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Project Title:  Countermeasure for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts in Space: A Continuation Study Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 09/01/2009  
End Date: 10/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 02/06/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cartreine, James A. Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Program in Behavioral Informatics and eHealth 
Department of Psychiatry 
Boston , MA 02215 
Email: jcartreine@partners.org 
Phone: 617-851-8913  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Brigham and Women's Hospital; formerly at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, per info received December 2011 (Ed.) Name change to Cartreine in summer 2008 (from Carter), per NSBRI information (11/08) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Greenhalgh, Leonard  Dartmouth College 
Beven, Gary  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hegel, Mark  Dartmouth College 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Some amount of interpersonal conflict is expected on long-duration (LD) space missions, whether between crewmembers or between the crew and the ground. Severe conflicts, however, can interfere with mission success and even safety.

1. THE PRIMARY DELIVERABLE IS A COUNTERMEASURE TO HELP CREWS MANAGE INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT. We have produced an interactive media intervention program to assist persons to manage real, ongoing conflicts on LD missions. This intervention is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and is designed to help individuals to: A) work out strategies to manage the conflict, and B) maintain good psychosocial/mental wellbeing and good work productivity despite the conflict, via the assistance of a coach, on computer.

2. A SECOND DELIVERABLE IS PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE USABILITY, ACCEPTABILITY, AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COUNTERMEASURE IN FIREFIGHTERS. We conducted an open trial to obtain these data using firefighters (a population analogous to astronauts) who are in ongoing conflicts. This open trial also enabled us to develop and assess our procedures and instruments for data collection, and estimate effect size, in preparation for a future randomized controlled trial. THIS APPEARS TO BE THE FIRST STANDARDIZED INTERVENTION (SELF-GUIDED OR OTHERWISE) TO BE EVALUATED FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WORKPLACE CONFLICTS BETWEEN PEERS IN ANY INDUSTRY. This interactive media program rounds out a suite of assessment, intervention, and training tools for long-duration flyers, all accessible via a single portal: the Virtual Space Station (see Carter et al., 2005). Other major resources in the Virtual Space Station developed through NSBRI (National Space Biomedical Research Institute) support include an intervention for depression, an intervention for chronic stress, and self-assessment of depression and conflict with tailored feedback.

Year 4 involved the design of a methodology to collect data from firefighters who would use the program across the United States. The process involved the executable program bundling and sending data to a HIPAA-compliant cloud server and the subsequent transfer of that data to a local server behind the firewall at Partners Healthcare. This year also involved the programming of a web-based assessment for completion of pre- and post-intervention. Finally, the conflict management program was evaluated with a sample of firefighters. Throughout, we have worked closely with NASA flight surgeons, plus the Houston Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the San Diego Fire Department.

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF THIS STUDY:

1. This software appears to be the FIRST COMPUTER-AUTOMATED BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION THAT TAILORS THE INTERVENTION COMPONENTS TO THE USER'S NEEDS. Prior computer-automated treatments have provided the same clinical components to all users, without regard to whether the user needed them or not. This makes our intervention highly tailored to the unique status of the individual and also highly efficient, since users are only presented with content that is applicable to them.

2. TAILORING THE PROGRAM TO USERS FOLLOWS A UNIQUE PROCESS. We have developed a set of algorithms that approximates an item-response procedure to decide whether users should receive domains of interventional content or not. Computer-adaptive testing is performed in the first intervention setting to create a treatment plan to help him or her manage the interpersonal conflict. Users answer questions from validated measures to determine whether or not a given content area will be presented to them. The assessments are only used to make a binary decision of whether a user should receive that interventional content. Once the user's responses reach a numerical threshold (or cannot reach it), the program ceases asking questions in that domain and moves to the next. This application of computer-adaptive testing technology reduces the amount of questions needed to be answered by users to tailor their treatment, making the intervention more time-efficient.

3. This appears to be the FIRST INTERACTIVE MEDIA PROGRAM EVER DEVELOPED TO ASSIST PERSONS TO FORMULATE AN ACTION PLAN TO MANAGE A SPECIFIC WORKPLACE CONFLICT.

