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Project Title:  Composing and Developing Resilient, Adaptive, and Self-Sustaining Teams for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2011  
End Date: 03/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 07/14/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Alliger, George  The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Mathieu, John  University of Connecticut 
Salas, Eduardo  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AR22G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AR22G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 04:We need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(4) Team Gap 06:We need to identify methods to support and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy during long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2016, per NSSC information (Ed., 4/14/15)

NOTE: End date is now 4/30/2015, per NSSC information (Ed., 7/14/14)

Task Description: Flight crews in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions are isolated for prolonged periods with access to only limited, time-lagged communications with ground operations. This creates numerous team-related challenges. Under such conditions, a single crew member who is a "poor fit" can jeopardize mission effectiveness, and even a well-formed team must adapt during its time together to remain effective. The proposed research addresses how best to compose an LDSE team, as well as how to use subsequent team countermeasures to optimize team resilience, adaptability, and viability during a mission.

The research program represents a synthesis of existing technologies and knowledge, and the advancement of new methods and applications, all grounded in the unique demands of LDSE. We consider team effectiveness as not only traditional task performance, but also, given the LDSE setting and mission, team sustainability and resilience over time. Based on a synthesis of existing research, input from subject matter experts, and new empirical studies, we will recommend evidence-based guidelines for composing LDSE flight teams, identify diagnostic measures to guide preemptive actions, and prototype a self-sustainment countermeasure to address psychosocial vulnerabilities.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The isolation and time-lagged communications that astronauts experience in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) can create numerous team-related challenges (Caldwell, 2005; Dion, 2004; Halbesleben, Bowler, 2007; Schmidt, Keeton, Slack, Leveton, & Shea, 2009). Mitigating these challenges involves not only selecting appropriate crew members but also ensuring that they have sufficient team resilience, adaptability, and vitality to meet the demands of LDSE. This multi-year effort focuses on assisting the LDSE team formation process by extending traditional team member selection models to integrate teamwork and psychosocial requirements with traditional position and mission requirements; utilizing longitudinal multiplex network analysis techniques to better diagnose and anticipate challenges to team coordination and effectiveness before they evolve into problems that could impact team viability and mission success; helping teams sustain their performance and coordination over the duration of the mission by building upon existing debriefing techniques and developing diagnostic-driven, team-guided countermeasures that address psychosocial needs and vulnerabilities as well as more traditional team development needs.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: FINAL REPORTING AS OF JULY 2016

gOE has integrated and synthesized relevant research on team composition and developed an understanding of the requirements of an LDSE mission. As a result, we view composition as a co-variate, resilience as a key measure, and debriefing as a countermeasure. We also recognize the potential importance of unobtrusive measurement.

During Year 4, we analyzed data gathered in a lab setting. We also gathered additional data in two analog settings: a) at Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), a confined environment with teams of adults performing a 7-day or 14- day mission, and b) with a second team of astronauts during a ASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) undersea training mission.

More specifically, we gathered a set of team measures, including new measures of team resilience and living preferences; and tested team self-sustaining debriefs as a target countermeasure.

During our final year of the grant, we completed the analysis of our studies, integrated the results, and summarized the findings. The pattern of results confirmed that the team debriefing countermeasure is a viable tool for sustaining team resilience and in turn, team performance.

ANNUAL REPORT--JULY 2015: gOE has integrated and synthesized relevant research on team composition and developed an understanding of the requirements of an LDSE mission. As a result, we view composition as a co-variate, resilience as a key measure, and debriefing as a countermeasure. We also recognize the potential importance of unobtrusive measurement. Our prior work established the basis for our Year 4 empirical research studies.

Proposed tasks for Year 4 included testing the team composition variables, team diagnostics, and/or targeted countermeasure with a ground based sample.

During Year 4, we made progress on the proposed tasks. We analyzed data gathered in a lab setting. We also gathered additional data in two analog settings: a) at Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), a confined environment with teams of adults performing a 7-day or 14- day mission, and b) with a second team of astronauts during a NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) undersea training mission.

