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Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2015  
Task Last Updated: 09/30/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Schinstock, Dale  Kansas State University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2012 report: Chris Lewis, Ph.D. has left Kansas State University and is no longer on the project. We are actively pursuing a replacement engineer.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Loerch, Linda  
Center Contact:  
linda.loerch-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 6/30/2015 per PI and NSSC information (Ed., 5/19/14)

NOTE: New end date is 9/2/2014 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/9/2013)

Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e., landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of these studies will help identify which key components of physical fitness are required to perform different physical tasks. These results will, therefore, be applicable in a wide variety of settings, from rehabilitation to athlete evaluation, to determining the relative preparedness of astronauts for in-flight and destination extravehicular activity (EVA). These insights will be especially important when astronauts return to a gravitational environment, either on Earth or at their destination. These results will provide target information regarding minimum required strength and endurance from which in-flight and destination exercise countermeasures can be based. The strategy employed here can also function as a template for approaching the establishment of field tests for other occupations in which there is a demand for minimal physical performance, such as what has been done for firefighters and police officers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: The proposed projects have been completed and most of the data has been published. General findings include:

Project 1: The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between tests of fitness and several activities that simulate components of Lunar- and Martian-based extravehicular activities (EVAs). Seventy-one subjects completed four field tests: 1) a physical abilities test which consisted of 6 stations -- stair climbing, forward-backward zigzag, ladder climb and descent, horizontal rock wall, lifting heavy objects, and side step duck/step over; 2) a 10 km Walkback test; 3) material transport field test requiring the loading, transport, and unloading of geological samples; and 4) a device operations field test consisting of tasks associated with equipment set-up and the operations of controls and valves. The relationships between test times for each of these tests and the following parameters were determined: running: O2max, gas exchange threshold (GET), speed at O2max (s- O2max), highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [critical speed (CS)]; arm cranking: O2peak, GET, critical power (CP).

Important Findings:

A) Across the 4 tests, CS, running O2max, s- O2max, and arm cranking O2peak had the highest correlations. CS and to a lesser extent O2max are most strongly associated with tasks that simulate aspects of EVA performance, highlighting CS as a method for evaluating astronaut physical capacity.

B) Arm cranking tests are strongly associated with upper-body dependent tasks, highlighting that the nature of mission tasks needs to be considered when evaluating astronaut physical capacity.

C) When comparing arm to leg responses, as expected arm responses were lower than those seen with leg exercise. There was a significant correlation between arm-cranking and lower body O2max, GET, and the O2 at LCS. Backward stepwise regression analyses revealed that arm-cranking physical fitness could explain 67%, 40%, and 49% of the variance in lower body O2max, GET, and CS, respectively. Discussion: Results suggest arm-cranking exercise can be used to obtain an approximation of lower body aerobic capacity.

Project 2: The purpose of the second project was to determine the physiological parameters associated with the ability to complete simulated exploration type tasks at metabolic rates which might be expected for Lunar and Martian ambulation. Two simulated extravehicular activity field tests were completed in 1-g at two intensities designed to elicit metabolic rates of ~20.0 and ~30.0 ml kg-1 min-1, which are similar to those previously reported for ambulation in simulated Lunar- and Martian-based environments, respectively. Important Findings:

A) All subjects were able to complete the field test at the Lunar intensity, but 28% were unable to complete the field test at the Martian intensity (non-Finishers).

B) During the Martian field test there were no differences in O2 between Finishers and non-Finishers, but the non-Finishers were performing at a greater % O2max compared to Finishers.

C) Logistic regression analysis revealed fitness thresholds for a predicted probability of 0.5, at which Finishing and non-Finishing are equally likely, and 0.75, at which an individual has a 75% chance of Finishing, to be a O2max of 38 ml kg-1 min-1 and 40 ml kg-1 min-1, both significantly greater than the current minimum standard of ~32 ml kg-1 min-1 for the astronaut corps.

D) Logistic regression analysis also revealed that the expected % O2max required to complete a field test could be used to successfully predict performance (X2=19.3).

Project 3: the purpose of the current project was to develop an offload hoist system that is able to simulate the gravitational environments of expected future mission destinations that may be used to determine insightful physiological variables and responses to monitor in an astronaut in order to assess mission readiness and EVA performance.

