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Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 08/01/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  M.D. University of Washington 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2019 report: Namni Goel, PhD, Principal Investigator (PI), relocated to Rush University Medical Center (RUMC) officially as of July 1, 2019. This grant is in the process of being transferred to RUMC and NASA grants and HFBP (Human Factors and Behavioral Performance) element management have been informed of the relocation. The grant has not yet been released by the University of Pennsylvania, and therefore all affiliations have been retained in their current state for this report. [Ed. note 12/27/19: due to Task Book system requirements, the PI's affiliation does now show as Rush University, with note about previous affiliation at University of Pennsylvania; a new grant at Rush has been awarded]
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2019 per NSSC information, due to PI moving to Rush University and new grant 80NSSC20K0243 issued (Ed., 7/27/2020)

NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2020 per NSSC information in September 2019 (Ed., 12/27/19)

NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/16/18)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/11/17)

Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability, stroke volume, and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project's research will deliver a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight. This information would also be of use on Earth in applied occupations that demand similar risks and stressors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: We integrated the complex, multifaceted five-day stress and sleep loss experiment into HERA and successfully collected data in all four 14-day 2015 and all four 30-day 2016 missions (N=32 crewmembers). These data include the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (190 blood markers; n=2 crewmembers did not participate in one biomarker assessment); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (382 saliva markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 blood pressure markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); stroke volume and cardiac output from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 stroke volume and cardiac output markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); and heart rate from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (189 heart rate markers: 3 heart rate monitor data points were not collected due to n=2 crewmembers mistakenly not turning on the heart rate device and n=1 crewmember not participating in one biomarker assessment; however, heart rate data collected from the echocardiography and/or blood pressure devices can be used as needed). We also have data from 11 neurobehavioral tests for 32 crewmembers (348 neurobehavioral tests; one crewmember did not participate in 4 neurobehavioral assessments). Almost all the missing data can be attributed to one crewmember who experienced a medical emergency. Finally, we have continuous actigraphy data on n=16 crewmembers for 14-days each (a total of 224 days of actigraphy) and on n=16 crewmembers for 30-days each (a total of 480 days of actigraphy).

Analyses of the wrist actigraphy data from the four 14-day HERA missions of 2015 (n=16) and the four 30-day HERA missions of 2016 (n=16) indicate crew members were compliant with the dictated sleep-wake times at baseline and recovery, and were not sleeping during the total sleep deprivation (TSD) night. As expected for these 32 crewmembers, on average, the performance variables show significant impairment with TSD (with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses). Thus, the sleep loss manipulation in HERA was highly effective.

We successfully completed a 17-day initial “shakedown” mission in November 2017 on N=6 subjects. Two miRNA samples were not collected due to blood flow issues with the blood draws, and one NTB (Neurobehavioral Test Battery) test bout was not collected; all other pilot data were successfully collected. We recently successfully completed a 4-month, long duration mission in NEK (Nezemnyy Eksperimental’nyy Kompleks, the new long-duration analog, IMBP--Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems facility) in July 2019 on N=6 subjects.

[Ed. note 7/27/2020: Project continues with same Principal Investigator Dr. Namni Goel at Rush University; see project with same title and grant # 80NSSC20K0243 for subsequent reporting]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis L, Ecker A. "Biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress in space flight." Presented at the 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

Human Research Program abstract book. 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis LE, Ecker AJ. "Heart rate is differentially altered by total sleep deprivation and psychological stress in resistant vs. vulnerable individuals and predicts cognitive performance." Presented at the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology Retreat, Philadelphia, PA, May 15, 2019.

Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology abstract book, May 15, 2019. , May-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis LE, Ecker AJ. "Heart rate is differentially altered by total sleep deprivation and psychological stress in resistant vs. vulnerable individuals and predicts cognitive performance." Presented at the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, San Antonio, TX, June 8-12, 2019.