More specifically, we gathered a set of team measures, including new measures of team resilience and living preferences; and tested team self-sustaining debriefs as a target countermeasure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the debriefing countermeasure has a positive effect on team resilience and performance and is viewed positively by team members.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI, Kukenberger MR, Donsbach JS, Alliger GM. "Team role experience and orientation: A measure and tests of construct validity." Group and Organization Management. 2015 Feb;40(1):6-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601114562000 , Feb-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kozlowski SWJ, Miller CA, Mathieu JE, Vessey WB. "Teams in space exploration: A new frontier for the science of team effectiveness." Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2015 Jun;24(3):200-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721414566448 , Jun-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Alliger GM, Cerasoli CP, Tannenbaum SI, Vessey WB. "Team resilience: How teams flourish under pressure." Organizational Dynamics. 2015 Jul-Sep;44(3):176-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2015.05.003 , Jul-2015
Books/Book Chapters Lacerenza C, Gregory M, Marshall A, Salas E. "Debriefs: The learning meeting." in "The Cambridge Handbook of Meeting Science." Ed. J. Allen, N. Lehmann-Willenbrock, S.G. Rogelberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press as of July 2016., Jul-2016
Dissertations and Theses Woods AL. "Examining the relationship between trait goal orientation and behavior in team debriefing sessions." Thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 2015. , Mar-2015
Dissertations and Theses Reyes DL. "Shared leadership and team satisfaction: The moderating role of extraversion heterogeneity." Thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, December 2014. , Dec-2014
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Cerasoli CP, Alliger GM, Tannenbaum SI. "Team resilience: Its need, nature, and facilitating factors." In M. Jimenez-Rodriguez and J.A. Gallus (Chairs), Mission possible: The research imperative for understanding resilience in teams. Symposium conducted at the 30th Annual Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015.

30th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015. , Apr-2015

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE, Alliger GM, Cerasoli CP, Donsbach JS. "Using realistic analog environments to test team self-debriefing for astronauts." In W.B. Vessey (Chair), Teams on ICE: Team Research in Spaceflight Analogs. Symposium conducted at the 30th Annual Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25. 2015.

30th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25. 2015. , Apr-2015

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Vessey W, Chan PKF, Green A. "Real Teams, Real Challenges, Real Solutions." A panel presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015.

30th Annual Conference for the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015. , Apr-2015

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Woods AL. "Examining the relationship between trait goal orientation and behavior in team debriefing sessions." Poster presented at the Twelfth Annual Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, April 2015.

12th Annual Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, April 2015. , Apr-2015

Project Title:  Composing and Developing Resilient, Adaptive, and Self-Sustaining Teams for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2011  
End Date: 03/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 07/31/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Alliger, George  The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Mathieu, John  University of Connecticut 
Salas, Eduardo  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AR22G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AR22G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: 20 
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 04:We need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(4) Team Gap 06:We need to identify methods to support and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy during long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2016, per NSSC information (Ed., 4/14/15)

NOTE: End date is now 4/30/2015, per NSSC information (Ed., 7/14/14)

Task Description: Flight crews in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions are isolated for prolonged periods with access to only limited, time-lagged communications with ground operations. This creates numerous team-related challenges. Under such conditions, a single crew member who is a "poor fit" can jeopardize mission effectiveness, and even a well-formed team must adapt during its time together to remain effective. The proposed research addresses how best to compose an LDSE team, as well as how to use subsequent team countermeasures to optimize team resilience, adaptability, and viability during a mission.