4. The planned evaluation of the program will be THE FIRST TO EVALUATE ANY INTERVENTION FOR CONFLICT BETWEEN CO-WORKERS ACROSS MULTIPLE SETTINGS IN ANY INDUSTRY. Current computer-delivered behavioral interventions have generally guided users through a pre-determined set of activities designed to address a presenting problem. This study advances the field of automated, computer-based interventions by tailoring the contents of the intervention—and even the clinical topics presented—to the user's needs. The conflict intervention program delivers a core set of interventions to assist users with their interpersonal conflict: problem solving, cognitive restructuring, and negotiation skills training. In addition, a series of empirically supported self-assessments also evaluate whether a user should receive content to improve his or her assertiveness, ability to manage anger, or empathy (the ability to understand the other party's point of view and emotional state). With this approach, the users receive content tailored to their particular needs, and they don't waste time on unnecessary content. Persons involved in intense workplace conflicts may also experience problems with sleep, anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, stress, rumination, and others. This program incorporates empirically supported measures of these problems to determine whether users would benefit from content on any or all of these seven topics. If so, the program provides optional content on the topic area.

Finally, to date, research on workgroup conflict has generally been phenomenological and descriptive. Despite the ubiquity of conflict between co-workers across all industries, and the potentially large costs of conflict in productivity, NO PRIOR STUDIES HAVE EMPIRICALLY EVALUATED A STANDARDIZED INTERVENTION FOR WORKPLACE CONFLICTS.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Workplace conflict is ubiquitous. Clearly, if effective, this countermeasure could help firefighters and other first responders. It could also be adapted for use in isolated operational environments, such as polar research stations, submarines, commercial ships, oilrigs, and underwater research stations. However, even greater value would be derived by making this and similar programs available to the public in workplaces and other settings such as secondary schools, social services offices, places of worship, military bases, prisons, public health and mental health centers, and eventually at home or in any location, through broadband Internet.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: At this point, we have accomplished the aim of developing an interactive media program to assist long-duration space crews to manage specific, ongoing conflicts that are substantially interfering with work or well-being. The aim of collecting preliminary data about the program's efficacy and usability has also been completed. This program rounds out the Virtual Space Station suite of clinically validated interactive media programs to assist astronauts to manage the psychosocial challenges of long-duration missions. The Virtual Space Station was designed specifically for astronauts to provide tools that can be used autonomously to prevent, detect, assess, and manage psychosocial wellbeing and maintain optimal performance. The Virtual Space Station is the product of 12 years of research to develop and clinically validate programs customized for astronauts to manage depression, chronic stress, and interpersonal conflict. The Virtual Space Station portal, itself, was validated in a study of its usability, acceptability, and credibility to astronauts, at NASA-Johnson Space Center. A poster presentation that was made during the current project summarizes this astronaut data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cartreine JA, Locke SE, Buckey JC, Sandoval L, Hegel MT. "Electronic problem-solving treatment: Description and pilot study of an interactive media treatment for depression." J Med Internet Res Res Protoc. 2012 Jul-Dec;1(2):e11. 9/12/2012 E-collection 'Formative Studies and eHealth/mHealth Development' ; http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.1925 ; PMID: 23611902 ; PMCID: PMC3626146 , Sep-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Feldman G, Zayfert C, Sandoval L, Dunn E, Cartreine JA. "Reward responsiveness and anxiety predict performance of Mount Everest climbers." Journal of Research in Personality. 2013 Feb;47(1):111-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.10.001 , Feb-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Anderson AP, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. "Autonomous, computer-based behavioral health countermeasure evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars Analog." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016 Nov;87(11):912-20. PMID: 27779949 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4676.2016 , Nov-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lyons KD, Slaughenhaupt RM, Mupparaju SH, Lim JS, Anderson AA, Stankovic AS, Cowan DR, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Buckey JC. "Autonomous psychological support for isolation and confinement." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Nov;91(11):876-85. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5705.2020 ; PMID: 33334408 , Nov-2020
Project Title:  Countermeasure for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts in Space: A Continuation Study Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 09/01/2009  
End Date: 10/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 01/08/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cartreine, James A. Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Program in Behavioral Informatics and eHealth 
Department of Psychiatry 
Boston , MA 02215 
Email: jcartreine@partners.org 
Phone: 617-851-8913  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Brigham and Women's Hospital; formerly at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, per info received December 2011 (Ed.) Name change to Cartreine in summer 2008 (from Carter), per NSBRI information (11/08) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Greenhalgh, Leonard  Dartmouth College 
Beven, Gary  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Hegel, Mark  Dartmouth College 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Some amount of interpersonal conflict is expected on long-duration (LD) space missions, whether between crewmembers or between the crew and the ground. Severe conflicts, however, can interfere with mission success and even safety.

