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Project Title:  Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 05/15/2013  
Task Last Updated: 08/28/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Fincke, Renita S Wyle/ NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/15/2013 per JSC and PI (Ed., 7/11/2011)

Task Description: There are many factors that may contribute to the deconditioning that occurs during long-term microgravity exposure. Countermeasures hardware limitations, suboptimal exercise programming, and alterations in gait biomechanics may all contribute to physiological losses. During the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008, internal and external experts identified a need to better quantify specific physiological responses to exercise in microgravity. Knowledge of resistance exercise biomechanics while on ISS will provide insight as to why bone, muscle and cardiovascular health are lost during long duration spaceflight.

There have been no rigorous evaluations of locomotion biomechanics during exercise in microgravity on the ISS. The installation of the Second-Generation Treadmill (T2) on the ISS will allow the measurement of ground reaction forces (GRF) during exercise. Quantification of these forces is vital to understanding the musculoskeletal benefits of treadmill exercise. GRF data used in combination of joint motion data obtained from video can be used to quantify the joint torques that occur during exercise, which will give critical information regarding exercise efficacy. It is probable that variables such as speed, external load (EL) applied to the waist-shoulder harness, and vibration-isolation affect locomotive biomechanics, which could influence exercise prescription efficacy. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine what combination of subject load and speed optimizes joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise.

Up to 8 crewmembers will be assessed during nominal exercise sessions on the T2 during long duration ISS mission. Data will be collected from up to 6 sessions per crew member, spaced approximately 30 days apart. Video data will be collected using a standard high-definition video camera, and GRF data will be collected directly from the T2. Data will be downlinked from ISS for post processing. Video will be digitized and joint position throughout exercise will be determined using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation analysis. Position data will be used to determine joint kinematics, and position data will be used with GRF data in an inverse dynamic analysis to determine joint torques. Prior to flight, video and GRF data will be collected in the lab for use in comparisons between gravitational levels.

The data will be used to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between microgravity and normal gravity. The data will also be used to determine how differences in speed, EL, and the interaction of speed and EL affect locomotive biomechanics. Obtaining these data will help to determine if specific speed and EL conditions exist that maximize joint torques, and thus increase exercise efficacy.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The primary intent of this activity is to create an operational benefit for crewmember exercise prescriptions. The techniques used to collect and assess data are those typically used during Earth-based evaluations. There are benefits to life on Earth in comparing motion between microgravity and normal gravity because of implications on vestibular system impact on control, and there are substantial benefits for crewmembers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: This task is complete. All data have been collected and initial analyses completed. Journal manuscripts are in preparation.

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the biomechanics of running on the second generation treadmill on the International Space Station as it is used during normal exercise. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected in the lab prior to flight and throughout the missions of seven subjects. In-flight data were collected during up to six exercise sessions for each subject spaced throughout their mission. Hip, knee, and ankle sagittal motion trajectories, gait temporal kinematics, and ground reaction force parameters were compared between exercise sessions in 1G and 0G. The effects of speed and bungee load on ground reaction force parameters were also examined. We found that joint motion trajectories and gait temporal kinematics remained relatively consistent between 0G and 1G at a given speed. Ground reaction force parameters, however, were significantly decreased in 0G, but did increase with increased speed and bungee load. Furthermore, the relationship between peak ground reaction forces and speed and bungee load were subject-dependent, suggesting that individual variations exist in adaptation strategies to the microgravity environment. Our data suggest that subject-specific relationships can be developed that allow practitioners to prescribe exercise that may more effectively recreate 1G-like ground reaction forces, and that subjects performing exercise at higher speeds obtain ground reaction forces similar to exercising at lower speeds on Earth.

Take Home Message for Exercise: Crewmembers have similar running motions in 0G as they do in 1G, but develop lower ground reaction forces. Running faster will increase the ground reaction forces and increase exercise benefits.

Take Home Message for Motor Control: Running motion does not change in the absence of gravity, but force generation is scaled to approximately the same relative level as in 1G. Control mechanisms that depend on gravity must be secondary to those that are gravity-independent.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Fincke RS, Guilliams ME. "Biomechanical analysis of treadmill locomotion on the International Space Station." 2nd Annual International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, Denver, CO, June 16-18, 2013.

2nd Annual International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, Denver, CO, June 16-18, 2013. , Jun-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Fincke RS, Guillams ME, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Biomechanics of treadmill locomotion on the International Space Station." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Fincke RS, Guillams ME, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Biomechanical analysis of treadmill locomotion on the International Space Station." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Fincke RS, Guillams ME, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Ground reaction forces during treadmill exercise on the International Space Station." Presented at the 2012 American Society of Biomechanics 36th Annual Meeting, Gainesville, FL, August 15-18, 2012.