The research program represents a synthesis of existing technologies and knowledge, and the advancement of new methods and applications, all grounded in the unique demands of LDSE. We consider team effectiveness as not only traditional task performance, but also, given the LDSE setting and mission, team sustainability and viability over time. Based on a synthesis of existing research, input from subject matter experts, and new empirical studies, we will recommend evidence-based guidelines for composing LDSE flight teams, identify diagnostic measures to guide preemptive actions, and prototype a self-sustainment countermeasure to address psychosocial vulnerabilities.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The isolation and time-lagged communications that astronauts experience in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) can create numerous team-related challenges (Caldwell, 2005; Dion, 2004; Halbesleben, Bowler, 2007; Schmidt, Keeton, Slack, Leveton, & Shea, 2009). Mitigating these challenges involves not only selecting appropriate crew members but also ensuring that they have sufficient team resilience, adaptability, and vitality to meet the demands of LDSE. This multi-year effort focuses on assisting the LDSE team formation process by extending traditional team member selection models to integrate teamwork and psychosocial requirements with traditional position and mission requirements; utilizing longitudinal multiplex network analysis techniques to better diagnose and anticipate challenges to team coordination and effectiveness before they evolve into problems that could impact team viability and mission success; helping teams sustain their performance and coordination over the duration of the mission by building upon existing debriefing techniques and developing diagnostic-driven, team-guided countermeasures that address psychosocial needs and vulnerabilities as well as more traditional team development needs.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: gOE (Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc.) has integrated and synthesized relevant research on team composition and developed an understanding of the requirements of an LDSE mission. As a result, we view composition as a co-variate, resilience as a key measure, debriefing as a countermeasure. We also recognize the potential importance of unobvious measurement. Our initial work established the basis for our Year 3 empirical research studies.

Proposed tasks for Year 3 included: 1) Choose/develop targeted diagnostic and criterion measures for use in the ground based research, and 2) Test the team composition variables, team diagnostics, and/or targeted countermeasure with a ground based sample.

During Year 3 we made progress on the proposed tasks. We finalized diagnostic and criterion measures for our ground based research and we gathered empirical data from three research environments, including a lab study with students, an analog study in a confined environment with teams of adults during a 7-day mission, and a NEEMO undersea analog study conducted with astronauts.

More specifically, gOE developed measures to inform and test team composition, team development, and team resilience. We finalized a set of team self-report measures including the development of new measures of team resilience and living preferences; we established and developed team self-sustaining debriefs as a target countermeasure; and made progress on the establishment of several unobtrusive measures of team dynamics.

In Year 3, we completed gathering data from our lab study at the University of Central Florida (UCF) using college students as subjects. We also initiated two new studies with ground-based samples at both the HERA and NEEMO analog environments. In these three studies we are examining team composition as well as countermeasures to develop and maintain team resilience under isolated and confined conditions. We developed mission specific team debrief content for each environment and populated the DebriefNow tool with that content. We gathered and are currently analyzing data on the debriefing countermeasure from the lab, HERA, and NEEMO samples.

During year 3 we published a study in a top journal (Personnel Psychology) that shows how a guided team-led debriefing countermeasure enhances teamwork and subsequent performance over an unguided team-led debriefing technique. We used that guided team-led debriefing technique in our lab study, and extended and are testing it during our research in the HERA and NEEMO environments.

During year 3 we also drafted a NASA focused white paper on team composition and published an article on team composition in a top journal (Journal of Management).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Eddy E, Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE. "Helping teams to help themselves: Comparing two team-led debriefing methods." Personnel Psychology. 2013 Winter;66(4):975-1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/peps.12041 , Oct-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI, Donsbach JS, Alliger GM. "A review and integration of team composition models: Moving toward a dynamic and temporal framework." Journal of Management. 2014 Jan;40(1):130-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206313503014 , Jan-2014
Books/Book Chapters Lacerenza C, Gregory M, Marshall A, Salas E. "Debriefs: The learning meeting." in "The Science of Workplace Meetings." Ed. J. Allen, N. Lehmann-Willenbrock, S. Rogelberg. New York: Cambridge University Press. In press as of August 2014., Aug-2014
Project Title:  Composing and Developing Resilient, Adaptive, and Self-Sustaining Teams for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2011  
End Date: 04/30/2015  
Task Last Updated: 08/01/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Alliger, George  The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Mathieu, John  University of Connecticut 
Salas, Eduardo  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AR22G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AR22G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 04:We need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(4) Team Gap 06:We need to identify methods to support and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy during long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 4/30/2015, per NSSC information (Ed., 7/14/14)

Task Description: Flight crews in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions are isolated for prolonged periods with access to only limited, time-lagged communications with ground operations. This creates numerous team-related challenges. Under such conditions, a single crew member who is a "poor fit" can jeopardize mission effectiveness, and even a well-formed team must adapt during its time together to remain effective. The proposed research addresses how best to compose an LDSE team, as well as how to use subsequent team countermeasures to optimize team resilience, adaptability, and viability during a mission.