1. THE PRIMARY DELIVERABLE IS A COUNTERMEASURE TO HELP CREWS MANAGE INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT. We have produced an interactive media intervention program to assist persons to manage real, ongoing conflicts on LD missions. This intervention is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and is designed to help individuals to work out strategies to manage the conflict via the assistance of a coach, on computer.

2. A SECOND DELIVERABLE IS PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE USABILITY, ACCEPTABILITY, AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COUNTERMEASURE IN FIREFIGHTERS. We will conduct an open trial to obtain these data using fire fighters (a population analogous to astronauts) who are in an ongoing conflict. This open trial will also enable us to develop and assess our procedures and instruments for data collection, and estimate effect size, in preparation for a future randomized controlled trial. THIS APPEARS TO BE THE FIRST STANDARDIZED INTERVENTION (SELF-GUIDED OR OTHERWISE) TO BE EVALUATED FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WORKPLACE CONFLICTS BETWEEN PEERS IN ANY INDUSTRY. This interactive media program rounds out a suite of assessment, intervention, and training tools for long-duration flyers, all accessible via a single portal: the Virtual Space Station (see Carter et al., 2005). Other major resources in the Virtual Space Station developed through NSBRI support include an intervention for depression, an intervention for chronic stress, and self-assessment of depression and conflict with tailored feedback.

Year 3 has involved the production and completion of the interactive media program for conflict intervention, which included these major activities: 1. Scriptwriting, 2. Storyboard Development, 3. Media production, 4. Programming, 5. Debugging. The year has been tremendously busy and productive on all of the above fronts; each of which have posed their unique academic, intellectual, organizational, and administrative challenges. Additionally, we have continued to maintain contact with the Houston Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the San Diego Fire Department. The program will be evaluated at these sites during Year 4.

UNIQUE ASPECTS OF THIS STUDY:

1. This software appears to be the FIRST COMPUTER-AUTOMATED BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION THAT TAILORS THE INTERVENTION COMPONENTS TO THE USER'S NEEDS. Prior computer-automated treatments have provided the same clinical components to all users, without regard to whether the user needed them or not. This makes our intervention highly tailored to the unique status of the individual and also highly efficient, since users are only presented with content that is applicable to them.

2. TAILORING THE PROGRAM TO USERS FOLLOWS A UNIQUE PROCESS. We have developed a set of algorithms that approximates an item-response procedure to decide whether users should receive domains of interventional content or not. Computer-adaptive testing is performed in the first intervention setting to create a treatment plan to help him or her manage the interpersonal conflict. Users answer questions from validated measures to determine whether or not a given content area will be presented to them. The assessments are only used to make a binary decision of whether a user should receive that interventional content. Once the user's responses reach a numerical threshold (or cannot reach it), the program ceases asking questions in that domain and moves to the next. This application of computer-adaptive testing technology reduces the amount of questions needed to be answered by users to tailor their treatment, making the intervention more time-efficient.

3. This appears to be the FIRST INTERACTIVE MEDIA PROGRAM EVER DEVELOPED TO ASSIST PERSONS TO FORMULATE AN ACTION PLAN TO MANAGE A SPECIFIC WORKPLACE CONFLICT.

4. The planned evaluation of the program will be THE FIRST TO EVALUATE ANY INTERVENTION FOR CONFLICT BETWEEN CO-WORKERS ACROSS MULTIPLE SETTINGS IN ANY INDUSTRY. Current computer-delivered behavioral interventions have generally guided users through a pre-determined set of activities designed to address a presenting problem. This study advances the field of automated, computer-based interventions by tailoring the contents of the intervention—and even the clinical topics presented—to the user's needs. The conflict intervention program delivers a core set of interventions to assist users with their interpersonal conflict: problem solving, cognitive restructuring, and negotiation skills training.