2012 American Society of Biomechanics 36th Annual Meeting, Gainesville, FL, August 15-18, 2012. Abstract #232. , Aug-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals De Witt JK, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Ground reaction forces during treadmill running in microgravity." J Biomech. 2014 Jul 18;47(10):2339-47. Epub 2014 Apr 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.04.034 ; PubMed PMID: 24835563 , Jul-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals De Witt JK, Schaffner G, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Bungee force level, stiffness, and variation during treadmill locomotion in simulated microgravity." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Apr;85(4):449-55. https://doi.org/10.3357/asem.3217.2014 ; PMID: 24754208 , Apr-2014
Project Title:  Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 05/15/2013  
Task Last Updated: 06/01/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Scott-Pandorf, Melissa  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Everett, Meghan  University of Houston 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Newby, Nate  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/15/2013 per JSC and PI (Ed., 7/11/2011)

Task Description: There are many factors that may contribute to the deconditioning that occurs during long-term microgravity exposure. Countermeasures hardware limitations, suboptimal exercise programming, and alterations in gait biomechanics may all contribute to physiological losses. During the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008, internal and external experts identified a need to better quantify specific physiological responses to exercise in microgravity. Knowledge of resistance exercise biomechanics while on ISS will provide insight as to why bone, muscle and cardiovascular health are lost during long duration spaceflight.

There have been no rigorous evaluations of locomotion biomechanics during exercise in microgravity on the ISS. The installation of the Second-Generation Treadmill (T2) on the ISS will allow the measurement of ground reaction forces (GRF) during exercise. Quantification of these forces is vital to understanding the musculoskeletal benefits of treadmill exercise. GRF data used in combination of joint motion data obtained from video can be used to quantify the joint torques that occur during exercise, which will give critical information regarding exercise efficacy. It is probable that variables such as speed, external load (EL) applied to the waist-shoulder harness, and vibration-isolation affect locomotive biomechanics, which could influence exercise prescription efficacy. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine what combination of subject load and speed optimizes joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise.

Up to 8 crewmembers will be assessed during nominal exercise sessions on the T2 during long duration ISS mission. Data will be collected from up to 6 sessions per crew member, space approximately 30 days apart. Video data will be collected using a standard high-definition video camera, and GRF data will be collected directly from the T2. Data will be downlinked from ISS for post processing. Video will be digitized and joint position throughout exercise will be determined using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation analysis. Position data will be used to determine joint kinematics, and position data will be used with GRF data in an inverse dynamic analysis to determine joint torques. Prior to flight, video and GRF data will be collected in the lab for use in comparisons between gravitational levels.

The data will be used to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between microgravity and normal gravity. The data will also be used to determine how differences in speed, EL, and the interaction of speed and EL affect locomotive biomechanics. Obtaining these data will help to determine if specific speed and EL conditions exist that maximize joint torques, and thus increase exercise efficacy.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The primary intent of this activity is to create an operational benefit for crewmember exercise prescriptions. The techniques used to collect and assess data are those typically used during Earth-based evaluations. There are no direct benefits to life on Earth, but there are substantial benefits for crewmembers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: As of 7/13/2012, 6 crewmembers will have completed their inflight sessions. One of the two remaining subjects is currently completing the inflight protocol, and the final subject is scheduled to fly in 2012-2013.

Video and ground reaction force data from all completed sessions have been delivered to the PI and verified for accuracy. To date, all analyses that have been completed have been preliminary. Original analysis software is under development and is currently being tested and validated.

To date, there have been no major issues regarding data collection. All crew have completed their data collection sessions successfully. There have been a few trials that have been repeated due to hardware malfunction or downlink issues. In general, all data collected have been successfully downlinked.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2012
Project Title:  Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 05/15/2013  
Task Last Updated: 07/15/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Scott-Pandorf, Melissa  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Everett, Meghan  University of Houston 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Newby, Nate  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/15/2013 per JSC and PI (Ed., 7/11/2011)

Task Description: There are many factors that may contribute to the deconditioning that occurs during long-term microgravity exposure. Countermeasures hardware limitations, suboptimal exercise programming, and alterations in gait biomechanics may all contribute to physiological losses. During the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008, internal and external experts identified a need to better quantify specific physiological responses to exercise in microgravity. Knowledge of resistance exercise biomechanics while on ISS will provide insight as to why bone, muscle and cardiovascular health are lost during long duration spaceflight.

