Menu

 

The NASA Task Book
Advanced Search     

Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2022  
Task Last Updated: 08/17/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Greenhalgh, Preston  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reiber, Teresa  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dolick, Kevin  B.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Yates, Keegan  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Putnam, Jacob  M.S. NASA Langley Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2021 Report: Removed Brian Rodriguez as a co-investigator as he is no longer working on this study. Added Kevin Dolick, Keegan Yates, and Jacob Putnam to assist with data collection and management, and to share study outcomes with them as they are working on an NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC)-funded effort to model the Soyuz vehicle and seat, and will be running recreated landing finite element simulations with human and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) models. August 2020 Report: Added Brian Rodriguez as a co-investigator to assist with statistical analysis. Added Teresa Reiber as a co-investigator to assist with data collection and processing. August 2019 report: Preston Greenhalgh added to the project as a co-investigator. September 2018 report: Brett Siders and Jacob Putnam are no longer Co-Investigators. Nate Newby remains the PI, and Jeff Somers Co-I. September 2017 report: Brett Siders, University of Houston, and Jacob Putnam, KBRwyle, were added to the project as CoInvestigators. August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new Principal Investigator (PI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoInvestigator (CoI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 10/1/2022 per PI (Ed., 2/11/22)

NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2021 per PI (Ed., 9/28/20)

NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2020 per PI (Ed., 7/24/19) NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2019 per PI (Ed., 9/18/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with Principal Investigator (PI) Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently the impact load imparted to crewmembers landing in the Soyuz vehicle is unknown. This study is the first systematic assessment of the number and types of injuries associated with Soyuz landing. To date, we have found than more than a third of US Orbital Segment (USOS) crewmembers are experiencing injuries. Most of these injuries are minor, but they exceed expected rates based on analysis of seat accelerometer data from airborne and drop tests of the vehicle. The yet to be answered question is whether spaceflight deconditioning renders crewmembers more susceptible to landing impact injuries. Another possibility is that the Soyuz landing load is higher than our current estimates. It could also be that our analytical tools are insufficient to predict injury rates accurately for space vehicles. A final possibility is that some combination of these factors are responsible.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires have been developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

Initial scope of this investigation included development of a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat to be used in conjunction with the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations would then be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses would be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons would allow for an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics. However, NASA has currently descoped this aspect of the investigation.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to multi-axial impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: NASA Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board (JSC IRB) approval for this investigation was obtained on June 16, 2016. The post-landing questionnaire was drafted and approved by the IRB. The Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB) approved the study in January 2017, extending the study to USOS crewmembers and spaceflight participants. The potential subject pool (from TM-34, which returned one USOS crewmember from International Space Station (ISS), to MS-17) is 96 total crew missions. Some crewmembers flew multiple missions, so the total number of astronauts is less than 96. Americans crewed 59 of these missions. USOS participants crewed 31 missions, and the remaining 6 spots were crewed by spaceflight participants. Two US and 1 USOS crewmember have declined participation in the study, reducing the total potential dataset to 93. This aim consists of data collection from two sources. One is flight medical records from a database maintained by the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). This data is only obtainable for US astronauts. To date, medical information from the database has been obtained for 48 of 50 crewmembers from TMA-1 through TMA-MS07. Two crewmembers from these missions declined release of their medical data. The other data source is from a survey that crewmembers are asked to complete. The survey can be completed by US and USOS astronauts, and spaceflight participants. The survey requires an additional consent process. Out of the 59 US crewed missions, 51 have consented to this part of the study, 6 have not responded, and 2 have declined. Of the 51 that have consented, 40 have completed the survey. Of the 31 USOS crewmembers, consent has been obtained from 22 crewmembers (1 crewmember declined). All 22 consented crew have completed the survey. The Research Operations and Integration element is working to obtain consent from the remaining 11 crewed missions. Informed consent was obtained from one spaceflight participant, who completed the survey bringing the total number of completed surveys to 63. A manuscript based on the data collected to date has been published in the Journal SAFE [Ed. note (Feb 2022): reported in FY2021 report as in press; in Bibliography here with link to publisher's site].

