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Project Title:  Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 09/27/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 10/28/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cooper, Maya  M.S. / Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: maya.cooper@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.1892  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Douglas, Grace  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Douglas, Grace  
Center Contact:  
grace.l.douglas@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-03:SHFH We need to identify the methods, technologies, and requirements that will deliver a food system that provides adequate safety, nutrition, and acceptability for proposed long-duration Design Reference Mission operations. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT4-What technologies can be developed that will efficiently balance appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, and crew time during exploration missions with the safety, nutrition, and acceptability requirements?)
Task Description: NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide the necessary nutrition to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. To this end, the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Program has identified several desired nutrients, optimally delivered from food sources, with the potential to benefit health beyond nutritional maintenance. It is expected that these nutrients, and any nutrients identified in the future, will be required to be delivered in the food system to mitigate or prevent health issues, and that determination of compatible formulation, processing, and storage conditions will enable these functional foods to meet shelf life requirements. The purpose of this task is to determine the current concentrations of these previously unmeasured nutrients in the food system and their stability to different processing conditions, formulation matrices, and storage temperatures reflective of potential vehicle architecture to inform functional food capabilities and requirements development for long duration spaceflight.

Milestones and Deliverables: The study duration was 3 years. Analysis of existing nutritional data, the assessment of additional nutrients in existing food over time, and characterization of food matrices encompassed much of the study and occurred concurrently throughout the study. The final data will be provided in the Life Sciences Data Archive to assist fellow researchers with questions on feasibility of and food availability for functional food countermeasures in the spaceflight food system.

At the conclusion of this task, researchers delivered a baseline assessment of functional foods within the current International Space Station (ISS) food system as well as provided requirements for the development of functional foods in the space food system.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research is on the forefront of establishing functional food concentrations in processed foods whereas the current research focus only considers whole, generally fresh, foods. The data will allow efforts for high nutrition to all populations regardless of access to fresh food. Consequently, the benefits of healthful diet can be extended as well.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The task was completed in September 2016. This study evaluated the stability of certain bioactive compounds in existing International Space Station food provisions such that the feasibility of supplying functional foods within a space food system as a countermeasure to health and performance decrements health would be known.

The status and stability of bioactive compounds in the processed and shelf-stable spaceflight food system has not previously been investigated though the presence of such compounds in foods at the end of a five-year shelf life could have health significance for crews on long exploration missions. Twelve foods that were predicted to have a significant concentration, or a concentration significantly greater than most spaceflight foods, of bioactive compounds (lycopene, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, sterols, and flavonoids) were selected for the study from the International Space Station (ISS) food provisions. Food samples were sent overnight to the Food Composition Laboratory of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR) for bioactive compound analysis. Three packages of each product were blended together for the analysis to reduce package-to-package variability. Samples were analyzed initially and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of storage, dependent upon storage temperature (4°C, 21°C, or 35°C).

Efficacious concentrations of lycopene, lutein, and omega-3 fatty acids were measured in limited spaceflight foods, but a meal plan addressing health issues requiring these compounds could not be created without a secondary risk of menu fatigue. Likewise, two grams of sterols a day may be difficult to achieve with the current space diet. Total polyphenol delivery appears stable and adequate, but individual phenolic compounds vary in stability and were not specifically evaluated in this study. The data suggests that some bioactive compounds, like lycopene and lutein, degrade and then plateau at some equilibrium concentration. The anthocyanin stability appears to be related to storage temperature and processing method, and lutein stability in leafy vegetables may be impacted by storage temperature. This work indicates that cold storage, increased variety, and processing optimization will be required to provide and sustain several bioactive compounds in current spaceflight foods. Implementation of countermeasures will require validation to five years to enable provisioning of an acceptable food system for a mission to Mars.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/23/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bermudez-Aguirre D, Cooper MR, Douglas G, Smith S. "Development and provision of functional foods to promote health on long-duration space missions." Presented at 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160001747 , Feb-2016

Project Title:  Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 09/27/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 09/29/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cooper, Maya  M.S. / Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: maya.cooper@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.1892  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Douglas, Grace  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-03:SHFH We need to identify the methods, technologies, and requirements that will deliver a food system that provides adequate safety, nutrition, and acceptability for proposed long-duration Design Reference Mission operations. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT4-What technologies can be developed that will efficiently balance appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, and crew time during exploration missions with the safety, nutrition, and acceptability requirements?)
Task Description: NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide the necessary nutrition to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. To this end, the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Program has identified several desired nutrients, optimally delivered from food sources, with the potential to benefit health beyond nutritional maintenance. It is expected that these nutrients, and any nutrients identified in the future, will be required to be delivered in the food system to mitigate or prevent health issues, and that determination of compatible formulation, processing, and storage conditions will enable these functional foods to meet shelf life requirements. The purpose of this task is to determine the current concentrations of these previously unmeasured nutrients in the food system and their stability to different processing conditions, formulation matrices, and storage temperatures reflective of potential vehicle architecture to inform functional food capabilities and requirements development for long duration spaceflight.