There have been no rigorous evaluations of locomotion biomechanics during exercise in microgravity on the ISS. The installation of the Second-Generation Treadmill (T2) on the ISS will allow the measurement of ground reaction forces (GRF) during exercise. Quantification of these forces is vital to understanding the musculoskeletal benefits of treadmill exercise. GRF data used in combination of joint motion data obtained from video can be used to quantify the joint torques that occur during exercise, which will give critical information regarding exercise efficacy. It is probable that variables such as speed, external load (EL) applied to the waist-shoulder harness, and vibration-isolation affect locomotive biomechanics, which could influence exercise prescription efficacy. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine what combination of subject load and speed optimizes joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise.

Up to 6 crewmembers will be assessed during nominal exercise sessions on the T2 during long duration ISS mission. Data will be collected from up to 6 sessions per crew member, space approximately 30 days apart. Video data will be collected using a standard high-definition video camera, and GRF data will be collected directly from the T2. Data will be downlinked from ISS for post processing. Video will be digitized and joint position throughout exercise will be determined using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation analysis. Position data will be used to determine joint kinematics, and position data will be used with GRF data in an inverse dynamic analysis to determine joint torques. Prior to flight, video and GRF data will be collected in the lab for use in comparisons between gravitational levels.

The data will be used to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between microgravity and normal gravity. The data will also be used to determine how differences in speed, EL, and the interaction of speed and EL affect locomotive biomechanics. Obtaining these data will help to determine if specific speed and EL conditions exist that maximize joint torques, and thus increase exercise efficacy.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The primary intent of this activity is to create an operational benefit for crewmember exercise prescriptions. The techniques used to collect and assess data are those typically used during Earth-based evaluations. There are no direct benefits to life on Earth, but there are substantial benefits for crewmembers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: As of July 14, 2011, 9 crewmembers have consented to participate in the evaluation, and 8 baseline data collection (BDC) sessions have occurred. BDC sessions include procedure training for the inflight portion of the investigation, and biomechanical data collection. During the biomechanical data collection, motion capture and ground reaction force data are collected as each subject walks and runs on a force-measuring treadmill. Data are collected at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments. Subjects walk at speeds of 4.0 mph and less, and run at speeds of 5.0 and greater. At 4.5 mph, subjects perform both a walking and a running trial. Trial duration is 15 seconds. Before each data collection session, the crewmember and investigator discuss the probable exercise program to be used on the ISS to determine if the maximum testing speed should be decreased.

Motion capture data are collected by a 12 camera motion capture system at 250 Hz, and ground reaction force data are collected by dual force plates built into the treadmill at 1000 Hz. Data are collected simultaneously by a single workstation. To date, none of the processing of the BDC data has been completed for any crewmembers.

Three crewmembers have completed inflight data collection sessions. One crewmember has completed three of six total sessions, and two crewmembers have completed one of six sessions. Inflight data collection includes standard hi-definition videography and ground reaction force recording. Ground reaction force data are collected by the treadmill as part of standard exercise data collection. The first two sessions for each crewmember are monitored in real time at the TeleScience Center at JSC Mission Control. After each session, video and treadmill data are downlinked and collected by the PI. To date, inflight video has been examined for integrity, but has not been processed.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2011
Project Title:  Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 05/15/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Scott-Pandorf, Melissa  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
English, Kirk  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Everett, Meghan  University of Houston 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Newby, Nate  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/15/2013 per JSC and PI (Ed., 7/11/2011)

Task Description: There are many factors that may contribute to the deconditioning that occurs during long-term microgravity exposure. Countermeasures hardware limitations, suboptimal exercise programming, and alterations in gait biomechanics may all contribute to physiological losses. During the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008, internal and external experts identified a need to better quantify specific physiological responses to exercise in microgravity. Knowledge of resistance exercise biomechanics while on ISS will provide insight as to why bone, muscle and cardiovascular health are lost during long duration spaceflight.

There have been no rigorous evaluations of locomotion biomechanics during exercise in microgravity on the ISS. The installation of the Second-Generation Treadmill (T2) on the ISS will allow the measurement of ground reaction forces (GRF) during exercise. Quantification of these forces is vital to understanding the musculoskeletal benefits of treadmill exercise. GRF data used in combination of joint motion data obtained from video can be used to quantify the joint torques that occur during exercise, which will give critical information regarding exercise efficacy. It is probable that variables such as speed, external load (EL) applied to the waist-shoulder harness, and vibration-isolation affect locomotive biomechanics, which could influence exercise prescription efficacy. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine what combination of subject load and speed optimizes joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise.