In addition, a series of empirically-supported self-assessments also evaluate whether a user should receive content to improve his or her assertiveness, ability to manage anger, or empathy (the ability to understand the other party's point of view and emotional state). With this approach, the users receive content tailored to their particular needs, and they don't waste time on unnecessary content. Persons involved in intense workplace conflicts may also experience problems with sleep, anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, stress, rumination, and others. These subsidiary problems can make managing interpersonal conflict challenging. This program incorporates empirically-supported measures of these problems to determine whether users would benefit from content on any or all of these seven topics. If so, the program provides optional content on the topic area.

Finally, to date, research on workgroup conflict has generally been phenomenological and descriptive. Despite the ubiquity of conflict between co-workers across all industries, and the potentially large costs of conflict in productivity, NO PRIOR STUDIES HAVE EMPIRICALLY EVALUATED A STANDARDIZED INTERVENTION FOR WORKPLACE CONFLICTS. We will do this in Year 4.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Workplace conflict is ubiquitous. Clearly, if effective, this countermeasure could help firefighters and other first responders. It could also be adapted for use in isolated operational environments, such as polar research stations, submarines, commercial ships, oilrigs, and underwater research stations. However, even greater value would be derived by making this and similar programs available to the public in workplaces and other settings such as secondary schools, social services offices, places of worship, military bases, prisons, public health and mental health centers, and eventually at home or in any location, through broadband Internet.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: The major work of Year 3 has been the scripting, storyboarding, media production, programming, and debugging of the interactive media program for conflict intervention, including the programming and debugging of all algorithms created in Year 2. This work has been done via Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dartmouth Medical School, and the Troupe Modern Media (Windham, NH). Additionally, we have partnered with a 3rd-party software company, The Paul Ekman Group LLC, to deliver emotional recognition training, as a portion of the intervention's empathy training. Dr. Paul Ekman is an international expert in training how to read facial expressions, and has developed empirically supported software to teach these skills. This software is incorporated into the conflict intervention program, for persons who require it (based on the assessment algorithms). The program is ready for evaluation, in Year 4.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cartreine JA, Chang TE, Seville JL, Sandoval L, Moore JB, Xu S, Hegel MT. "Using self-guided treatment software (ePST) to teach clinicians how to deliver problem-solving treatment for depression." Depression Research and Treatment. 2012;2012:309094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/309094 ; PubMed PMID: 23213493 , Nov-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cartreine JA, Locke SE, Buckey JC, Sandoval L, Hegel MT. "Electronic problem-solving treatment: description and pilot study of an interactive media treatment for depression." Journal of Medical Internet Research: Research Protocols. 2012 Sep 25;1(2):e11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.1925 , Sep-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Rose RD, Buckey JC Jr, Zbozinek TD, Motivala SJ, Glenn DE, Cartreine JA, Craske MG. "A randomized controlled trial of a self-guided, multimedia, stress management and resilience training program." Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2013 Feb;51(2):106-12. Epub 2012 Nov 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.11.003 ; PubMed PMID: 23262118 , Feb-2013
Significant Media Coverage Leo RA. "Article, 'Atmospheric Disturbance,' focused entirely on Dr. Cartreine's research supported by the NSBRI, in the magazine, Harvard Medicine." Harvard Medicine. 2012 Spring;85(2)., Jun-2012
Project Title:  Countermeasure for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts in Space: A Continuation Study Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 09/01/2009  
End Date: 10/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 12/09/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cartreine, James A. Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Program in Behavioral Informatics and eHealth 
Department of Psychiatry 
Boston , MA 02215 
Email: jcartreine@partners.org 
Phone: 617-851-8913  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Brigham and Women's Hospital; formerly at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, per info received December 2011 (Ed.) Name change to Cartreine in summer 2008 (from Carter), per NSBRI information (11/08) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Buckey, Jay  Dartmouth College 
Greenhalgh, Leonard  Dartmouth College 
Beven, Gary  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Some amount of interpersonal conflict is expected on long-duration (LD) missions, whether between crewmembers or between the crew and the ground; however, severe conflicts can interfere with mission success and even safety. Severe, ongoing conflicts have been reported on LD space missions, Antarctic expeditions, and a recent LD space mission simulation. Nonetheless, empirically-supported tools to help crews prevent, assess, and manage interpersonal conflicts have not been developed. This study addresses Bioastronautics Roadmap Risk #24: Human Performance Failure Due to Poor Psychosocial Adaptation. The investigators have begun development of an interactive multimedia portal to help LD flyers prevent, detect, assess, and manage their own psychosocial problems. This work has been supported by two NSBRI grants. In the first grant, program architecture was developed to organize the types of content and experiences users can find in the portal. Sample content about depression and interpersonal conflict was also developed as a prototype to demonstrate how training could be delivered through the system. The second NSBRI grant was to complete and evaluate the depression content, including self-treatment of depression. The present project will design and produce an interactive media intervention program to assist persons manage real, ongoing conflicts on long-duration missions. A preliminary evaluation of the conflict intervention will be conducted in a variety of settings where individuals live, train, and work together: fire departments. The goal of this preliminary evaluation is to gather data on response rate, sample characteristics, and to estimate effect size, in preparation for a randomized controlled trial.