Important Findings:

A) The offload system was successfully designed, implemented, and tested.

B) Proof-of-concept data were collected for ambulatory activities in Earth (1-g), Martian (3/8-g), and Lunar (1/6-g) simulated gravitational environments. Metabolic and ventilatory measurements were collected during ambulation at constant-speeds in each of the gravitational environments.

C) Metabolic and cardiovascular responses were greatest in 1-g and least in Lunar microgravity. While responses for Martian gravity were lower than for 1-g Earth, they were substantially greater than for Lunar gravity. These data emphasize the need for careful consideration of critical mission tasks and the minimum fitness required for astronaut safety and mission success.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Wilcox SL, Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Schlulp SJ, Craig JC, Mendoza Y, Chavez L, Barstow TJ. "The relationship between physiologic parameters in upper versus lower body exercise." American College of Sports Medicine 60th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, May 28-June 1, 2013.

Program, American College of Sports Medicine 60th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, May 28-June 1, 2013. , May-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Craig JC, Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Wilcox SL, Schlup SJ, Mendoza Y, Chavez L, Barstow TJ. "The relationship between critical speed and the respiratory compensation point." American College of Sports Medicine 60th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, May 28-June 1, 2013.

Final Program, American College of Sports Medicine 60th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, May 28-June 1, 2013. , May-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Wilcox SL, Craig JC, Barstow TJ. "Determination of appropriate physiological measurements for predicting EVA task-failure." 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3140.pdf , Feb-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Wilcox SL, Craig JC, Barstow TJ. "Lunar and Mars simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) evoked physiological responses." Experimental Biology 2014, San Diego, CA, April 26-30, 2014.

FASEB Journal. 2014 Apr;28(1 Suppl):882.7. https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.28.1_supplement.882.7 , Apr-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Barstow TJ. "Standardized “Pre-Flight” exercise tests to predict performance during extravehicular activities in a lunar environment." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Wagner WJ, Wilcox SL, Craig JC, Warren S, Schinstock D, Barstow TJ. "Development of an offload hoist system for the simulation of microgravity during activity." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Craig JC, Wilcox SL, Schlup SJ, Barstow TJ. "The relationship between critical speed and the respiratory compensation point: Coincidence or equivalence." Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(7):631-9. Epub 2014 Oct 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.966764 ; PubMed PMID: 25307937 , Jan-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Ade CJ, Wilcox SL, Barstow TJ. " The effect of resting blood flow occlusion on exercise tolerance and W'." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Sep 15;309(6):R684-91. Epub 2015 Jul 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00283.2015 ; PMID: 26224689 , Sep-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wilcox SL, Broxterman RM, Barstow TJ. "Constructing quasi-linear VO2 responses from nonlinear parameters." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016 Jan 15;120(2):121-9. Epub 2015 Nov 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00507.2015 ; PubMed PMID: 26565018 , Jan-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Schlup SJ, Wilcox SL, Barstow TJ. "Standardized exercise tests and simulated terrestrial mission task performance." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015 Nov;86(11):982-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4332.2015 , Nov-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Schlup SJ, Wilcox SL, Warren S, Kuehl P, Gude D, Jia C, Barstow TJ. "Prediction of lunar- and Martian-based intra- and site-to-site task performance." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016 Apr;87(4):367-74. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4399.2016 ; PubMed PMID: 27026120 , Apr-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Skiba PF, Craig JC, Wilcox SL, Ade CJ, Barstow TJ. "W' expenditure and reconstitution during severe intensity constant power exercise: mechanistic insight into the determinants of W'." Physiol Rep. 2016 Oct;4(19). https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12856 ; PubMed PMID: 27688431; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5064128 , Oct-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Craig JC, Broxterman RM, Wilcox SL, Chen C, Barstow TJ. "Effect of adipose tissue thickness, muscle site, and sex on near-infrared spectroscopy derived total-[hemoglobin + myoglobin]." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Dec 1;123(6):1571-8. Epub 2017 Sep 21. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00207.2017 ; PubMed PMID: 28935822 [reported in Sept 2017 as Epub] , Dec-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Craig JC, Broxterman RM, Smith JR, Allen JD, Barstow TJ. "Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on conduit artery blood flow, muscle oxygenation, and metabolic rate during handgrip exercise." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Aug1;125(2):254-62. Epub 2018 May 3. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00772.2017 ; PubMed PMID: 29722627 , Aug-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Schlup SJ, Wilcox SL, Barstow TJ. "Upper body aerobic exercise as a possible predictor of lower body performance." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015 Jul;86(7):599-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4181.2015 , Jul-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Poole DC, Barstow TJ. "The critical power framework provides novel insights into fatigue mechanisms." Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2015 Apr;43(2):65-6. Comment on Skeletal muscle fatigue and decreased efficiency: two sides of the same coin? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2015 Apr;43(2):75-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000045 ; PubMed PMID: 25688764 , Apr-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Barstow TJ. "V'O2max and microgravity exposure: Convective versus diffusive O2 transport." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Jul;47(7):1351-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000557 ; PubMed PMID: 25380479 , Jul-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Schlup SJ, Wilcox SL, Barstow TJ. "Relationship between simulated extravehicular activity tasks and measurements of physical performance." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014 Nov 1;203:19-27. Epub 2014 Aug 25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2014.08.007 ; PubMed PMID: 25169116 , Nov-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Craig JC, Smith JR, Wilcox SL, Jia C, Warren S, Barstow TJ. "Influence of blood flow occlusion on the development of peripheral and central fatigue during small muscle mass handgrip exercise." J Physiol. 2015 Sep 1;593(17):4043-54. Epub 2015 Aug 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP270424 ; PubMed PMID: 26104881; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4575585 , Sep-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Craig JC, Wilcox SL, Schlup SJ, Barstow TJ. "Influence of blood flow occlusion on muscle oxygenation characteristics and the parameters of the power-duration relationship." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Apr 1;118(7):880-9. Epub 2015 Feb 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00875.2014 ; PubMed PMID: 25663673 , Apr-2015
Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2015  
Task Last Updated: 05/20/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Schinstock, Dale  Kansas State University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2012 report: Chris Lewis, Ph.D. has left Kansas State University and is no longer on the project. We are actively pursuing a replacement engineer.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Loerch, Linda  
Center Contact:  
linda.loerch-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 6/30/2015 per PI and NSSC information (Ed., 5/19/14)