Sleep. 2019;42(Abstract Suppl):A95. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz067.231 , Jun-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yamazaki EM, Goel N. "Robust stability of trait-like vulnerability or resilience to common types of sleep deprivation in a large sample of adults." Sleep. 2020 Jun 15;43(6):zsz292. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz292 ; PMID: 31784748 , Jun-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Goel N, Dinges DF. "Caloric and macronutrient intake and meal timing responses to repeated sleep restriction exposures separated by varying intervening recovery nights in healthy adults." Nutrients. 2020 Sep 3;12(9):E2694. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092694 ; PMID: 32899289 , Sep-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Malone SK, Peleckis AJ, Grunin L, Yu G, Jang S, Weimer J, Lee I, Rickels MR, Goel N. "Characterizing glycemic control and sleep in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness initiating hybrid closed loop insulin delivery." J Diabetes Res. 2021 Feb 12;2021:6611064. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6611064 ; PMID: 33628834; PMCID: PMC7896863 , Feb-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Gottlieb JF, Goel N, Chen S, Young MA. "Meta-analysis of sleep deprivation in the acute treatment of bipolar depression." Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2021 Apr;143(4):319-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13255 ; PMID: 33190220 , Apr-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Allison KC, Hopkins CM, Ruggieri M, Spaeth AM, Ahima RS, Zhang Z, Taylor DM, Goel N. "Prolonged, controlled daytime versus delayed eating impacts weight and metabolism." Curr Biol. 2021 Feb 8;31(3):650-7.e3. [Erratum in: Curr Biol. 2021 Feb 22;31(4):908] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.10.092 ; PMID: 33259790; PMCID: PMC7878354 , Feb-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yamazaki EM, Antler CA, Lasek CR, Goel N. "Residual, differential neurobehavioral deficits linger after multiple recovery nights following chronic sleep restriction or acute total sleep deprivation." Sleep. 2021 Apr 9;44(4):zsaa224. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsaa224 ; PMID: 33274389 , Apr-2021
Awards Goel N. "Elected Member, Strategic Planning Workshop, Sleep Research Society, 2018." Aug-2018
Awards Goel N. "Liaison, Pipeline Development Committee, Sleep Research Society, 2018-Present." Aug-2018
Awards Goel N. "Elected, Board of Directors, Sleep Research Society Foundation, 2018-Present." Aug-2018
Awards Goel N. "Elected, Board of Directors, Sleep Research Society, 2018-Present" Aug-2018
Awards Goel N. "Invited Member, Diabetes Research Center and Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 2019." Feb-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Sleep Loss Significantly Slows Metabolism & Fat Loss." Women’s Muscle Media digital magazine, October 2018., Oct-2018
Significant Media Coverage Johansson R. " 'Eating late at night linked to weight gain, diabetes and heart conditions.' Dr. Goel is interviewed in this article, which is also based on her research." Natural News, October 17, 2018. https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-10-17-eating-late-at-night-linked-to-weight-gain-diabetes-heart-conditions.html ; accessed 12/27/19., Oct-2018
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. " 'Sniff Your Way to Better Sleep with Natural, Healthy Aromatherapy.' Dr. Goel's sleep research is recommended for sleep aromatherapy." Restonic website blog, October 28, 2018., Oct-2018
Significant Media Coverage Brar P. " 'Late Night Eating: Hurting Your Health.' Dr. Goel's research is referenced." Communicating Science (2018w109). November 12, 2018., Nov-2018
Significant Media Coverage CountingSheep site. " 'Best Sleeping Pills OTC and Prescription Sleep Aids.' Dr. Goel's research is referenced." Counting Sheep blog. Updated April 2019. https://www.countingsheep.net/best-sleeping-pills/ ; accessed 12/27/19., Apr-2019
Significant Media Coverage Servick K. " 'Poor sleep could clog your arteries. A mouse study shows how that might happen.' Dr. Goel's research is referenced." Science magazine. February 13, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax0042 , Feb-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Knock on the blackboard! Nature: Sleep is important, it's about cardiovascular health." BioDiscover.com, February 2019., Feb-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Scientific hammer, sleep is interrupted, will promote arteriosclerosis." Will be Healthy website, February 2019., Feb-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Eating less at night alleviates sleep deprivation symptoms." Guida do Sono website, March 2019., Mar-2019
Significant Media Coverage Hill C. " 'This $8 product may be the secret to a better night’s sleep.' Dr. Goel's research is referenced." MarketWatch website, June 26, 2019. https://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-secret-to-a-better-nights-sleep-may-be-this-8-product-2019-04-04 ; accessed 12/29/19., Jun-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Buy this, not this: the secret of a better night's sleep may be this $8 product." CBD Sleep Disorders, April 2019., Apr-2019
Significant Media Coverage Migala J. " '21 Little Tricks to Get Your Best Night's Sleep Ever.' Dr. Goel's research is referenced." Woman’s Day. April 10, 2019., Apr-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Want to sleep well all night? Smell "this scent" before going to bed." World Journal. April 2019., Apr-2019
Significant Media Coverage Goel N. "Want to take a good sleep? American research points out: Lavender can effectively improve sleep quality." SETN.com April 2019., Apr-2019
Significant Media Coverage Brunk D. " 'Daytime eating schedule found to help with weight management.' Dr. Goel is interviewed and her research covered in this article; report from Sleep 2019 conference." MDedge News. June 22, 2019. https://www.mdedge.com/chestphysician/article/203398/sleep-medicine/daytime-eating-schedule-found-help-weight-management ; accessed 12/27/19., Jun-2019
Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/25/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  M.D. University of Washington 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2017 report: Ted Abel left the University of Pennsylvania and is no longer a Co-Investigator on the project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/16/18)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/11/17)

Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability, stroke volume, and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project's research will deliver a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight. This information would also be of use on Earth in applied occupations that demand similar risks and stressors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: We integrated the complex, multifaceted five-day stress and sleep loss experiment into HERA and successfully collected data in all four 14-day 2015 and all four 30-day 2016 missions (N=32 crewmembers). These data include the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (190 blood markers; n=2 crewmembers did not participate in one biomarker assessment); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (382 saliva markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 blood pressure markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); stroke volume and cardiac output from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 stroke volume and cardiac output markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); and heart rate from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (189 heart rate markers: 3 heart rate monitor data points were not collected due to n=2 crewmembers mistakenly not turning on the heart rate device and n=1 crewmember not participating in one biomarker assessment; however, heart rate data collected from the echocardiography and/or blood pressure devices can be used as needed). We also have data from 11 neurobehavioral tests for 32 crewmembers (348 neurobehavioral tests; one crewmember did not participate in 4 neurobehavioral assessments). Almost all of the missing data can be attributed to one crewmember who experienced a medical emergency. Finally, we have continuous actigraphy data on n=16 crewmembers for 14-days each (a total of 224 days of actigraphy) and on n=16 crewmembers for 30-days each (a total of 480 days of actigraphy).

Analyses of the wrist actigraphy data from the four 14-day HERA missions of 2015 (n=16) and the four 30-day HERA missions of 2016 (n=16) indicate crewmembers were compliant with the dictated sleep-wake times at baseline and recovery, and were not sleeping during the total sleep deprivation (TSD) night. As expected for these 32 crewmembers, on average, the performance variables show significant impairment with TSD (with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses). Thus, the sleep loss manipulation in HERA was highly effective.

We successfully completed a 17-day initial “shakedown” mission in November 2017 on N=6 subjects. Two miRNA samples were not collected due to blood flow issues with the blood draws, and one NTB (Neurobehavioral Test Battery) test bout was not collected; all other pilot data were successfully collected. We are currently preparing for a 4-month, long duration mission scheduled to begin in March 2019.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Goel N, Rao H, Hermosillo E, Dennis LE, Carlin PR, Trentalange M, Lin L, Mignot E. "Markers of susceptibility to neurobehavioral decrements in space flight." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis L, Ecker A. "Biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress in space flight." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zajko MJ, Taylor DM, Pearson-Leary J, Bhatnagar S, Goel N. "Peripheral microRNAs are altered by total sleep deprivation and psychological stress and predict cognitive performance in humans." Presented at the SLEEP 2018, 32nd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, Baltimore, MD, June 2-6, 2018.

Sleep. 2018 Apr;41(Abstract Suppl):A5-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy061.011 , Apr-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Moreno-Villanueva M, von Scheven G, Feiveson A, Bürkle A, Wu H, Goel N. "The degree of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is altered by acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress and is associated with cognitive performance in humans." Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, Netherlands, June 21-24, 2018.

30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, Netherlands, June 21-24, 2018. , Jun-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zajko MJ, Taylor DM, Pearson-Leary J, Bhatnagar S, Goel N. "Peripheral microRNAs are altered by total sleep deprivation and psychological stress and predict cognitive performance in humans." Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, Netherlands, June 21-24, 2018.