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Newby N, Greenhalgh P, Somers J. "Soyuz Landing risk characterization." SAFE Journal 39:1-6. https://www.safeassociation.com/index.cfm/page/safe-journal-articles-2020 , Dec-2020
Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2021  
Task Last Updated: 09/28/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Greenhalgh, Preston  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reiber, Teresa  M.S. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Rodriguez, Brian  University of Texas Medical Branch 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2020 Report: Added Brian Rodriguez as a co-investigator to assist with statistical analysis. Added Teresa Reiber as a co-investigator to assist with data collection and processing. August 2019 report: Preston Greenhalgh added to the project as a co-investigator. September 2018 report: Brett Siders and Jacob Putnam are no longer Co-Investigators. Nate Newby remains the PI, and Jeff Somers Co-I. September 2017 report: Brett Siders, University of Houston, and Jacob Putnam, KBRwyle, were added to the project as CoInvestigators. August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new Principal Investigator (PI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoInvestigator (CoI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2021 per PI (Ed., 9/28/20)

NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2020 per PI (Ed., 7/24/19)

NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2019 per PI (Ed., 9/18/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with Principal Investigator (PI) Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently the impact load imparted to crewmembers landing in the Soyuz vehicle is unknown. This study is the first systematic assessment of the number and types of injuries associated with Soyuz landing. To date, we have found than more than a third of US Orbital Segment (USOS) crewmembers are experiencing injuries. Most of these injuries are minor, but they exceed expected rates based on analysis of seat accelerometer data from airborne and drop tests of the vehicle. The yet to be answered question is whether spaceflight deconditioning renders crewmembers more susceptible to landing impact injuries. Another possibility is that the Soyuz landing load is higher than our current estimates. It could also be that our analytical tools are insufficient to predict injury rates accurately for space vehicles. A final possibility is that some combination of these factors are responsible.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires have been developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

Initial scope of this investigation included development of a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat to be used in conjunction with the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations would then be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses would be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons would allow for an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics. However, NASA has currently descoped this aspect of the investigation.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to multi-axial impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: NASA Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board (JSC IRB) approval for this investigation was obtained on June 16, 2016. The post-landing questionnaire was drafted and approved by the IRB. The Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB) approved the study in January 2017, extending the study to USOS crewmembers and spaceflight participants. The potential subject pool (from TM-34, which returned one USOS crewmember from International Space Station (ISS), to MS-15) is 94 total crew missions. Some crewmembers flew multiple missions, so the total number of astronauts is less than 94. Americans crewed 57 of these missions. USOS participants crewed 31 missions, and the remaining 6 spots were crewed by spaceflight participants. Two US and 1 USOS crewmember have declined participation in the study, reducing the total potential dataset to 91.

This aim consists of data collection from two sources. One is flight medical records from a database maintained by the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). This data is only obtainable for US astronauts. To date, medical information from the database has been obtained for 48 of 50 crewmembers from TMA-1 through TMA-MS07. Two crewmembers from these missions declined release of their medical data. The other data source is from a survey that crewmembers are asked to complete. The survey can be completed by US and USOS astronauts, and spaceflight participants. The survey requires an additional consent process. Out of the 57 US crewed missions, 49 have consented to this part of the study, 6 have not responded, and 2 have declined. Of the 49 that have consented, 38 have completed the survey. Of the 31 USOS crewmembers, consent has been obtained from 22 crewmembers (1 crewmember declined). All 22 consented crew have completed the survey. The Research Operations and Integration element is working to obtain consent from the remaining 11 crewed missions. Informed consent was obtained from one spaceflight participant, who completed the survey bringing the total number of completed surveys to 61. A manuscript based on the data collected to date has been accepted by the journal Safe.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Newby N, Greenhalgh P, Somers J. "Soyuz Landing Risk Characterization." SAFE Journal 39:1-6. In press as of September 2020. , Sep-2020
Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2020  
Task Last Updated: 07/24/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Greenhalgh, Preston  M.S. KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2019 report: Preston Greenhalgh added to the project as a co-investigator. September 2018 report: Brett Siders and Jacob Putnam are no longer Co-Investigators. Nate Newby remains the PI, and Jeff Somers Co-I. September 2017 report: Brett Siders, University of Houston, and Jacob Putnam, KBRwyle, were added to the project as CoInvestigators. August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new Principal Investigator (PI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoInvestigator (CoI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2020 per PI (Ed., 7/24/19)

NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2019 per PI (Ed., 9/18/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently the impact load imparted to crewmembers landing in the Soyuz vehicle is unknown. This study is the first systematic assessment of the number and types of injuries associated with Soyuz landing. To date, we have found than more than a third of US Orbital Segment (USOS) crewmembers are experiencing injuries. Most of these injuries are minor, but they exceed expected rates based on analysis of seat accelerometer data from airborne and drop tests of the vehicle. The yet be answered question is whether spaceflight deconditioning renders crewmembers more susceptible to landing impact injuries. Another possibility is that the Soyuz landing load is higher than our current estimates. It could also be that our analytical tools are insufficient to predict injury rates accurately for space vehicles. A final possibility is that some combination of these factors are responsible.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires have been developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

Initial scope of this investigation included development of a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat to be used in conjunction with the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations would then be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses would be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons would allow for an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics. However, NASA has currently descoped this aspect of the investigation.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: NASA Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board (JSC IRB) approval for this investigation was obtained on June 16, 2016. The post-landing questionnaire was drafted and approved by the IRB. The Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB) approved the study in January 2017, extending the study to USOS crewmembers and spaceflight participants. The potential subject pool (from TM-34, which returned one USOS crewmember from International Space Station (ISS), to MS-10) is 86 total crew missions. Some crewmembers flew multiple missions, so the total number of astronauts is less than 86. Americans crewed 52 of these missions. USOS participants crewed 28 missions, and the remaining 6 spots were crewed by spaceflight participants. 2 US and 1 USOS crewmember have declined participation in the study, reducing the total potential dataset to 83.

This aim consists of data collection from two sources. One is flight medical records from a database maintained by the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). This data is only obtainable for US astronauts. To date, medical information from the database has been obtained for 48 of 50 crewmembers from TMA-1 through TMA-MS07. Two crewmembers from these missions declined release of their medical data.

The other data source is from a survey that crewmembers are asked to complete. The survey can be completed by US and USOS astronauts, and spaceflight participants. The survey requires an additional consent process. Out of the 52 US crewed missions, 44 have consented to this part of the study, 6 have not responded, and 2 have declined. Of the 44 that have consented, 32 have completed the survey. Of the 28 USOS crewmembers, consent has been obtained from 17 crewmembers. 16 of the 17 have completed the survey, and 1 crewmember has declined. The ISS Medical Project is working to obtain consent from the remaining 11 crewed missions. Informed consent was obtained from one spaceflight participant, who completed the survey bringing the total number of completed surveys to 49.

A manuscript based on the data collected to date has been developed and submitted to the journal Safe.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Newby N, Greenhalgh P, Somers JT. "Soyuz Landing Risk Characterization." Presented at the SAFE Association 56th Annual Symposium, Reno, Nevada, October 15-17, 2018.

Abstracts. SAFE Association 56th Annual Symposium, Reno, Nevada, October 15-17, 2018. , Oct-2018

Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/15/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBRwyle Science, Engineering and Technology Group 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: September 2018 report: Brett Siders and Jacob Putnam are no longer Co-Investigators. Nate Newby remains the PI, and Jeff Somers Co-I. September 2017 report: Brett Siders, University of Houston, and Jacob Putnam, KBRwyle, were added to the project as CoInvestigators. August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new Principal Investigator (PI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoInvestigator (CoI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date change to 10/1/2019 per PI (Ed., 9/18/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently the impact load imparted to crewmembers landing in the Soyuz vehicle is unknown. This study is the first systematic assessment of the number and types of injuries associated with Soyuz landing. To date, we have found than more than a third of US Orbital Segment (USOS) crewmembers are experiencing injuries. Most of these injuries are minor, but they exceed expected rates based on analysis of seat accelerometer data from airborne and drop tests of the vehicle. The yet be answered question is whether spaceflight deconditioning renders crewmembers more susceptible to landing impact injuries. Another possibility is that the Soyuz landing load is higher than our current estimates. It could also be that our analytical tools are insufficient to predict injury rates accurately for space vehicles. A final possibility is that some combination of these factors are responsible.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires have been developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

