L, Ayers M, Disoke F, Nelson N, Byrne B, Pineda C, Gerner E, Clark T, Lockley S. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog studies for the International Space Station." Thomas Jefferson University Sigma Xi Student Research Day, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 22, 2017.

Thomas Jefferson University Sigma Xi Student Research Day, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 22, 2017. , Mar-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Jasser S, Kemp J, Hasher D, Balaicuis J, Panepinto L, Ayers M, Vadalia S, Disoke F, Nelson N, Byrne B, Pineda C, Gerner E, Clark T, Maida J, Moomaw R, Johnston S, Barger L, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC. "Solid-State Lighting in Space and on Earth." 9th DIN-Expert Panel, “Effect of light on human beings,” Berlin, Germany, June 22, 2017.

9th DIN-Expert Panel “Effect of light on human beings,” Berlin, Germany, June 22, 2017. , Jun-2017

Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 11/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 10/17/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Hanifin, John P. Thomas Jefferson University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: October 2015: No changes
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: This proposed research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: “Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS.” This NRA solicits both “Ground Based and Flight-Definition” research with the specific instructions that the “ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the International Space Station (ISS). The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the space flight environment.”

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts’ working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs will be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members’ working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers’ circadian and sleep disruption. NASA has now placed an order for a set of SSLAs to be manufactured that will have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures will test the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, once the new SSLAs are deployed on ISS in 2016, the investigators plan to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human spaceflight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

The proposed research addresses NASA’s Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: “Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload” and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: “We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations.” Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight can be considered a threat to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2014). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems. Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Grant Establishment: Three institutions are collaborating on this multidisciplinary research: Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) in Philadelphia, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston, and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Clear Lake. The start date for the grant was December 1, 2014. Subcontracts were then established between TJU, BWH, and Lockheed Martin. The aim is to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters (CQ), and an in-flight study in the daily living environment of the ISS.

Ground Based Analog Study: This study aims to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLAs) in ISS CQs installed in laboratories at TJU. In a controlled 5-day inpatient study using astronaut-aged volunteers, we are testing the hypotheses that compared to the static, daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol for a typical ISS work day (18 h wake: 6 h sleep) will improve visual performance, circadian entrainment, onset of melatonin production, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as morning alertness and performance. Separate human use protocols were submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at TJU and JSC. Previously, NASA and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded the PI and Co-PI to develop a high fidelity, in-laboratory analog environment to study the visual, biological, and behavioral effects of the SSLAs. Specifically, a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Sleeping Quarters (CQ) was developed with precise replication of CQ volume, geometry, and surface reflectance with an SSLA providing illumination. Astronaut-aged study subjects are able to be upright in this CQ and work, read, or use a computer just as crewmembers do onboard the ISS. In addition, a second CQ was developed that allows subjects to be semi-recumbent during wakefulness in SSLA lighting or fully recumbent when sleeping in darkness. Data from controlled studies in these high fidelity in-laboratory analog conditions represent the only published ground-based human data on the efficacy of the SSLAs to date (Brainard et al., Acta Astronautica, 2013). In that earlier work, however, only a single subject could be studied at a time in the facility. In the current work, a second high-fidelity recumbent CQ was built and installed in the test facility enabling us to study up to two subjects at a time, to improve our speed for acquiring data in the analog facility. The SSLAs were each adjusted for their spectral output to be as close as possible to the NASA’s vendor requirements for ISS (NASA Revision C, S684-13489, 2013). These specifications include Correlated Color Temperature (CCT or K) and luminance in candelas (cd) for three basic settings: 1) General Illumination: 4500 K SSLA white light, 210 cd ; 2) Phase Shift/Alertness: 6500 K SSLA (blue-enriched) white light, 420 cd ; 3) Pre-Sleep: 2700 K SSLA (blue-depleted) white light, 90 cd.

Based on published and unpublished data, the Co-PIs have determined that the 90 cd luminance at crewmember’s eye level inside of a CQ would be too bright to serve as an effective Pre-Sleep countermeasure. This issue was discussed with our project management team at JSC on several occasions. It was determined that in spaceflight, the SSLA luminance could be lowered from 90 cd using a combination of SSLA dimming buttons and a cloth shade system that is currently used on the fluorescent lighting system in the CQs onboard ISS. Based on a series of SSLA lighting measures and our prior pilot study in the CQs, we chose a Pre-Sleep luminance of 7.7 cd (20 lux at eye level) for our Pre-Sleep setting.