30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Groningen, Netherlands, June 21-24, 2018. , Jun-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dennis LE, Wohl RJ, Selame LA, Goel N. "Healthy adults display long-term trait-like neurobehavioral resilience and vulnerability to sleep loss." Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 2;7(1):14889. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14006-7 ; PubMed PMID: 29097703; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5668275 , Nov-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N. "Neurobehavioral effects and biomarkers of sleep loss in healthy adults." Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017 Sep 25;17(11):89. Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-017-0799-x ; PubMed PMID: 28944399 , Sep-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Allison KC, Goel N. "Timing of eating in adults across the weight spectrum: Metabolic factors and potential circadian mechanisms." Physiol Behav. 2018 Aug 1;192:158-66. Epub 2018 Feb 24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.02.047 ; PMID: 29486170 , Aug-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moreno-Villanueva M, von Scheven G, Feiveson A, Bürkle A, Wu H, Goel N. "The degree of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is altered by acute sleep deprivation and psychological stress and is associated with cognitive performance in humans." Sleep. 2018 Jul 1;41(7):zsy06. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy067 ; PMID: 29596659 , Jul-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Prasad B, Saxena R, Goel N, Patel SR. "Genetic ancestry for sleep research: Leveraging health inequalities to identify causal genetic variants." Chest. 2018 Jun;153(6):1478-96. Epub 2018 Mar 28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.03.024 ; PMID: 29604255 , Jun-2018
Awards Goel N. "Elected Member, International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force, Chronobiology and the Chronotherapeutic Treatment of Bipolar Disorders, March 2018." Mar-2018
Awards Goel N. "Elected Member, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Expert Panel, Drowsy Driving Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Study, July 2018." Jul-2018
Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 07/25/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  M.D. University of Washington 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Augusts 2017 report: Ted Abel left the University of Pennsylvania and is no longer a Co-Investigator on the project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/11/17)

Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability, stroke volume, and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C Reactive Protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project's research will deliver a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight. This information would also be of use on Earth in applied occupations that demand similar risks and stressors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: We integrated the complex, multifaceted five-day stress and sleep loss experiment into HERA and successfully collected data in all four 14-day 2015 and all four 30-day 2016 missions (N=32 crewmembers). These data include the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (190 blood markers; n=2 crewmembers did not participate in one biomarker assessment); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (382 saliva markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 blood pressure markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); stroke volume and cardiac output from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (191 stroke volume and cardiac output markers; n=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); and heart rate from 6 time points in 32 crewmembers (189 heart rate markers: 3 heart rate monitor data points were not collected due to n=2 crewmembers mistakenly not turning on the heart rate device and n=1 crewmember not participating in one biomarker assessment; however, heart rate data collected from the echocardiography and/or blood pressure devices can be used as needed). We also have data from 11 neurobehavioral tests for 32 crewmembers (348 neurobehavioral tests; one crewmember did not participate in 4 neurobehavioral assessments). Almost all of the missing data can be attributed to one crewmember who experienced a medical emergency. Finally, we have continuous actigraphy data on n=16 crewmembers for 14-days each (a total of 224 days of actigraphy) and on n=16 crewmembers for 30-days each (a total of 480 days of actigraphy).

Analyses of the wrist actigraphy data from the four 14-day HERA missions of 2015 (n=16) and the four 30-day HERA missions of 2016 (n=16) indicate crewmembers were compliant with the dictated sleep-wake times at baseline and recovery, and were not sleeping during the total sleep deprivation (TSD) night. As expected for these 32 crewmembers, on average, the performance variables show significant impairment with TSD (with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses). Thus, the sleep loss manipulation in HERA was highly effective.