Initial scope of this investigation included development of a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat to be used in conjunction with the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations would then be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses would be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons would allow for an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics. However, NASA has currently descoped this aspect of the investigation.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: NASA Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board (JSC IRB) approval for this investigation was obtained on June 16, 2016. The post-landing questionnaire was drafted and approved by the IRB. The Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB) approved the study in January 2017, extending the study to USOS crewmembers and spaceflight participants. The potential subject pool (from TM-34, which returned one USOS crewmember from International Space Station (ISS), to MS-07) is 81 total crew missions. Some crewmembers flew multiple missions, so the total number of astronauts is less than 81. Americans crewed 48 of these missions. USOS participants crewed 27 missions, and the remaining 6 spots were crewed by spaceflight participants. Two US crewmembers have declined participation in the study, reducing the total potential dataset to 79.

This study consists of data collection from two sources. One is flight medical records from a database maintained by the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). This data is only obtainable for US astronauts. To date, medical information from the database has been obtained for 36 of 38 crewmembers from TMA-1 through TMA-M18. Two crewmembers from these missions declined release of their medical data. Another request for data was made to LSAH in April 2018 for crews from TMA-M19 through present (MS-07), which will add another 10 crewmembers to the database. We are awaiting a data transfer.

The other data source is from a survey that crewmembers are asked to complete. The survey can be completed by US and USOS astronauts, and spaceflight participants. The survey requires an additional consent process. Out of the 48 US crewed missions, 40 have consented to this part of the study, 6 have not responded, and 2 have declined. Of the 40 that have consented, 28 have completed the survey. Of the 27 USOS crewmembers, consent has been obtained from 7 crewmembers. Six of the seven have completed the survey. The ISS Medical Project is working to obtain consent from the remaining 20 crewed missions. Informed consent was obtained from one spaceflight participant, who completed the survey bringing the total number of completed surveys to 35.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2019
Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2018  
Task Last Updated: 09/14/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBRwyle Science, Engineering and Technology Group 
Siders, Brett  M.S. University of Houston 
Putnam, Jacob  M.S. KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: September 2017 report: Brett Siders, University of Houston, and Jacob Putnam, KBRwyle, were added to the project as CoInvestigators. August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new Principal Investigator (PI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoInvestigator (CoI), KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently, it is unknown how the current Soyuz landing injuries and accelerations relate to the new requirements levied on new vehicles. Understanding this connection will allow better quantification of the risk of injury for current crewmembers as well as allow NASA to relate this risk to the new design requirements recently enacted.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires will be developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