Up to 6 crewmembers will be assessed during nominal exercise sessions on the T2 during long duration ISS mission. Data will be collected from up to 6 sessions per crew member, space approximately 30 days apart. Video data will be collected using a standard high-definition video camera, and GRF data will be collected directly from the T2. Data will be downlinked from ISS for post processing. Video will be digitized and joint position throughout exercise will be determined using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation analysis. Position data will be used to determine joint kinematics, and position data will be used with GRF data in an inverse dynamic analysis to determine joint torques. Prior to flight, video and GRF data will be collected in the lab for use in comparisons between gravitational levels.

The data will be used to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between microgravity and normal gravity. The data will also be used to determine how differences in speed, EL, and the interaction of speed and EL affect locomotive biomechanics. Obtaining these data will help to determine if specific speed and EL conditions exist that maximize joint torques, and thus increase exercise efficacy.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The primary intent of this activity is to create an operational benefit for crewmember exercise prescriptions. The techniques used to collect and assess data are those typically used during Earth-based evaluations. There are no direct benefits to life on Earth, but there are substantial benefits for crewmembers.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: To date, the task has gone through the preliminary procedural steps necessary to conduct the inflight experiment. The procedures were submitted to the NASA JSC Committee for Protection of Human Subjects for Institutional Review in December, 2009, and full approval was granted in March, 2010. The procedures were presented to the Medical Operations Board, the Space Medicine Configuration Control Board, and the Science Management Panel in spring, 2010. The ISS Mission Planning team performed a feasibility study in spring 2010, and has completed experiment documentation. The first subjects are slated for Increment 29/30 in fall, 2010. There will be an Informed Consent Briefing for the Increment 29/30 crew in July, 2010.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2010
Project Title:  Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 08/31/2011  
Task Last Updated: 02/18/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Scott-Pandorf, Melissa  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
English, Kirk  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Everett, Meghan  University of Houston 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Newby, Nate  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
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Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

Task Description: There are many factors that may contribute to the deconditioning that occurs during long-term microgravity exposure. Countermeasures hardware limitations, suboptimal exercise programming, and alterations in gait biomechanics may all contribute to physiological losses. During the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008, internal and external experts identified a need to better quantify specific physiological responses to exercise in microgravity. Knowledge of resistance exercise biomechanics while on ISS will provide insight as to why bone, muscle and cardiovascular health are lost during long duration spaceflight.

The ARED was installed on the ISS in early 2009 with the intent of increasing the resistance exercise capabilities during in-flight exercise. The device is capable of providing up to 600 lbs of resistance, incorporates a vacuum cylinder and flywheel resistance system to provide constant and inertial resistance, and allows for the performance of many typical exercises, including the deadlift and parallel squat. Resistance exercise has been performed by astronauts during spaceflght to protect against health losses that occur during microgravity exposure. Despite exercise performance, crewmembers regularly return from missions with bone, muscle, and cardiovascular losses. The proposed iRATs exercise prescription has been developed with the intent of optimizing exercise effectiveness by increasing intensity and volume.

Resistance exercises that load the axial skeleton, such as the parallel squat and deadlift, have been proposed to be critical components of a program designed to maximize the stimuli for bone remodeling. However, there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of specific exercises at providing the joint loads necessary for maintenance of bone. For example, within NASA there is disagreement whether squats performed with heavy loads using a decreased range of motion are superior to the same exercise performed with lighter loads over an increased range of motion. In addition, exercise biomechanics can be altered by modifying variables such as stance width, grip width, range of motion, cadence, and joint orientation. An optimal exercise form may exist that maximizes joint forces, which in turn allows for the specific targeting of the most vulnerable bone sites.

Computer simulation performed in concert with measured data can be used to approximate the loads experienced throughout the musculoskeletal system. The LifeMod System (LifeModeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) is a dynamics-based software platform that computes the muscle and bone forces that occur during a specific motion. The modeling system can determine the forces that cause a motion (inverse dynamic analysis), and predict motion given a set of muscle forces (forward dynamic analysis). Inverse and forward dynamic simulations are beneficial for analyzing specific movement patterns and for predicting how changes in motion can affect exercise kinetics and related physiological benefits.

A comprehensive understanding of the kinematics and kinetics of resistance exercise performance in microgravity is necessary to optimize exercise prescriptions by including the exercise variations that have the greatest potential health benefits. However, to date, there have been no biomechanical investigations of resistance exercise performance on the ISS or of ARED exercise in microgravity. Collecting biomechanical data during actual exercise sessions on the ISS is expensive and complex, but is required for program optimization. We are proposing a systematic evaluation that increases the probability of success while minimizing impacts on crew time. Our intent is to be the first group to perform biomechanical exercise analysis during long-term ISS missions. Our goal is to provide timely, relevant, and necessary feedback that can be used to increase the health benefits of the in-flight exercise program.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

[Ed. note: project added to Task Book in February 2010 when information received from JSC]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009