This study includes male and female volunteers in good physical and mental health with normal color vision. Volunteers are selected in the age range of astronauts (range 26-54 years). Prior to admission to the laboratory, subjects are asked to maintain a regular 8:16 h, sleep:wake schedule and wear a wrist-borne, non-invasive activity and light monitor for at least 10 to 14 days. In August 2015, study recruitment was initiated. To date, 447 subjects have expressed interest in participating in this study. Approximately half of those individuals were not eligible based on phone interviews. Among those who were potentially eligible, 45 have signed consent paperwork. Sixteen of those subjects completed the screening process and were randomly assigned into their lighting condition of either dynamic (N=9) or static (N=7) lighting. Among those subjects, 12 were male and 4 were female (age range 28 – 54 years). Thirteen subjects successfully completed the entire five day study. The next study is scheduled to begin on 10/3/16.

The data gathered from this first study run include successful collection of complete pre-study actigraphy, inpatient study actigraphy from each subject. A total of 268 neurocognitive and performance tests were collected from each subject across the five day inpatient study (2,144 total). In addition, 96 Karolinska sleepiness scales (KSS) were collected from each subject across the inpatient study (768 total). Complete sets of blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each subject for the measurement of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Melatonin contents of 192 plasma samples from 8 participants who completed a full study run have been analyzed. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor sleep states and wakefulness using electrodes placed on the scalp, face, chin, and chest. Electrodes were positioned according to the International 10-20 System. The actigraphy, neurocognitive, and performance tests and urinary 6 sulfatoxymeltonin measures match similar or identical tests that will be used onboard ISS during the flight study. To date, no data analysis has been done as our effort is now being aimed at recruiting additional study subjects and running the five day studies. Finally, the testing of visual performance and color vision will be done separately from the five day studies when we receive SSLA units made by the ISS contractor early in 2016.

ISS Flight Study: Compared to the analog study, the flight study is at an earlier stage. The aims of this study are to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using SSLAs for inflight crewmembers onboard ISS missions. Specifically, we will assess the acceptability, use and operational impact of deployment of the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being during ISS flight missions. This inflight study will test the hypotheses that, compared to current static daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol will maintain acceptable visual performance and color discrimination for operational tasks, improve circadian entrainment, improve circadian adaptation following a sleep shift challenge such as a ‘slam-shift’, improve sleep duration and efficiency, and enhance wake-time alertness and cognitive performance.

Ethical approvals have been obtained from NASA and Partners Healthcare for the flight study. The flight study successfully went through an ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) feasibility assessment on 8/8/15. Subsequently, the Human Research Program (HRP) Science Management Panel selected this study for flight on 9/3/15. The first ISSMP teleconference was held on 9/30/15 involving representatives from JSC’s ISSMP, BWH, and TJU. Currently, this teleconference is held every two weeks. Three crew members have consented to participate in the flight study. The first astronaut is scheduled to begin pre-flight testing in the near range. Four SSLAs have been successfully delivered to the ISS.

This ISS flight study on crewmembers is a sophisticated human photobiological study. All photobiological studies, whether in spaceflight or on Earth, rely on precise characterization of the independent variable of the study: light. For this study, the relevant light stimulus is light emitted by the new SSLAs and the current ISS fluorescent lighting system. A spectrophotometer/irradiance meter is an essential tool for ensuring that consistent emission of light spectrum and light intensity are maintained during the inflight ISS research. The key measures for this flight study are light irradiance, illuminance, and spectral power distribution of the four settings of the SSLAs, as well as the single setting of the current fluorescent lights. Working with the study collaborators, ISSMP has selected and purchased the specific meter that will be used for the flight study. Considerable work between the study collaborators and the hardware group of ISSMP has gone into to making flight worthy versions of visual performance and color vision tests. These tests are now complete and ready to be used on ISS. The Lanthany Desaturated 15-Hue test is the method to be used for testing crewmember color discrimination under the different SSLA light settings compared to that of the current fluorescent lighting on ISS. Additional planning for the flight study is ongoing with regular meetings with NASA personnel. Historical data of actigraphy, sleep logs, cognitive testing, and urine samples have been identified from previous flight studies that will act as the control data in the flight study. Discussions are ongoing about data sharing for these historical data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Hasher D, Jasser S, Balaicuis J, Panepinto L, Byrne B, Pineda C, Gerner E, Clark T, Maida J, Moomaw R, Johnston S, St Hilaire M, Barger L, Czeisler C, Lockley S. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rahman SA, St Hilaire M, Flynn-Evans EE, Barger L, Brainard GC, Czeisler CA, Klerman EB, Lockley SW. "The ISS dynamic lighting schedule: an in-flight lighting countermeasure to facilitate circadian adaptation, improve sleep and enhance alertness and performance on the International Space Station." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Hanifin J, Warfield B, Jablonski M, West K, Cecil K, Barger L, Lockley S, Woida R, Moores J, Smith P. "Towards lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep, and performance during a manned Mars mission." 87th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, April 24-28, 2016.