Preparation for participation in a 2-week mission in the IBMP (Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems) NEK (Nezemnyy Eksperimental’nyy Kompleks) analog scheduled for November 2017 is currently ongoing, with planned participation in a 4-month mission in 2018.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dennis L, Ecker A, Goel N. "Individual differences in neurobehavioral and affective responses to stress and sleep loss in 14-day and 30-day HERA mission crewmembers." Presented at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis L, Ecker A, Bhatnagar S, Kirkpatrick J, Weljie A. "Biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress in space flight." Presented at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Goel N, Rao H, McGuire S, Hermosillo E, Dennis LE, Carlin PR, Trentalange M, Lin L, Mignot E. "Markers of susceptibility to neurobehavioral decrements in space flight." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dennis LE, Spaeth AM, Goel N. "Phenotypic stability of energy balance responses to experimental total sleep deprivation and sleep restriction in healthy adults." Nutrients. 2016 Dec;8(12):823. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120823 ; PubMed PMID: 27999367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5188476 , Dec-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. "Objective measurements of energy balance and sleep architecture are associated in healthy adults." Sleep. 2017 Jan 1;40(1):zsw018. PubMed PMID: 27634803 ; https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw018 , Jan-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zhang SL, Bai L, Goel N, Bailey A, Jang CJ, Bushman FD, Meerlo P, Dinges DF, Sehgal A. "Human and rat gut microbiome composition is maintained following sleep restriction." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Feb 21;114(8):E1564-71. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620673114 ; PubMed PMID: 28179566; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5338418 , Feb-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N. "Genetic markers of sleep and sleepiness." Sleep Med Clin. 2017 Sep;12(3):289-99. Review. Epub 2017 May 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2017.03.005 ; PubMed PMID: 28778228 , Sep-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Boland EM, Rao H, Dinges DF, Smith RV, Goel N, Detre JA, Basner M, Sheline YI, Thase ME, Gehrman PR. "Meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of acute sleep deprivation." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2017 Sep/Oct;78(8):e1020-e1034. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16r11332 ; PubMed PMID: 28937707 [Note: reported originally in August 2017 as "in press"] , Sep-2017
Awards Goel N. "The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (Member, Committee on NASA Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks), January 2017." Jan-2017
Books/Book Chapters Goel N. "Genetics in sleep medicine." in "Review of Sleep Medicine. 4th edition. (in press)" Ed. A. Avidan. Elsevier, in press as of August 2017. Expected publication September 2017., Aug-2017
Books/Book Chapters Goel N. "Jetlag." in "The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology." Ed. A.E. Wenzel. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc., 2017. p. 1911-1912., Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Goel N. "Sleep-Wake Disorders: Overview." in "The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology." Ed. A.E. Wenzel. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc., 2017. p. 3190-3198., Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Goel N. "Light Therapy." in "The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. " Ed. A.E. Wenzel. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc., 2017. p. 1969-1973., Apr-2017
NASA Technical Documents Committee to Review NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks. Goel N was co-author and committee member. "Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report." Washington, DC : The National Academies Press, 2017. C.E.H. Scott-Conner, D.R. Masys, C.T. Liverman (editors). , Jan-2017
Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 07/28/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Abel, Ted  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  University of Washington 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is 9/30/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/11/17)

Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability, stroke volume, and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C Reactive Protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project's research will deliver a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight. This information would also be of use on Earth in applied occupations that demand similar risks and stressors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: We have integrated the complex, multifaceted five-day stress and sleep loss experiment into HERA and successfully collected data in all four 14-day 2015 missions (N=16 crewmembers). These data include the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 16 crewmembers (95 blood markers; N=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 16 crewmembers (190 saliva markers; N=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 16 crewmembers (95 blood pressure markers; N=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); stroke volume and cardiac output from 6 time points in 16 crewmembers (95 stroke volume and cardiac output markers; N=1 crewmember did not participate in one biomarker assessment); and heart rate from 6 time points in 16 crewmembers (93 heart rate markers: 3 heart rate monitor data points were not collected due to N=2 crewmembers mistakenly not turning on the heart rate device and N=1 crewmember not participating in one biomarker assessment; however, heart rate data collected from the echocardiography and/or blood pressure devices can be used as needed). We also have data from 11 neurobehavioral tests for 16 crewmembers (172 neurobehavioral tests; one crewmember did not participate in 4 neurobehavioral assessments). Almost all of the missing data can be attributed to one crewmember who experienced a medical emergency. Finally, we have continuous actigraphy data on N=16 subjects for 14-days each (a total of 224 days of actigraphy).