The research program represents a synthesis of existing technologies and knowledge, and the advancement of new methods and applications, all grounded in the unique demands of LDSE. We consider team effectiveness as not only traditional task performance, but also, given the LDSE setting and mission, team sustainability and viability over time. Based on a synthesis of existing research, input from subject matter experts, and new empirical studies, we will recommend evidence-based guidelines for composing LDSE flight teams, identify diagnostic measures to guide preemptive actions, prototype a self-sustainment countermeasure to address psychosocial vulnerabilities, and develop specifications for an automated, diagnostic-driven, Team Autonomous Self-Development and Sustainment (TAS2) module.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The isolation and time-lagged communications that astronauts experience in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) can create numerous team-related challenges (Caldwell, 2005; Dion, 2004; Halbesleben, Bowler, 2007; Schmidt, Keeton, Slack, Leveton, & Shea, 2009). Mitigating these challenges involves not only selecting appropriate crew members but also ensuring that they have sufficient team resilience, adaptability and vitality to meet the demands of LDSE. This multi-year effort focuses on assisting the LDSE team formation process by extending traditional team member selection models to integrate teamwork and psychosocial requirements with traditional position and mission requirements; utilizing longitudinal multiplex network analysis techniques to better diagnose and anticipate challenges to team coordination and effectiveness before they evolve into problems that could impact team viability and mission success; helping teams sustain their performance and coordination over the duration of the mission by building upon existing debriefing techniques and developing diagnostic-driven, team-guided countermeasures that address psychosocial needs and vulnerabilities as well as more traditional team development needs; and identifying principles for ground-based team training to help ensure teams can and will engage in self-sustainment activities during LDSE missions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Proposed tasks for Year 2 included: 1) examine team countermeasures and provide recommendations, 2) choose/develop targeted diagnostic and criterion measures for use in the research, and 3) conduct empirical research in a lab setting.

During Year 2, we:

• Advanced our conceptual foundation as it relates to team composition, preparation, and resilience; documented in the form of publications and white papers. We focused attention on the construct of team resilience, as this is an understudied variable with key implications for LDSE mission success. We drafted a white paper on team resilience that is under review by NASA personnel.

• Conducted additional interviews with NASA subject matter experts to ground our research and recommendations in an understanding of current and anticipated needs.

• Developed diagnostic and criterion measures for use in empirical research, including the establishment of self-report, observational, and unobtrusive team measurement techniques. We are using multiple measurement methods in our research and anticipate that both self-report and unobtrusive measures will be needed during LDSE missions to diagnose potential concerns.

• Identified self-guided debriefing as a recommended high-potential countermeasure for team self-sustainment. We published a meta-analysis that demonstrates the efficacy of debriefing and are testing self-guided debriefs in our empirical research as a LDSE mission will stress the flight crew’s resilience and require them to be able to self-correct with far less support from the ground crew.

• Initiated lab-based research to examine teamwork phenomena in a tightly controlled experimental environment. This research examines team composition, teamwork processes and states, debriefing, and resilience. It will provide an early test of hypotheses and allow for the refinement of our diagnostics, debriefing countermeasure, and potential unobtrusive analytics – preparing us for our Year 3 research.

As part of this effort, we have focused on the concept team resilience and drafted an unpublished white paper that is under review by NASA personnel:

Alliger, G., Cerasoli, C., & Tannenbaum, S. (December, 2012). Building Resilience in Long-Duration Space Flight Teams: Literature Review, Theoretical Integration, and Operational Recommendations. White paper submitted to NASA.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE, Alliger GM, Donsbach JS. "Composing Long-Duration Space Flight Teams." Presented at the 28th Annual Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology Meeting, Houston, TX, April 11-13, 2013.