87th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, April 24-28, 2016. , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Lockley S, Coyle W, Jasser S, Panepinto L, Kemp J, Ayers M, Warfield B, Byrne B, Hanifin J. "Testing dynamic solid state lighting for improving circadian adaptation and sleep in long duration space flight missions." 28th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, New York, NY, June 29-July 1, 2016.

28th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, New York, NY, June 29-July 1, 2016. , Jun-2016

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Brainard GC, Barger LK, Soler RR, Hanifin JP. "The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight." Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016 Nov;22(6):535-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000329 ; PubMed PMID: 27607152 , Nov-2016
Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 11/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 10/01/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: No changes
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

Task Description: This proposed research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: “Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS”. This NRA solicits both “Ground Based and Flight-Definition” research with the specific instructions that the “ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the ISS. The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the space flight environment.”

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts’ working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs will be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members’ working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers’ circadian and sleep disruption. NASA has now placed an order for a set of SSLAs to be manufactured that will have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures will test the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, once the new SSLAs are deployed on ISS in 2016, the investigators plan to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human space flight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

The proposed research addresses NASA’s Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: “Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload” and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: “We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations.” Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The sleep deficits experienced by astronauts during spaceflight can be considered a threat to the success of space missions (NASA Human Research Program Integrated Risk Plan, 2014). The resulting physiological and behavioral changes caused by sleep and circadian disruption can lead to diminished alertness, cognitive ability and psychomotor performance (Dijk et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 2001; Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. McPhee and Charles, eds., 2010). As a measure to counteract sleep disruptions, crewmembers report using sleep promoting drugs: 71% on space shuttle flights and 75% during ISS expeditions (Barger et al., Lancet Neurology, 2014). A significant portion of the global population suffers from chronic sleep loss and/or circadian-related disorders. Evidence for disease occurring due to a disruption of circadian homeostasis has mounted significantly in the past several years. In the United States, nearly 22 million Americans do shift work that interferes with a biologically healthy nocturnal sleep cycle (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007). It has been shown that shift workers are more likely to suffer from a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal distress, and cognitive and emotional problems. Development of an in-flight lighting countermeasure that helps resolve circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts is likely to help optimize the use of light therapy for patient populations with affective, circadian and sleep disorders.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Grant Establishment: Three institutions are collaborating on this multidisciplinary research: Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) in Philadelphia, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston, and Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Clear Lake. The start date for the grant was December 1, 2014. Subcontracts were then established between TJU, BWH, and Lockheed Martin. The aim is to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters (CQ), and an in-flight study in the daily living environment of the ISS.

Ground Based Analog Study: This study aims to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using Solid State Lighting Assemblies (SSLAs) in ISS CQs installed in laboratories at TJU. In a controlled 5-day inpatient study using astronaut-aged volunteers, we are testing the hypotheses that compared to the static, daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol for a typical ISS work day (18h wake: 6 h sleep) will improve visual performance, circadian entrainment, onset of melatonin production, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as morning alertness and performance. Separate human use protocols were submitted and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at TJU and JSC. Previously, NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded the PI and Co-PI to develop a high fidelity, in-laboratory analog environment to study the visual, biological, and behavioral effects of the SSLAs. Specifically, a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Sleeping Quarters (CQ) was developed with precise replication of CQ volume, geometry, and surface reflectance with an SSLA providing illumination. Astronaut-aged study subjects are able to be upright in this CQ and work, read, or use a computer just as crewmembers do onboard the ISS. In addition, a second CQ was developed that allows subjects to be semi-recumbent during wakefulness in SSLA lighting or fully recumbent when sleeping in darkness. Data from controlled studies in these high fidelity in-laboratory analog conditions represent the only published ground-based human data on the efficacy of the SSLAs to date (Brainard et al., Acta Astronautica, 2013). In that earlier work, however, only a single subject could be studied at a time in the facility. In the current work, a second high-fidelity recumbent CQ was built and installed in the test facility enabling us to study up to two subjects at a time, significantly improving our speed for acquiring data in the analog facility. The SSLAs were each adjusted for their spectral output to be as close as possible to the NASA’s vendor requirements for ISS (NASA Revision C, S684-13489, 2013). These specifications include Correlated Color Temperature (CCT or K) and luminance in candelas (cd) for three basic settings:

1) General Illumination: 4500 K SSLA white light, 210 cd ; 2) Phase Shift/Alertness: 6500 K SSLA (blue-enriched) white light, 420 cd ; 3) Pre-Sleep: 2700 K SSLA (blue-depleted) white light, 90 cd.

Based on published and unpublished data, the Co-PIs have determined that the 90 cd luminance at crewmember’s eye level inside of a CQ would be too bright to serve as an effective Pre-Sleep countermeasure. This issue was discussed with our project management team at JSC on several occasions. It was determined that in space flight, the SSLA luminance could be lowered from 90 cd using a combination of SSLA dimming buttons and a cloth shade system that is currently used on the fluorescent lighting system in the CQs onboard ISS. Based on a series of SSLA lighting measures and our prior pilot study in the CQs, we chose a Pre-Sleep luminance of 7.7 cd (20 lux at eye level) for our Pre-Sleep setting.

This study includes male and female volunteers in good physical and mental health with normal color vision. Volunteers are selected in the age range of typical astronauts (range 30-54 years). Prior to admission to the laboratory, subjects are asked to maintain a regular 8:16 h, sleep:wake schedule and wear a wrist-borne, non-invasive activity and light monitor for at least 10 to 14 days. In August 2015, study recruitment was initiated. To date, 52 subjects have expressed interest in participating in this study. Approximately half of those individuals were not eligible based on phone interviews. Among those who were potentially eligible, 8 have signed consent paperwork. Two of those subjects have completed the screening process and successfully completed the first five day study. Subjects were randomly assigned into their lighting condition of either dynamic or static lighting. One subject was male (53 years) and one subject was female (34 years). The next study is scheduled to begin on 10/5/15.

The data gathered from this first study run include successful collection of complete pre-study actigraphy, inpatient study actigraphy from each subject. A total of 268 neurocognitive and performance tests were collected from each subject across the five day inpatient study. In addition, 96 Karolinska sleepiness scales (KSS) were collected from each subject across the inpatient study. Complete sets of blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each subject for the measurement of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to monitor sleep states and wakefulness using electrodes placed on the scalp, face, chin, and chest. Electrodes were positioned according to the International 10-20 System. The actigraphy, neurocognitive, and performance tests and urinary 6 sulfatoxymeltonin measures match similar or identical tests that will be used onboard ISS during the flight study. To date, no data analysis has been done as our effort is now being aimed at establishing the second five day study run on 10/5/15. Finally, the testing of visual performance and color vision will be done separately from the five day studies when we receive SSLA units made by the ISS contractor early in 2016.

ISS Flight Study: Compared to the analog study, the flight study is at a nascent stage. The aims of this study are to test the efficacy of lighting protocols for daily operations using SSLAs for inflight crewmembers onboard ISS missions. Specifically, we will assess the acceptability, use, and operational impact of deployment of the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being during ISS flight missions. This inflight study will test the hypotheses that, compared to current static daily lighting of General Illumination only, the Dynamic Lighting Schedule protocol will maintain acceptable visual performance and color discrimination for operational tasks, improve circadian entrainment, improve circadian adaptation following a sleep shift challenge such as a ‘slam-shift’, improve sleep duration and efficiency, and enhance wake-time alertness and cognitive performance.

Ethical approvals have been obtained from NASA and Partners Healthcare for the flight study. Discussions about how to manage the ethical approval application at Thomas Jefferson University are ongoing. The flight study successfully went through an ISS Medical Project (ISSMP) feasibility assessment on 8/8/15. Subsequently, the HRP Science Management Panel selected this study for flight on 9/3/15. The first weekly ISSMP teleconference was held on 9/30/15 involving representatives from JSC’s ISSMP, BWH and TJU.