In the first two 30-day missions of 2016, all project data were successfully collected. These data include the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 8 crewmembers (48 blood markers); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 8 crewmembers (96 saliva markers); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 8 crewmembers (48 blood pressure markers); stroke volume and cardiac output from 6 time points in 8 crewmembers (48 stroke volume and cardiac output markers); and heart rate from 6 time points in 8 crewmembers (48 heart rate markers). We also have data from 11 neurobehavioral tests for 8 crewmembers (88 neurobehavioral tests). The third mission is currently ongoing, and the last mission of 2016 will begin in September. It is projected that biomarker, neurobehavioral, and actigraphy data collection will continue successfully and by the end of the last mission we will have data from a total of N=16 subjects in 30-day missions.

Analyses of the wrist actigraphy data from the four 14-day HERA missions of 2015 (N=16) and the two 30-day HERA missions of 2016 indicate crew members (N=8) are compliant with the dictated sleep-wake times at baseline and recovery, and are not sleeping during the total sleep deprivation (TSD) night. As expected for these 24 crewmembers, on average, the performance variables show significant impairment with TSD (with individual differences in responses). Thus, the sleep loss manipulation in HERA has been highly effective.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Dennis L, Ecker A, Abel T, Basner M, Bhatnagar S, Dinges DF, Kirkpatrick J, Weljie A. "Biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress in space flight." Presented at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dennis L, Ecker A, Goel N. "Crewmembers show deficits and individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to.stress and sleep loss in HERA 14-day missions. " Presented at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Sengupta A, Meerlo P, Abel T, Sehgal A, Weljie AM, Dinges DF. "Biomarkers for predicting susceptibility or resilience to sleep loss: implications for personalized countermeasures." Presented at the 87th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, April 24-28, 2016.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016 Mar;87(3):274. , Mar-2016

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, McGuire S, Goel N, Rao H, Dinges DF. "A new likelihood ratio metric for the Psychomotor Vigilance Test and its sensitivity to sleep loss." J Sleep Res. 2015 Dec;24(6):702-13. Epub 2015 Jun 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12322 ; PMID: 26118830 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. "Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec;23(12):2349-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21198 ; PMID: 26538305 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4701627 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. "Response to: 'Can racial differences in resting metabolic rate be explained by body composition?' " Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Jun;24(6):1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21525 ; PMID: 27145242 , Jun-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. "Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults." Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 8;5:14920. Epub 2016 May 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14920 ; PubMed PMID: 26446681 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4597338 , Oct-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N. "Probing personalized genetic platforms for novel molecular clues for circadian chronotype." Ann Transl Med. 2016 May;4(10):207. http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2016.05.25 ; PubMed PMID: 27294243; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4885892 , May-2016
Awards Goel N. "Distinguished Visiting Scholar, University of South Australia, January 2016." Jan-2016
Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 08/02/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Abel, Ted  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  M.D. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability, stroke volume and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C Reactive Protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project's research will deliver a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight. This information would also be of use on Earth in applied occupations that demand similar risks and stressors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: We have successfully integrated the complex, multifaceted five-day stress and sleep loss experiment into HERA. We have successfully collected data in the first three missions of 2015 (N=12 subjects). This includes the following biomarkers: blood markers from 6 time points in 12 subjects (72 blood markers); 2 saliva markers each from 6 time points in 12 subjects (144 saliva markers); blood pressure markers from 6 time points in 12 subjects (72 blood pressure markers); stroke volume from 6 time points in 12 subjects (72 stroke volume markers); cardiac output from 6 time points in 12 subjects (72 cardiac output markers); and heart rate from 6 time points in 12 subjects. [70 heart rate markers-- two heart rate monitor data points (one each from two different crew members) were not collected due to the crewmembers mistakenly not turning the heart rate device on. However, we can use heart rate collected from the echocardiography and/or blood pressure devices, as needed.] We also have 11 neurobehavioral tests for 12 subjects (132 neurobehavioral tests). Finally, we have continuous actigraphy data on N=12 subjects for 14-days each (a total of 168 days of actigraphy). The last mission of 2015 will begin in August. It is projected that biomarker, neurobehavioral, and actigraphy data collection will continue successfully and by the end of the mission we will data from a total of N=16 subjects.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Goel N, Abel T, Basner M, Bhatnagar S, Dinges D, Kirkpatrick J, Weljie A. "Biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress in space flight." Presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N, Abe T, Braun ME, Dinges DF. "Cognitive workload and sleep restriction interact to influence sleep homeostatic responses." Sleep. 2014 Nov 1;37(11):1745-56. PMID: 25364070 , Nov-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N, Bale TL, Epperson CN, Kornstein SG, Leon GR, Palinkas LA, Stuster JW, Dinges DF. "Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health." J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Nov;23(11):975-86. Review. PMID: 25259837 , Nov-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spaeth AM, Goel N, Dinges DF. "Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products." Nutr Rev. 2014 Oct;72 Suppl 1:34-47. Review. PMID: 25293542 , Oct-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Weljie AM, Meerlo P, Goel N, Sengupta A, Kayser MS, Abel T, Birnbaum MJ, Dinges DF, Sehgal A. "Oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3 are cross-species markers of sleep debt." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 24;112(8):2569-74. PMID: 25675494 , Feb-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N. " "Omics” approaches for sleep and circadian rhythm research: Biomarkers for identifying differential vulnerability to sleep loss." Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 2015 Mar;1(1):38-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40675-014-0003-7 , Mar-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N, Basner M, Dinges DF. "Phenotyping of neurobehavioral vulnerability to circadian phase during sleep loss." Methods Enzymol. 2015;552:285-308. PMID: 25707282 , Feb-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, McGuire S, Goel N, Rao H, Dinges DF. "A new likelihood ratio metric for the Psychomotor Vigilance Test and its sensitivity to sleep loss." J Sleep Res. 2015 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12322 ; PMID: 26118830 , Jun-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N. "Parsing race by genetic ancestry." Sleep. 2015 Aug;38(8):1151-2. Editorial. PMID: 26194571 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4876 , Aug-2015
Books/Book Chapters Abe T, Goel N, Basner M, Mollicone D, Rao H, Dinges DF. "Integration of sleep need and fatigue mitigation into human systems operation." in "APA handbook of human systems integration." Ed. D.F. Boehm-Davis, F.T. Durso, J.D. Lee. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, c2015, p. 177-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14528-012 , Apr-2015
Project Title:  Biomarkers as Predictors of Resiliency and Susceptibility to Stress in Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 09/10/2014 
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Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Goel, Namni  Ph.D. / Rush University Medical Center 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory 
1645 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 425 
Chicago , IL 60612 
Email: namni_goel@rush.edu 
Phone: 312-563-4726  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rush University Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Formerly at the University of Pennsylvania until July 2019. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Abel, Ted  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Bhatnagar, Seema  Ph.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Kirkpatrick, James  M.D. Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania 
Weljie, Aalim  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AN49G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AN49G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 04:We need to identify indicators of individual vulnerabilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2017 (from 09/30/2018) per PI and NSSC information (Ed., June 2015)