ORIGINAL AIMS: 1. The primary deliverable will be a countermeasure to help crews manage interpersonal conflict. We will produce an interactive media intervention program to assist persons manage real, ongoing conflicts on LD missions. This intervention will be based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and will help individuals to work out strategies with the assistance of a coach, on computer. 2. A second deliverable will be preliminary data about the countermeasure. We will conduct an open trial to obtain data about the intervention's potential effectiveness in settings that share some characteristics of the space setting (group living, small work groups). The open trial will also enable us to develop and assess our procedures and instruments for data collection, and estimate effect size, in preparation for a future randomized controlled trial.

KEY FINDINGS: Year 2 has involved 5 major activities: 1. Writing the Design Document for the intervention program, 2. Engineering the process of data collection and transfer for the program trial, 3. Securing IRB approval, 4. Writing the storyboard and shooting script for the first 2 (of 4) sessions, 5. Programming the first session.

Additionally, we have continued to build trust and rapport, and do evaluation planning with the Houston Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the San Diego Fire Department. The program will be evaluated at these sites. The year has been tremendously busy and productive on all of the above fronts; each of which have posed their unique academic, intellectual, organizational and administrative challenges.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN: In Year 3 we will complete the production of the conflict intervention program, conduct alpha testing (debugging and in-house usability testing) and begin the evaluation of the program in the analog settings of real fire departments with fire fighters who are involved in real, ongoing interpersonal conflicts. Test sites will be the Houston Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department and the San Diego Fire Department. In Year 4, we will complete the evaluation study in those departments, making any necessary revisions to the software as we go. Also in Year 4 we will prepare a paper for publication about the program and its use in fire departments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Clearly, if effective, this countermeasure could help firefighters and other first responders. It could also be adapted for use in isolated operational environments, such as polar research stations, submarines, commercial ships, oilrigs, and underwater research stations. Furthermore, even greater value could be derived by making similar programs available to the public in other settings such as police departments, secondary schools, social services offices, places of worship, military bases, prisons, public health and mental health centers, and eventually at home or in any location, through broadband Internet.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: As noted in Main Findings, above, Year 2 has involved 5 major activities: 1. Writing the Design Document for the intervention program, 2. Engineering the process of data collection and transfer for the program trial, 3. Securing IRB approval, 4. Writing the storyboard and shooting script for the first 2 (of 4) sessions, 5. Programming the first session.

Additionally, we have continued to build trust and rapport, and do evaluation planning with the Houston Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the San Diego Fire Department. The program will be evaluated at these sites.

Through this year we have learned that:

1. It is possible to implement the conceived research plan, from a technical perspective: the intervention is delivered via USB flashdrive, data is uploaded at the end of each session to a cloud computer that is controlled by Partners Healthcare (which owns Brigham and Women's Hospital). All data will be protected to HIPAA-level standards, although no protected health information (PHI) will actually be transmitted.