NOTE: New end date is 9/2/2014 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/9/2013)

Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e., landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of these studies will help identify which key components of physical fitness are required to perform different physical tasks. These results will, therefore, be applicable in a wide variety of settings, from rehabilitation to athlete evaluation, to determining the relative preparedness of astronauts for in-flight and destination extravehicular activities (EVAs). These insights will be especially important when astronauts return to a gravitational environment, either on Earth or at their destination. These results will provide target information regarding minimum required strength and endurance from which in-flight and destination exercise countermeasures can be based. The strategy employed here can also function as a template for approaching the establishment of field tests for other occupations in which there is a demand for minimal physical performance, such as what has been done for firefighters and police officers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Several manuscripts have been submitted or are in final preparation for submission from the Phase I data. Phase II has been completed, with a total of 12 subjects finishing the protocol. Each subject attempted to complete 9 laps of our obstacle course at two different paces; one representing the average pace of the Apollo astronauts during lunar EVAs (VO2 of ~20 ml/kg/min) and one at an estimated suited Martian cost of 30 ml/kg/min. All subjects were able to complete the course at the Lunar pace. However, at the Martian pace, 5 of the 12 subjects failed ~ lap 5. Subjects who completed the Martian pace had a VO2max on average of 44.3 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min, while the 5 who failed (3 men, 2 women) had a VO2max of 36.8 ± 2.9 ml/kg/min. Further, the Martian pace was likely at or above the critical speed of the subjects who failed. Electromyography (EMG) and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) signals differed by pace, but were not different between those who successfully completed both paces and those who failed at the Martian pace. Initial analysis of EMG and NIRS data failed to find any differences in the responses between those that failed and those that successfully completed the 9 laps. These results are being written up for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

In addition, the hoist suspension system is operational to the point of being able to conduct pilot experiments. We have acquired preliminary VO2 responses during ambulation at 3 mph under 1-g, Martian (3/8-g), and Lunar (1/6-g) offloading. In addition, during the Lunar offloading, subjects naturally and unconsciously assumed an almost skipping stride pattern, very similar to that adopted by the Apollo astronauts during lunar EVAs.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kuhn W, Warren S, Day D, Dong X, Gruenbacher D, Natarajan B, Soberting T, Taj-Eldin M, Barstow T, Broxteman R, Stonestreeet A 2nd. "Biomedical Sensing and Wireless Technologies for Long Duration EVAs and Precursor Scout Missions." 2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 1–8, 2014. Advanced technologies forum.