28th Annual Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology Meeting, Houston, TX, April 11-13, 2013. http://www.siop.org/Conferences/13con/Program/printable.aspx , Apr-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Alliger GM, Cerasoli CP. "Building team resilience in long-duration space flight crews." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Books/Book Chapters Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI, Donsbach JS, Alliger GM. "Achieving optimal team composition for success." in "Developing and Enhancing High-Performance Teams: Evidence-based Best Practices and Guidelines." Ed. E. Salas, S.I. Tannenbaum, D. Cohen, G. Latham. San Francisco : Wiley (Jossey-Bass), 2013. p. 520-551., May-2013
Books/Book Chapters Tannenbaum SI, Beard RL, Cerasoli C. "Conducting team debriefs that work: Lessons from research and practice." in "Developing and Enhancing High-Performance Teams: Evidence-based Best Practices and Guidelines." Ed. E. Salas, S.I. Tannenbaum, D. Cohen, G. Latham. San Francisco : Wiley (Jossey-Bass), 2013. p. 488-519. , May-2013
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Tannenbaum SI. "Team Composition: Theory, Practice, and the Future." National Research Council workshop on Measuring Human Capabilities: Performance Potential of Individuals and Collectives, Washington, DC, April 3-4, 2013. Presentation.

National Research Council workshop on Measuring Human Capabilities: Performance Potential of Individuals and Collectives, Washington, DC, April 3-4, 2013. http://sites.nationalacademies.org/dbasse/bbcss/dbasse_082077 , Apr-2013

Significant Media Coverage Novotney A. "I/O Psychology goes to Mars. Quotes PI S. Tannenbaum and E. Salas." APA Monitor, 2013 Mar;44(3):38. http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/03/mars.aspx , Mar-2013
Project Title:  Composing and Developing Resilient, Adaptive, and Self-Sustaining Teams for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2011  
End Date: 09/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 07/27/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Alliger, George  The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Mathieu, John  University of Connecticut 
Salas, Eduardo  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AR22G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AR22G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 04:We need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(4) Team Gap 06:We need to identify methods to support and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy during long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Flight crews in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions are isolated for prolonged periods with access to only limited, time-lagged communications with ground operations. This creates numerous team-related challenges. Under such conditions, a single crew member who is a "poor fit" can jeopardize mission effectiveness, and even a well-formed team must adapt during its time together to remain effective. The proposed research addresses how best to compose an LDSE team, as well as how to use subsequent team countermeasures to optimize team resilience, adaptability, and viability during a mission.

The research program represents a synthesis of existing technologies and knowledge, and the advancement of new methods and applications, all grounded in the unique demands of LDSE. We consider team effectiveness as not only traditional task performance, but also, given the LDSE setting and mission, team sustainability and viability over time. Based on a synthesis of existing research, input from subject matter experts, and new empirical studies, we will recommend evidence-based guidelines for composing LDSE flight teams, identify diagnostic measures to guide preemptive actions, prototype a self-sustainment countermeasure to address psychosocial vulnerabilities, and develop specifications for an automated, diagnostic-driven, Team Autonomous Self-Development and Sustainment (TAS2) module.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The isolation and time-lagged communications that astronauts experience in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) can create numerous team-related challenges (Caldwell, 2005; Dion, 2004; Halbesleben, Bowler, 2007; Schmidt, Keeton, Slack, Leveton, & Shea, 2009). Mitigating these challenges involves not only selecting appropriate crew members but also ensuring that they have sufficient team resilience, adaptability and vitality to meet the demands of LDSE. This multi-year effort focuses on assisting the LDSE team formation process by extending traditional team member selection models to integrate teamwork and psychosocial requirements with traditional position and mission requirements; utilizing longitudinal multiplex network analysis techniques to better diagnose and anticipate challenges to team coordination and effectiveness before they evolve into problems that could impact team viability and mission success; helping teams sustain their performance and coordination over the duration of the mission by building upon existing debriefing techniques and developing diagnostic-driven, team-guided countermeasures that address psychosocial needs and vulnerabilities as well as more traditional team development needs; and identifying principles for ground-based team training to help ensure teams can and will engage in self-sustainment activities during LDSE missions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Proposed tasks for Year I included: 1) understanding the LDSE requirements and team effectiveness criteria, 2) examining team selection/composition and developing initial guidelines, 3)examining diagnostic options and developing initial guidelines, 4) validating preliminary findings and establishing Year 2 and 3 research plans.