In parallel, a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat will be developed and the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models will be fitted into the seat. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations will be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses will be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons will allow an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: The study has gone through select for flight through ISSMP (ISS Medical Project) and now includes all US Orbital Segment (USOS) crew plus space flight participants. Digitization of Soyuz drop test data traces has been performed and completed. To date, 36 out of 38 US crewmembers have provided consent to release of their Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data including landing-related injuries and pre-existing medical conditions. 14 of the 36 crewmembers experienced some type of injury related to the landing. Two additional injuries have been identified, but are confounded by pre-existing conditions. Most of the injuries are minor in nature, but 2 required some medical follow-up. Of the 36 crewmembers, 29 have consented to take part in the interview/survey sessions. To date 16 crewmembers have completed the interview/survey process. The study team is also in the process of obtaining survey data from Space Flight Participants (SFP). The post-flight Soyuz debriefs/interviews have been data mined to determine landing locations, weather, and terrain conditions at the landing site, parachute performance, and vehicle dynamics during impact for all of the Soyuz TMA landings. Seat accelerations have been discovered from full-vehicle Soyuz drop tests covering the range of expected impact velocities, angles, and ground conditions. From the data that has been recovered, we can begin to recreate the potential range of impact accelerations at landing based on survey crew responses and ground teams at the landing. An accelerometer is mounted to each of the three Soyuz seats and we are in pursuit of that data. A letter has been drafted to officially request seat acceleration data from our Russian colleagues. The Occupant Protection team has also developed an SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) request for a standalone accelerometer that could be attached to the head and /or spine of future crew members to capture human responses to the landing. Finite Element Modeling is slated for next year.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/10/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. KBRwyle Science, Engineering and Technology Group 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2016 report: Nathaniel Newby - new PI, KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Jeffrey T. Somers - now CoI, KBRwyle Science, Technology and Engineering Group; Michael Gernhardt - no longer a CoI
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently, it is unknown how the current Soyuz landing injuries and accelerations relate to the new requirements levied on new vehicles. Understanding this connection will allow better quantification of the risk of injury for current crewmembers as well as allow NASA to relate this risk to the new design requirements recently enacted.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires will be developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

In parallel, a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat will be developed and the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models will be fitted into the seat. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations will be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses will be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons will allow an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research benefits life on Earth by contributing to knowledge about how the body responds to impact, particularly after exposure to microgravity.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: This study is still in its early stages. Institutional Review Board approval has recently been received for this study, and approval to access crewmember medical data has also been approved. All but two crewmembers have given informed consent to date. Efforts to obtain Soyuz seat accelerations continue, and some encouraging high-level meetings have taken place.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2015  
End Date: 10/01/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/10/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Newby, Nathaniel  M.S. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/ 262 
2400 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: nathaniel.newby@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7749  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gernhardt, Michael  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Dynamic Loads:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) DL-101:We do not understand the risk of injury associated with crewed vehicle landings and how this risk relates to the desired acceptable risk. (IRP Rev H; update IRP Rev M) (Previous title: OP2; OP-01)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Task Description: NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Currently, it is unknown how the current Soyuz landing injuries and accelerations relate to the new requirements levied on new vehicles. Understanding this connection will allow better quantification of the risk of injury for current crewmembers as well as allow NASA to relate this risk to the new design requirements recently enacted.

The following are the specific aims for this task:

1. Collect retrospective post-landing questionnaire data and develop injury database

2. Determine the occurrence of landing injuries to crewmembers

3. Determine whether the Soyuz meets current Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requirements

4. Evaluate whether injury rates are consistent with the results of Finite Element (FE) modeling

Using data contained in the flight medicine databases, supplemented with data collected from crewmembers, flight surgeons, Russia sources, and international partner sources, an accurate estimation of the occurrences of injury during Soyuz landings will be determined. In addition, post-landing questionnaires will be developed for retrospective data collection to supplement the above sources.

Through collaboration with our Russian colleagues, information about Soyuz landings will be collected to determine the dynamics of landing. The goal will be to obtain actual landing accelerations for individual landings; however, this may not be possible. If not available, all available information about nominal and off-nominal landings will be collected to develop a statistical model of possible landing distributions.

In parallel, a Finite Element model of the Soyuz seat will be developed and the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR), Hybrid III, and Human FE models will be fitted into the seat. Using the landing data obtained or calculated, landing simulations will be conducted.

The resulting THOR, Hybrid III, and Human FE responses will be compared to the injury occurrences and current requirements. These comparisons will allow an estimation of the true risk of injury to deconditioned crew related to THOR and Hybrid III metrics.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to the required access to operational data and because of insufficient schedule available to solicit this work. Because of the sensitive nature of the Soyuz injury and landing acceleration data, it would be very difficult to perform this task outside of NASA. In addition, based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY18 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

NOTE: Original task was with PI Jeffrey Somers and period of performance 7/2/2014-10/31/2016; PI change with the delayed start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 8/10/16)

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/12/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016