Milestones and Deliverables: The study duration is 3 years. Analysis of existing nutritional data, the assessment of additional nutrients in existing food over time, and characterization of food matrices encompass much of the study and occur concurrently throughout the study. The SharePoint development work will proceed throughout the course of the study with development in the first half and a supported go-live state for the latter part of the study period.

At the conclusion of this task, researchers will deliver a baseline assessment of functional foods within the current International Space Station (ISS) food system as well as provide requirements for the development of functional foods in the space food system.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research is on the forefront of establishing functional food concentrations in processed foods whereas the current research focus only considers whole, generally fresh, foods. The data will allow efforts for high nutrition to all populations regardless of access to fresh food. Consequently, the benefits of healthful diet can be extended as well.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: The study hypothesis is that foods will sustain functional ingredients for an extended shelf life if compatible formulation, processing, and storage conditions are achieved. Current spaceflight foods are being evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf life correlates with the expected storage duration during the mission.

Twelve foods that were thought to have a significant concentration, or a concentration significantly greater than most spaceflight foods, of bioactive compounds (lycopene, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, sterols, and flavonoids) were selected for the study from the International Space Station food provisions. Recently produced food samples were sent by overnight shipment to the Food Composition Laboratory of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR) for bioactive compound analysis. Three packages of each product were blended together for the analysis to reduce package-to-package variability. Samples were analyzed initially and after 3, 6, and 12 months of storage, dependent upon storage temperature (4°C, 21°C, or 35°C) within the Space Food Systems Laboratory environmental chambers. Final storage analysis will occur at 2 years.

The ability to provision high-lycopene, high-lutein, or high-omega-3 fatty acid foods within the spaceflight food system has been demonstrated by the identification of the foods of this study and their initial chemical analysis. Sterols can be supplied through cumulative diet; however, a single food with adequate sterol content for functionality is unlikely. Total polyphenol delivery appears stable and adequate, however the physiological relevance of the overall stability is currently unknown in relation to the importance and stability of individual phenolic compounds that were not specifically evaluated in this study. The stability of bioactive compounds within the identified foods varies with the bioactive compound and the storage temperature. The data would seem to suggest that some bioactive compounds, like lycopene, lutein, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and rice sterols, plateau at some equilibrium concentration. The anthocyanin stability is greatly related to storage conditions as is lutein stability in leafy vegetables. The sterol stability in nuts would seem to relate to storage duration but not temperature. More data is needed to confirm these observations.

Some bioactive compounds can be supplied across the space food system through a variety of foods. However, omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, and lutein are found in very specific food items. The ISS provisioning menu likely does not have a variety of foods with these specific bioactive compounds to fully institute a meal plan to address those health issues requiring compound-specific mitigation without creating a secondary issue of menu fatigue. It is yet unknown whether the bioactive compounds will remain stable over the extended shelf life of five years required for a Mars mission. The functionality only exists if the chemical stability of the compounds maintains the efficacious structure for a long shelf life. Hence, the viability of functional foods for spaceflight, or stabilization countermeasures if necessary, has yet to be established.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/23/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bermudez-Aguirre L, Cooper M. "Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis." Presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 13-15, 2015.

Abstract Book, 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Project Title:  Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 09/27/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 09/25/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cooper, Maya  M.S. / Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: maya.cooper@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.1892  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Douglas, Grace  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-03:SHFH We need to identify the methods, technologies, and requirements that will deliver a food system that provides adequate safety, nutrition, and acceptability for proposed long-duration Design Reference Mission operations. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT4-What technologies can be developed that will efficiently balance appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, and crew time during exploration missions with the safety, nutrition, and acceptability requirements?)
Task Description: NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide the necessary nutrition to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. To this end, the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Program has identified several desired nutrients, optimally delivered from food sources, with the potential to benefit health beyond nutritional maintenance. It is expected that these nutrients, and any nutrients identified in the future, will be required to be delivered in the food system to mitigate or prevent health issues, and that determination of compatible formulation, processing, and storage conditions will enable these functional foods to meet shelf life requirements. The purpose of this task is to determine the current concentrations of these previously unmeasured nutrients in the food system and their stability to different processing conditions, formulation matrices, and storage temperatures reflective of potential vehicle architecture to inform functional food capabilities and requirements development for long duration spaceflight.