Year I progress includes: Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. (gOE) personnel conducted an initial kick-off meeting and reviewed the literature to clarify LDSE team requirements. In addition, gOE established connections with other NASA researchers (e.g., other team researchers; sleep researchers) to help ensure integration where appropriate. gOE developed structured interview protocols and initiated the process to conduct structured interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs). In addition, gOE worked on understanding the criteria domain (i.e., on-going crew effectiveness) including traditional performance indices, as well as team viability, adaptability, learning, and resilience. Based on this work, gOE is focusing on team resilience as a critical yet under-studied construct which will be reported in a subsequent white paper.

During Year I, progress was made integrating and synthesizing relevant research on team composition. Based on that research synthesis and results from the forthcoming subject matter expert interviews, gOE will craft a set of initial team composition recommendations. These recommendations will offer preliminary advice about pertinent individual and team level characteristics for forming effective, resilient LDSE crews. This work is also driving the identification of key team composition variables for Year 2 and 3 empirical research studies.

gOE reviewed the literature on team diagnostics and related interventions. Based on this understanding and the requirements of an LDSE mission, we have identified team self-sustaining debriefs as target countermeasures that we will study in subsequent years. gOE convened a panel of experts in team research to provide feedback on our research and identify potential opportunities for collaboration on future NASA research. By the end of Year I, gOE will establish research plans, protocols, and measures for use in Year 2 and 3 studies.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Cerasoli CP, Tannenbaum SI. "Debriefs Predict Performance: A Qualitative Review and Meta-Analysis." Presented at the 27th Annual Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Meeting, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012.

27th Annual Conference for the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 26-28, 2012. , Apr-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Tannenbaum SI, Cerasoli C. "Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis." Human Factors, 2013 Feb;55(1):231-45. Published online before print June 4, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720812448394 , Feb-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kraiger K, Smith-Jentsch KA. "The science of training and development in organizations: What matters in practice." Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2012 Jun;13(2):74-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1529100612436661 , Jun-2012
Project Title:  Composing and Developing Resilient, Adaptive, and Self-Sustaining Teams for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2011  
End Date: 09/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 09/22/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Alliger, George  The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Mathieu, John  University of Connecticut 
Salas, Eduardo  University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AR22G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AR22G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 04:We need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(4) Team Gap 06:We need to identify methods to support and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy during long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Flight crews in Long Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions are isolated for prolonged periods with access to only limited, time-lagged communications with ground operations. This creates numerous team-related challenges. Under such conditions, a single crew member who is a "poor fit" can jeopardize mission effectiveness, and even a well-formed team must adapt during its time together to remain effective. The proposed research addresses how best to compose an LDSE team, as well as how to use subsequent team countermeasures to optimize team resilience, adaptability, and viability during a mission.

The research program represents a synthesis of existing technologies and knowledge, and the advancement of new methods and applications, all grounded in the unique demands of LDSE. We consider team effectiveness as not only traditional task performance, but also, given the LDSE setting and mission, team sustainability and viability over time. Based on a synthesis of existing research, input from subject matter experts, and new empirical studies, we will recommend evidence-based guidelines for composing LDSE flight teams, identify diagnostic measures to guide preemptive actions, prototype a self-sustainment countermeasure to address psychosocial vulnerabilities, and develop specifications for an automated, diagnostic-driven, Team Autonomous Self-Development and Sustainment (TAS2) module.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: New project for FY2012.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2012