2. It is possible to design the program in such a way that it tailors the intervention to the user's unique situation; providing guidance and training they need based on an extensive algorithm. Users will answer questions derived from standardized measures and this data will be fed to the algorithm to determine the user's intervention plan. It should be noted that no previous intervention for workplace conflict has ever been empirically evaluated in any workplace. Therefore, no evidence-based intervention was available for "off the shelf" adaptation. The investigators created an intervention plan that is based on the literature from couples therapy, mediation, workplace conflict epidemiology (i.e., studies of what typically happens in workplace conflict, versus interventions to manage it), and school-based conflict interventions. Our program appears to be the first intervention for workplace conflict that will be evaluated in a scientific manner.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cartreine JA, Locke SE, Buckey JC, Sandoval L, Hegel M. "Interactive Media Treatment for Depression: Description and Feasibility Evaluation." Journal of Medical Internet Research. In press, August 2011. , Aug-2011
Project Title:  Countermeasure for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts in Space: A Continuation Study Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 09/01/2009  
End Date: 08/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 09/14/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cartreine, James A. Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Program in Behavioral Informatics and eHealth 
Department of Psychiatry 
Boston , MA 02215 
Email: jcartreine@partners.org 
Phone: 617-851-8913  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Brigham and Women's Hospital; formerly at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, per info received December 2011 (Ed.) Name change to Cartreine in summer 2008 (from Carter), per NSBRI information (11/08) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Buckey, Jay  Dartmouth College 
Brady, Joseph  Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc. 
Greenhalgh, Leonard  Dartmouth College 
Beven, Gary  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Original Aims:

Some amount of interpersonal conflict is expected on long-duration (LD) missions, whether between crewmembers or between the crew and the ground; however, severe conflicts can interfere with mission success and even safety. Severe, ongoing conflicts have been reported on LD space missions, Antarctic expeditions, and a recent LD space mission simulation. Nonetheless, empirically-supported tools to help crews prevent, assess, and manage interpersonal conflicts have not been developed.

This study will design and produce an interactive media intervention program to assist persons manage real, ongoing conflicts on long-duration missions. A preliminary evaluation of the conflict intervention will be conducted in a variety of settings where individuals live, train, and work together: fire departments and university residence halls. It will also be evaluated in two NSBRI-supported mission simulations, when conflicts arise. The goal of this preliminary evaluation is to gather data on response rate, sample characteristics, and effect size, in preparation for a randomized controlled trial.

1. The primary deliverable will be a countermeasure to help crews manage interpersonal conflict. We will produce an interactive media intervention program to assist persons manage real, ongoing conflicts on LD missions. This intervention will be based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and will help individuals to work out strategies with the assistance of a coach, on computer.

2. A second deliverable will be preliminary data about the countermeasure. We will conduct an open trial to obtain data about the intervention's potential effectiveness in settings that share some characteristics of the space setting (group living, small work groups). The open trial will also enable us to develop and assess our procedures and instruments for data collection, and estimate effect size, in preparation for a future randomized controlled trial.

Key findings:

The principal activity of the first year of this study was to solidify the content of the intervention program, develop its design, and begin interactive media production (with the major production years being grant years 2 and 3).

Grant administration problems beyond the Principal Investigator's control required significant attention during this first year. Currently, these problems have still not been solved, and efforts are underway to find a suitable institutional home for the grant work. The project has been on hold since July 1, 2010, after completing 10 months of Year 1.

Despite these problems, good progress was made in defining the clinical content of the intervention and the general design of the program.

In an earlier study, we had interviewed long duration flyers about interpersonal conflicts in space. Since this countermeasure will be evaluated with firefighters, it was also necessary to interview representatives from fire departments. Interviews were conducted with the San Diego, Houston, and Phoenix fire departments. A structured questionnaire was presented to our contacts at the Fire Departments to assess our approach to conflict and to help us to determine the kinds of conflicts and scenarios that would be most likely to occur in these settings. The content is soundly based in cognitive-behavioral therapy; however, no empirically supported intervention for workplace conflict exists. Therefore, the clinical specifics of the intervention needed to be specified.

The research team established agreements with major fire departments: the San Diego Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the Houston Fire Department. The intervention is planned to be evaluated in the operational analog of the fire department. These fire departments have agreed to be test sites, review content, and provide consultation as needed. They are a critical component to the research plan, and excellent to bring on board at this early stage.