Task Description: This proposal is responsive to the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance gap (BMed5) to find individual characteristics that predict successful adaptation and performance in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment, especially for long duration missions. The project also relates to Human Research Program (HRP) Sleep Gap 4 to identify indicators of individual susceptibilities and resiliencies to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption, to aid with individualized countermeasure regimens, for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration missions. The proposal is also responsive to BMed 1 and BMed 2, and Sleep Gap 2 and Sleep Gap 9. To address these gaps, this proposal will assess biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility (individual differences) to performance stress and sleep loss using the HRP Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) high fidelity space analog facilities. We will conduct a ground-based experiment—strongly anchored in our previous laboratory-based research—on N=32 healthy men and women (ages 26-55) in the HERA facility (short-duration analog) and on N=6 healthy men and women (ages 21-65) in the HI-SEAS facility (long-duration analog) to determine the predictive validity of a set of relevant, valid, and reliable biomarkers for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of the combination of high performance demands and total sleep deprivation (TSD) stressors—two conditions commonly experienced in space flight. These biomarkers include the following: cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability, stroke volume and cardiac output), salivary cortisol, catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline), an inflammatory marker (C Reactive Protein; CRP), metabolomic markers (via unbiased metabolomics), and microRNAs (epigenetic markers). The project deliverable will be a countermeasure (set of diverse biomarkers) for distinguishing those who are more resilient versus those who are more susceptible to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of high performance demands and sleep loss stressors. If valid markers of such susceptibility can be found, it will be possible to optimize and individualize crew resources, and mitigate stress and other behavioral health and performance risks autonomously during long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/09/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2015