2014 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 1–8, 2014. , Mar-2014

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Chen J, Kuehl P, Gude D, Broxteman R, Barstow T, Warren T. "Robust Algorithms for EMG Burst Identification and Processing." 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, IL, USA, August 26–30, 2014.

36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, IL, USA, August 26–30, 2014. In press as of May 2014. , May-2014

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Kuehl P, Chen J, Gude D, Broxteman R, Barstow T, Warren T. "Real-Time Processing of Electromyograms in an Automated Hand-Forearm Ergometer Data Collection and Analysis System." 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, IL, USA, August 26–30, 2014.

36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, IL, USA, August 26–30, 2014. In press as of May 2014. , May-2014

Significant Media Coverage Barstow TJ, Broxterman R, Kuhn W, Warren S. "Discovery Channel Canada, Daily Planet, January 21, 2014, Segment on K-State work of NASA Crew Performance and NASA EPSCoR project overviews." Television. Discovery Channel Canada, Daily Planet, January 21, 2014. Segment on K-State work Segment on K-State work was aired on January 21, 2014 (Ed., video no longer accessible as of 11/18/14). A companion video segment taken in the K-State communications lab can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bIAnUY0cC4Q ; accessed 5/20/2014., Jan-2014
Significant Media Coverage Elliott L. " 'Suit up: Engineers Design Spacesuit Tools, Biomedical Sensors to Keep Astronauts Healthy,' KSU News Release and Video for the NASA EPSCoR Project, K-State Video News Service, Pathfire # 131125." KSU News Release and Video for the NASA EPSCoR Project, K-State Video News Service, Pathfire # 131125, November 25, 2013., Nov-2013
Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2015  
Task Last Updated: 05/09/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Schinstock, Dale  Kansas State University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2012 report: Chris Lewis, Ph.D. has left Kansas State University and is no longer on the project. We are actively pursuing a replacement engineer.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Loerch, Linda  
Center Contact:  
linda.loerch-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 6/30/2015 per PI and NSSC information; previously was 9/2/2014 (Ed., 5/19/14)

NOTE: New end date is 9/2/2014 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/9/2013)

Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e. landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of these studies will help identify which key components of physical fitness are required to perform different physical tasks. These results will, therefore, be applicable in a wide variety of settings, from rehabilitation to athlete evaluation, to determining the relative preparedness of astronauts for in-flight and destination EVAs. These insights will be especially important when astronauts return to a gravitational environment, either on Earth or at their destination. These results will provide target information regarding minimum required strength and endurance from which in-flight and destination exercise countermeasures can be based. The strategy employed here can also function as a template for approaching the establishment of field tests for other occupations in which there is a demand for minimal physical performance, such as what has been done for firefighters and police officers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Phase I has been completed, with a total of 72 subjects (32 females) completing the entire protocol for Phase 1.1 (including all laboratory and field tests). We have recruited subjects with an intentionally wide range of fitness levels. The purpose of this wide range of fitness levels is to improve our ability to predict relative success in the lunar field tests from one or more fitness characteristics. Analysis of the complete data set confirms previous conclusions based on a smaller sample size. Simple regression analysis revealed a modest correlation (r = 0.64) between average speed during the 10 km walk-back time and treadmill VO2max, but the correlation with gas exchange (or ventilatory) threshold (GET) was weaker (r = 0.48). In contrast, there was a highly significant relationship between 10 km average speed and critical speed (r = 0.84, p<0.0005). When examined by gender, women had a significantly lower relative VO2max (44.7 ± 6.8 vs. 50.4 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min), relative arm VO2peak (24.2 ± 5.7 vs. 27.8 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min), relative arm GET (12.3 ± 1.9 vs. 14.5 ± 2.8), CS (11.2 ± 2.0 vs. 12.5 ± 2.5 km/hr), CP (44.3 ± 13.7 vs. 73.3 ± 16.2 Watts). However, there was no significant difference for treadmill relative GET (27.7 ± 3.3 vs. 29.1 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min), arm GET (52.0 ± 1.0 vs. 52.0 ± 1.0 %VO2peak), CS (81.2 ± 1.0 vs. 79.3 ± 1.0 %Speak), CP (61.8 ± 1.0 vs. 66.8 ± 1.0 %Ppeak) 10-km Walkback time (66.0 ± 14.3 vs. 58.9 ± 12.7 min), and 10-km Walkback velocity (84.8 ± 1.0 vs. 85.2 ± 1.0 %CS). Importantly, simulated EVA performance was best predicted by the same laboratory assessment tests for both women and men.