Milestones and Deliverables: The study duration is 3 years. Analysis of existing nutritional data, the assessment of additional nutrients in existing food over time, and characterization of food matrices encompass much of the study and occur concurrently throughout the study. The SharePoint development work will proceed throughout the course of the study with development in the first half and a supported go-live state for the latter part of the study period.

At the conclusion of this task, researchers will deliver a baseline assessment of functional foods within the current ISS food system as well as provide requirements for the development of functional foods in the space food system.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research is on the forefront of establishing functional food concentrations in processed foods whereas the current research focus only considers whole, generally fresh, foods. The data will allow efforts for high nutrition to all populations regardless of access to fresh food. Consequently, the benefits of healthful diet can be extended as well.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Twelve foods that were thought to have a significant concentration, or a concentration significantly greater than most spaceflight foods, of bioactive compounds (lycopene, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, sterols, and flavonoids) were selected for the study from the International Space Station food provisions. Recently produced food samples were sent by overnight shipment to the Food Composition Laboratory of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR) for bioactive compound analysis. Three packages of each product were blended together for the analysis to reduce package-to-package variability. Duplicate samples of the food were placed in 4°C, 21°C, and 35°C environmental chambers within the Space Food Systems Laboratory for storage and re-analysis at periodic time points.

The initial assessment of functional foods within the current spaceflight food system is mixed. Current processing technologies are adequate to provide high-lycopene, high-lutein, or high-omega-3 fatty acid foods within the spaceflight food system, at least at the beginning of shelf life, as demonstrated by the identification of the foods of this study and their initial chemical analysis. As expected, the kale, salmon, and cheese tortellini products had great amounts of their respective bioactive compounds. Sterol concentrations coincided with the sterol concentrations in the average diet. The antioxidant capability of the foods - cumulatively if not individually - is also projected to be adequate and representative of a balanced diet.

Yet, the use of foods for health benefit in space could be a challenge with the current menu. The limited identification of foods with high bioactive compound concentrations highlighted the fact that the ISS provisioning menu likely does not have a variety of foods with specific bioactive compounds to fully institute a meal plan to address those health issues requiring compound-specific mitigation without creating a secondary issue of menu fatigue. Additionally, it is yet unknown whether the bioactive compounds will remain stable over the extended shelf life of five years required for a Mars mission. The balance of the menu appears to be well-suited to address those health concerns benefiting from chemical structure-specific mitigation, i.e. polyphenolic supplementation for antioxidative properties, provided that the chemical stability of the compounds maintains the structure for a long shelf life.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/23/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014
Project Title:  Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 09/27/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 09/25/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cooper, Maya  M.S. / Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: maya.cooper@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.1892  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ferrer, Mike  MEI Technologies 
Douglas, Grace  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-03:SHFH We need to identify the methods, technologies, and requirements that will deliver a food system that provides adequate safety, nutrition, and acceptability for proposed long-duration Design Reference Mission operations. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT4-What technologies can be developed that will efficiently balance appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, and crew time during exploration missions with the safety, nutrition, and acceptability requirements?)
Task Description: NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide the necessary nutrition to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. To this end, the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Program has identified several desired nutrients, optimally delivered from food sources, with the potential to benefit health beyond nutritional maintenance. It is expected that these nutrients, and any nutrients identified in the future, will be required to be delivered in the food system to mitigate or prevent health issues, and that determination of compatible formulation, processing, and storage conditions will enable these functional foods to meet shelf life requirements. The purpose of this task is to determine the current concentrations of these previously unmeasured nutrients in the food system and their stability to different processing conditions, formulation matrices, and storage temperatures reflective of potential vehicle architecture to inform functional food capabilities and requirements development for long duration spaceflight.

Milestones and Deliverables: The study duration is 3 years. Analysis of existing nutritional data, the assessment of additional nutrients in existing food over time, and characterization of food matrices encompass much of the study and occur concurrently throughout the study. The SharePoint development work will proceed throughout the course of the study with development in the first half and a supported go-live state for the latter part of the study period.

At the conclusion of this task, researchers will deliver a baseline assessment of functional foods within the current ISS food system as well as provide requirements for the development of functional foods in the space food system.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: New project for FY2013.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/23/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2013