Proposed Research Plan:

The first critical step is to identify a suitable organization to accept this grant. Then, to complete the remaining 2 months of work in Year 1, initiate interactive media production, and continue to build out the countermeasure in Year 2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Clearly, if effective, this countermeasure could help firefighters and other first responders. It could also be adapted for use in isolated operational environments, such as polar research stations, submarines, commercial ships, oilrigs, and underwater research stations. Furthermore, even greater value could be derived by making similar programs available to the public in other settings such as police departments, secondary schools, social services offices, places of worship, military bases, prisons, public health and mental health centers, and eventually at home or in any location, through broadband Internet.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: The principal activity of the first year of this study was to solidify the content of the intervention program. Because this study involves creating a new clinical intervention, rather than computerizing an existing evidence-based treatment, a great deal of research was needed to determine the most promising clinical elements of the program. Research from the areas of occupational health, mediation and arbitration, assertiveness training, couples therapy, family therapy, and crew resource management was reviewed. The other tasks intended to be completed in Year 1 were to develop the program's design and begin interactive media production (with the major production years being grant years 2 and 3).

Grant administration problems beyond the Principal Investigator's control required significant attention during this first year. Currently, these problems have still not been solved, and efforts are underway to find a new institutional home for the grant work. The project has been on hold since July 1, 2010, after completing 10 months of Year 1.

Despite these problems, good progress was made in defining the clinical content of the intervention and the general design of the program. Interviews were conducted with the San Diego, Houston and Phoenix fire departments about interpersonal conflicts. A structured questionnaire was presented to our contacts at the Fire Departments to assess our approach to conflict and to help us to determine the kinds of conflicts and scenarios that would be most likely to occur in these settings. The content is soundly based in cognitive-behavioral therapy; however, no empirically supported intervention for workplace conflict exists. Therefore, the clinical specifics of the intervention needed to be specified.

Additionally, the research team established agreements with major fire departments: The San Diego Fire Department, the Phoenix Fire Department, and the Houston Fire Department. The intervention is planned to be evaluated in the operational analog of the fire department. These fire departments have agreed to be test sites, review content, and provide consultation as needed. They are a critical component to the research plan, and excellent to bring on board at this early stage.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Significant Media Coverage Salazar J. "Radio interview regarding NSBRI project." National Public Radio, plus syndicated internationally, January 2010., Jan-2010
Project Title:  Countermeasure for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts in Space: A Continuation Study Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 09/01/2009  
End Date: 08/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 07/17/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Cartreine, James A. Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Program in Behavioral Informatics and eHealth 
Department of Psychiatry 
Boston , MA 02215 
Email: jcartreine@partners.org 
Phone: 617-851-8913  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI moved to Brigham and Women's Hospital; formerly at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, per info received December 2011 (Ed.) Name change to Cartreine in summer 2008 (from Carter), per NSBRI information (11/08) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Brady, Joseph  Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine 
Greenhalgh, Leonard  Dartmouth College 
Beven, Gary  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Buckey, Jay  Dartmouth Medical School 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Team Gap 03:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function for all phases of autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Some amount of interpersonal conflict is expected on long-duration missions, whether between crew members or between the crew and the ground. However, severe conflicts can interfere with mission success and even safety. Severe, ongoing conflicts have been reported on long-duration space missions, Antarctic expeditions and a recent long-duration space mission simulation. Nonetheless, empirically-supported tools to help crews prevent, assess and manage interpersonal conflicts have not been developed. This study addresses Bioastronautics Roadmap Risk 24: Human Performance Failure Due to Poor Psychosocial Adaptation.

The investigators have begun development of an interactive multimedia portal to help long-duration flyers prevent, detect, assess and manage their own psychosocial problems. This work has been supported by two NSBRI grants. In the first grant, program architecture was developed to organize the types of content and experiences users can find in the portal. Sample content about depression and interpersonal conflict was also developed as a prototype to demonstrate how training could be delivered through the system. The second NSBRI grant was to complete and evaluate the depression content, including self-treatment of depression.

The present project will design and produce an interactive media intervention program to assist persons manage real, ongoing conflicts on long-duration missions. A preliminary evaluation of the conflict intervention will be conducted in a variety of settings where individuals live, train and work together: fire departments and university residence halls. It will also be evaluated in two NSBRI-supported mission simulations when conflicts arise. The goal of this preliminary evaluation is to gather data on response rate, sample characteristics and effect size, in preparation for a randomized, controlled trial.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009