This ISS flight study on crewmembers is a sophisticated human photobiological study. All photobiological studies, whether in spaceflight or on Earth, rely on precise characterization of the independent variable of the study: light. For this study, the relevant light stimulus is light emitted by the new SSLAs and the current ISS fluorescent lighting system. A spectrophotometer/irradiance meter is an essential tool for ensuring that consistent emission of light spectrum and light intensity are maintained during the inflight ISS research. The key measures for this flight study are light irradiance, illuminance, and spectral power distribution of the four settings of the SSLAs, as well as the single setting of the current fluorescent lights. ISSMP is now in the process of assessing which specific meter will be selected for flight. The Farnsworth-Munsell 15 Hue test (D15) is the method to be used for testing crewmember color discrimination under the different SSLA light settings compared to that of the current fluorescent lighting on ISS. The hardware group of ISSMP has been developing two prototypes of this visual test that can be used during flight. Additional planning for the flight study is ongoing with regular meetings with NASA personnel. Historical data of actigraphy, sleep logs, cognitive testing, and urine samples have been identified from previous flight studies that will act as the control data in the flight study. Discussions are ongoing about how to manage consent procedures and data sharing for these historical data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Barger L, Clark T, Coyle W, Czeisler C, Hanifin J, Johnston S, Maida J, Moomaw R, Pineda C, Warfield B, Lockley S. "Testing solid state lighting countermeasures to improve circadian adaptation, sleep and performance during high fidelity analog and flight studies for the International Space Station." Presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC. "Solid state light effects on human circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation." Presented at Strategies in Light, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 24-26, 2015.

Strategies in Light, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 24-26, 2015. PennWell Corporation, Nashua, NH. , Feb-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard GC, Warfield B, Hanifin JP. "Using light to facilitate circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral adaptation during spaceflight." Presented at International Symposium on Human Adaptation to Environment and Whole-body Coordination, Kobe, Japan, March 14-16, 2015.

Program and abstracts. International Symposium on Human Adaptation to Environment and Whole-body Coordination, Kobe, Japan, March 14-16, 2015. p. 35. http://www.intlphysiolanth.org/docs/IS201503/Proceeding5_modified2.pdf ; accessed 10/1/15. , May-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Whitmire A, Leveton L, Barger L, Clark LT, Bollweg L, Ohnesorge L, Brainard G. "Evidence-based recommendations for optimizing light in day-to-day spaceflight operations" Presented at 86th Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, May 10-14, 2015.

86th Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, May 10-14, 2015. , May-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brainard G, Hanifin JP, Coyle W, Warfield B, Barger L, Czeisler C, Rahman S, St. Hilaire M, Clark T, Maida J, Moomaw R, Johnston S, Pineda C, Byrne B, Lockley S. "Spectrally tunable solid state lighting intended to improve circadian adaptation, sleep, and performance during use in ground analog and in-flight studies on the International Space Station." Presented at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, San Diego, California, June 27-28, 2015.

27th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, San Diego, California, June 27-28, 2015. p. 52. http://sltbrmeeting.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/SLTBRProgarmBook-Final-with-sponsors_2015-06-26.pdf ; accessed 10/1/15. , Jun-2015