With 72 subjects we have begun more sophisticated analyses using multiple regression and CART approaches. These approaches continue to reinforce that the most influential predictors of field test performance are critical speed and critical power, as previously found with a subset of subjects.

We have begun collecting preliminary data from wireless biosensors (EMG, respiration, accelerometer) and , near infrared spectroscopy-NIRS) while subjects are performing the field tests. The goal of this work is to characterize the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to the field tests, and to identify how these signals change as the subject fatigues. Very promising, in subjects who have failed the planetary navigation field test to date, EMG and NIRS signals have indicated impending fatigue with patterns of change different from those seen when subjects are able to successfully complete the course, while the VO2 responses exceed those associated with the subject's critical speed CS. Finally, the suspension system continues to develop. We are at the stage of evaluating safety redundancy in the hoist system, and anticipate pilot work with humans this summer 2013. This system will eventually permit the creation of a microgravity setting for the subjects while they perform certain of the field test tasks.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Song Q, Ade C, Broxterman R, Nelson T, Gude D, Barstow T, Warren S. "Classification Algorithms Applied to Accelerometer Data as a Means to Identify Subject Activities Related to Planetary Navigation Tasks." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Gude D, Broxterman R, Ade C, Barstow T, Nelson T, Song W, Warren S. "Automated Hand-Forearm Ergometer Data Collection System." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dong X, Sobering T, Barstow T, Warren S. "A Wireless Inductance Plethysmograph as a Precursor to a Networked Suite of Low-Power Sensors for In-Spacesuit Health Monitoring." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Poole DC, Harms CA, Barstow TJ. "A single test for the determination of parameters of the speed-time relationship for running." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013 Jan 15;185(2):380-5. Epub 2012 Sep 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2012.08.024 ; PubMed PMID: 22981969 , Jan-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Gude D, Broxterman R, Ade C, Barstow T, Nelson T, Song W, Warren S. "Automated hand-forearm ergometer data collection system." Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:2379-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346442 ; PubMed PMID: 23366403 (EMBC 2012. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012.) , Sep-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Song W, Ade C, Broxterman R, Barstow T, Nelson T, Warren S. "Activity recognition in planetary navigation field tests using classification algorithms applied to accelerometer data." Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1586-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346247 ; PubMed PMID: 23366208 (EMBC 2012. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012.) , Sep-2012
Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/14/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Schinstock, Dale  Kansas State University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2012 report: Chris Lewis, Ph.D. has left Kansas State University and is no longer on the project. We are actively pursuing a replacement engineer.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Loerch, Linda  
Center Contact:  
linda.loerch-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e. landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of these studies will help identify which key components of physical fitness are required to perform different physical tasks. These results will, therefore, be applicable in a wide variety of settings, from rehabilitation to athlete evaluation, to determining the relative preparedness of astronauts for in-flight and destination EVAs. These insights will be especially important when astronauts return to a gravitational environment, either on Earth or at their destination. These results will provide target information regarding minimum required strength and endurance from which in-flight and destination exercise countermeasures can be based. The strategy employed here can also function as a template for approaching the establishment of field tests for other occupations in which there is a demand for minimal physical performance, such as what has been done for firefighters and police officers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: To date, 45 subjects (28 males) have completed the entire protocol for Phase 1.1 (including all laboratory and field tests). An additional 10 subjects will complete all testing by the end of May. We have recruited subjects with an intentionally wide range of fitness levels. The purpose of this wide range of fitness levels is to improve our ability to predict relative success in the lunar field tests from one or more fitness characteristics.