Awards Brainard GC. "Johnson Space Center Director's Innovation Award, Galveston, TX, January 2015." Jan-2015
Awards Brainard GC. "The Institute for Integrative Health Capstone Award, Baltimore, MD, August 2015." Aug-2015
Dissertations and Theses Hanifin JP. "Circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects of polychromatic light in humans." Dissertation, University of Surrey, Guildford, August 2015. , Aug-2015
Patents Active continuation application 14,273,971. August 2014. Aug-2014 Brainard GC, Glickman G. "Photoreceptor System for Melatonin Regulation and Phototherapy."
Significant Media Coverage Burling S. "Jefferson scientist's study of SAD took him to space and back. Studying role of light on sleep, depression." The Philadelphia Inquirer, G1, G4-G5, Feb 1, 2015. http://actioncenter.agu.org/app/document/6255383 ;jsessionid=ltQZMH7099sLlpwUoKC7Y0Pa.undefined ; accessed 10/1/15., Feb-2015
Project Title:  Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance During High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/01/2014  
End Date: 11/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 02/25/2015 
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Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Brainard, George C. Ph.D. / Thomas Jefferson University 
Address:  Light Research Program 
1025 Walnut St., Room 507 
Philadelphia , PA 19107-5083 
Email: george.brainard@jefferson.edu 
Phone: 215-955-7644  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Thomas Jefferson University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med Ctr 
Clark, Toni  B.S. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Czeisler, Charles  M.D., Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Johnston, Smith  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Moomaw, Ronald  O.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lockley, Steven  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AC14G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED Behavioral Health & Performance 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AC14G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
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No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-103:What are the validated, efficacious treatments (individual or Team-based) and/or countermeasures to prevent adverse behavioral conditions, CNS/neurological, and/or psychiatric disorders caused by either single and/or integrated exposures to spaceflight hazards during exploration class missions? (IRP Rev L)
(3) BMed-104:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated modifications to habitat/vehicle to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(4) BMed-105:Given the potentially negative spaceflight associated CNS/cognitive changes and behavioral experiences of stressors during long-duration missions (e.g., isolation, confinement, reduced sensory stimulation, altered gravity, space radiation), what are validated medical or dietary countermeasures to mitigate stressors impacting on CNS / cognition / behavioral health? (IRP Rev L)
(5) BMed-107:What are the long-term changes and risks to astronaut health post-mission that, when using a continuity of care model, helps retrospectively identify and understand individual susceptibility (e.g., hereditary, dose, thresholds) to mitigate adverse CNS, cognitive, and behavioral health changes resulting from long-duration exploration missions, promoting the behavioral health of current and future crews? (IRP Rev L)
(6) Sleep-102:We need to identify and develop an integrated, individualized suite of scheduling tools that predict the effects of sleep-wake cycles and light on performance, with validated countermeasures and on-board systems to monitor, prevent and/or treat chronic partial sleep loss, work overload, and/or circadian shifting in spaceflight (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flight Definition

Task Description: This proposed research addresses the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) NNJ13ZSA002N-BMED: Behavioral Health and Human Performance: “Evaluation of the Neurobehavioral Effects of a Dynamic Lighting System on the ISS”. This NRA solicits both “Ground Based and Flight-Definition” research with the specific instructions that the “ground study serves as a precursor to the flight study, therefore the ground study should take place in an analog with high fidelity to the ISS. The SSLAs should be studied in a high fidelity ground analog environment, then implemented on ISS to evaluate individual crewmember outcomes related to circadian physiology, sleep, behavioral health and performance using sensitive and validated measures that are feasible in the space flight environment.”

Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts’ working and living environments. NASA has determined that, beginning in 2016, the GLAs will be replaced with Solid-State Light Assemblies (SSLAs) containing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Engineers at Kennedy Space Center developed a prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) that was successfully installed onboard the ISS during ISS Expedition 18. The Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of the intended research worked with engineers, scientists, and managers from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to revise the SSLA specifications so that the new lighting units would have dual capacity to: 1) provide illumination for crew members’ working and living quarters, and 2) serve as a lighting countermeasure for crewmembers’ circadian and sleep disruption. NASA has now placed an order for a set of SSLAs to be manufactured that will have this dual capacity.

This research is comprised of a multidisciplinary collaboration between Thomas Jefferson University, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and JSC to complete a ground-based study in a high fidelity analog of the crew sleeping quarters and daily living environment of the ISS. Specifically, standardized psychometric, physiological, and neurobehavioral measures will test the efficacy of light from the SSLAs to improve vision, circadian regulation, sleep, and performance in healthy astronaut-aged subjects. In addition, once the new SSLAs are deployed on ISS in 2016, the investigators plan to assess the acceptability, use, and impact of deployment of a dynamic lighting schedule aboard the ISS during operational flight missions on astronaut vision, sleep, alertness, circadian rhythms, and general well-being. Sleep, performance, and circadian rhythm data will be compared to those collected by their team and others during previous flight missions aboard ISS, in addition to surveillance of medical and psychological health in collaboration with mission flight surgeons. This project will generate quantitative data and knowledge for the benefit of crew health, habitability, environment, and human factors in the design of future human space flight vehicles and habitats. The project also will provide guidance for flight surgeons, flight psychologists, and astronauts to help optimize sleep and circadian regulation during space exploration missions.

The proposed research addresses NASA’s Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk: “Risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness and Work Overload” and Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Sleep5: “We need to identify environmental specifications and operational regimens for using light to prevent and mitigate health and performance decrements due to sleep, circadian, and neurobehavioral disruption, for flight, surface, and ground crews, during all phases of spaceflight operations.” Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Importantly, this work will lead to advances in new lighting systems for civilian applications in work places and homes.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/10/2021) 

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 None in FY 2015