Simple regression analysis of the results to date has produced some exciting insights. There was a modest correlation (r = -0.71) between 10 km walk-back time and VO2max, but the correlation with gas exchange (or ventilatory) threshold (GET) was weaker (r = -0.43). In contrast, there were highly significant relationships between both 10 km time (r = 0.90, p<0.0005) and average pace (r = 0.91, p<0.001) with critical speed or velocity.

The total time to perform the material transport test was inversely, significantly correlated with upper body critical power (r = -0.71) and gas exchange threshold (r = -0.65).

With 45 subjects we have been able to begin more sophisticated analyses using multiple regression and CART approaches. Even with these approaches, the most influential predictor of field test performance are critical speed and critical power.

Significant progress has been made identifying wireless biosensors (EMG, respiration, accelerometer, etc.). We have begun collecting preliminary data from these sensors while subjects are performing the field tests. The goal of this work is to characterize the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to the field tests, and to identify how these signals change as the subject fatigues. In addition, we have made significant progress with the suspension system which will eventually permit the creation of a microgravity setting for the subjects while they perform certain of the field test tasks.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Gadbury GL, Schinstock D, Warren S, Barstow TJ. "Standardized Exercise Test to Evaluate Planetary Mission Readiness." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Gadbury GL, Schinstock D, Warren S, Barstow TJ. "10-km Walkback Performance Predicted from Standardized Exercise Tests." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Gadbury GL, Schinstock D, Warren S, Barstow TJ. "Physiological responses during simulated planetary field test." American College of Sports Medicine 59th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, May 29-June 2, 2012.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2012 May;44(5 Suppl). , May-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Gadbury GL, Barstow TJ. "Predictors of 10 km performance." American College of Sports Medicine 59th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, May 29-June 2, 2012.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2012 May;44(5 Suppl). , May-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Chavez LF, Ade CJ, Wilcox S, Boxterman RM, Barstow TJ. "Evaluation of Muscle Recruitment During Simulated Planetary Extravehicular Activities." Developing Scholars Workshop, Kansas State University, 2012.

Developing Scholars Program. Developing Scholars Workshop, Kansas State University, April 2012. , Apr-2012

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Gude D, Broxterman R, Ade C, Barstow T, Nelson T, Song W, Warren S. "Hand-Forearm Ergometer Data Collection System." 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012.

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012. In press as of May 2012. , May-2012

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Song W, Ade C, Broxterman R, Barstow T, Nelson T, Warren S. "Activity Recognition in Planetary Navigation Field Tests Using Classification Algorithms Applied to Accelerometer Data." 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012.

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, August 28 – September 1, 2012. In press as of May 2012. , May-2012

Significant Media Coverage Trafimovich A. "NASA Utilizes K-State Students, Faculty for Research Projects." Kansas State Collegian, Wednesday, May 2, 2012, page 6., May-2012
Significant Media Coverage Hoffman S. "One Year into NASA Project, K-State Space Fitness Research Leads to New Findings." Ad Astra Kansas News, 2011 Fall;10(2):3., Sep-2011
Significant Media Coverage Torline J. "Exercise endeavor in outer space: one year into NASA project, K-STATE research leads to new discoveries." News Release from KSU Media Services, September 2011., Sep-2011
Significant Media Coverage Elliot L. "K-State Helping NASA Increase Astronauts' Physical Fitness. Video of project filmed by KSU Media Services." YouTube Video, September 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWdKigRJaiA , Sep-2011
Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/02/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Chris Lewis, Ph.D. has left Kansas State University and is no longer on the project. We are actively pursuing a replacement engineer.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e. landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of these studies will help identify which key components of physical fitness are required to perform different physical tasks. These results will, therefore, be applicable in a wide variety of settings, from rehabilitation to athlete evaluation, to determining the relative preparedness of astronauts for in-flight and destination EVAs. These insights will be especially important when astronauts return to a gravitational environment, either on earth or at their destination. These results will provide target information regarding minimum required strength and endurance from which in-flight and destination exercise countermeasures can be based. The strategy employed here can also function as a template for approaching the establishment of field tests for other occupations in which there is a demand for minimal physical performance, such as been done for firefighters and police officers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: To date, 10 subjects (7 males) have completed the entire protocol for Phase 1.1 (including all laboratory and field tests). An additional 5 subjects will complete all testing by the middle of May. We have recruited subjects with an intentionally wide range of fitness levels. The purpose of this wide range of fitness levels is to improve our ability to predict relative success in the lunar field tests from one or more fitness characteristics.

Preliminary simple regression analysis of the results for the 10 subjects who have completed all aspects of the testing to date has produced some exciting insights. There was a modest correlation (r = 0.583, p<0.05) between 10 km walk-back time and Vo2max, but there was no significant relation with gas exchange (or ventilatory) threshold (GET). In contrast, there were highly significant relationships between both 10 km time (r = 0.894, p<0.0005) and average pace (r = 0.872, p<0.001) with critical velocity.

The total time to perform the material transport test was inversely, significantly correlated with upper body Vo2max and critical power, and with static hand grip endurance, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.63 to 0.792, but was not significantly correlated with upper body GET.

It should be noted that much of the statistical evaluation of the data, including the multiple regression and CART approaches, will require results from a greater number of subjects in order to achieve minimal statistical power. This will be accomplished over the summer and fall of 2011.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Broxterman RM, Ade CJ, Barstow TJ. "A Single Test for the Determination of Critical Velocity." To be presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 2011.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2011 May;43(5 Suppl):in press. , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Warren S, Taylor RD, Gadbury GL, Barstow TJ. "Development of Standardized Exercise Tests for Predicting Planetary Task Performance." 18th Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-14, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-14, 2011. , Apr-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ade CJ, Broxterman RM, Barstow TJ. "Critical velocity and maximal lactate steady state: Better determinants of 2-hour marathon." J Appl Physiol. 2011 Jan;110(1):287-8; discussion 294. PMID: 21542169 , Jan-2011
Dissertations and Theses Broxterman R. "Ryan Broxterman: A single test for the determination of the velocity:time-to-exhaustion relationship." Master’s thesis, Kansas State University, May, 2011. , May-2011
Significant Media Coverage Diederich S. "'The road to space goes through Manhattan, thanks to NASA grant.' Article on PI Barstow's NASA research." Kansas State Collegian, September 3, 2010. http://www.kstatecollegian.com/2010/09/03/the-road-to-space-goes-through-manhattan-thanks-to-nasa-grant/ , Sep-2010
Significant Media Coverage Barstow T. "Researchers explore physiological effects of space travel with NASA grant." Kansas State University News Services, August 23, 2010. http://www.k-state.edu/media/newsreleases/aug10/nasa82310.html , Aug-2010
Project Title:  Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2010  
End Date: 06/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 06/24/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barstow, Thomas  Ph.D. / Kansas State University 
Address:  Department of Kinesiology 
1A Natatorium, 920 Denison Ave. 
Manhattan , KS 66506-0109 
Email: tbarsto@k-state.edu 
Phone: 785-532-0712  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Kansas State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Lewis, Chris  Kansas State University 
Warren, Steven  Kansas State University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX10AK60G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX10AK60G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A04:Establish aerobic fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: The original Apollo missions and more recent extravehicular activities on the International Space Station have provided basic information that can be applied to activities that may occur during future long-duration lunar missions. However, despite these previous efforts, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the more complex physiological costs of different activities in a true lunar environment. Recently a ground-based simulation of a 10-kilometer Lunar Walkback was conducted to better understand the physical capabilities of a suited astronaut in partial gravity. Unfortunately, this study was limited because of the use of a stationary treadmill that did not accurately simulate the lunar environment (i.e. landscape and terrain). To date this overall lack of physiologic data collected during true lunar activities or their accurate simulation has limited the ability of NASA physicians and scientists to predict if an astronaut candidate is physically capable of completing the multiple lunar activities that may be required during long-duration missions. Therefore, the goals of this proposal are to 1) develop a mobile testbed to accurately simulate partial-gravity lunar activities, and 2) determine subject performance and the concomitant physiological responses to these activities, which will allow us to 3) create a series of standardized tests that can be performed in a pre-flight setting to determine the readiness of the astronaut to perform physically demanding activities during a lunar mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: New project for FY2010.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/23/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2010