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Project Title:  Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 11/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 04/04/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Lin, Wei  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Mirza, Naureen  University of Kentucky 
Gelato, Marie  University of Kentucky 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) ExMC 4.06:We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2013 (from 10/31/2013) per NSBRI (Ed., 5/14/2013)

NOTE: Extended to 10/31/2013 per NSBRI (Ed., 2/22/2013)

Task Description: Bone loss induced under microgravity environment is one of major health problems during long term space missions, resulting in high risk of fracture. Lack of onboard monitoring methods makes it difficult to evaluate such risk and guide treatment. Using a developing noninvasive Scanning Confocal Acoustic Navigation (SCAN) technology, strong correlations between SCAN determined data and bone's structural and strength parameters were observed. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture. The research team has been focused on the technology development of the (SCAN) system and on determining interrelationship between ultrasound parameters and bone's structural and strength properties in a quantitative manner. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAN for assessing bone's quality in animal, human cadaver bone samples, and in vivo human subjects (e.g., bed rest). 13 peer-reviewed journal papers and more than 36 conference short papers were published in this period directly derived from this work. SCAN has shown its ability in bone quality assessment in heel and wrist regions and demonstrated strong correlation between SCAN determined data and microCT identified bone mineral density (BMD), porosity, trabecular space and trabecular width, as well as modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this continuing research (Technology Readiness Level-TRL 6).

In this period, the technology development of a new generation of the SCAN device is significantly advanced as a portable device to access the bone quality at wrist and heel sites, and to use ultrasound for guided treatment for controlled bone fracture. A demo of the technology was performed at the new National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) headquarters in April of 2012. A combined mechanical and electrical array scan modality has been initiated and achieved, which can complete the SCAN time at the particular skeletal site less in than 2 minutes. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone for determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness). Several example studies were briefly described.

1) Developing a SCAN system for bone quality assessment: A real time rapid acoustic mapping system is developed for evaluation of bone density, structural and mechanical properties, and defect using a patented technology developed in the Principal Investigator's lab. Phased arrays using a linear array of elements, emitted with different delays, generate a focal ultrasonic beam in X-direction by controlled programming. Combined mechanical scanning will be performed in the Y-direction. Such design greatly reduces scan time (less than 30 sec) and maintains resolution and image quality. Beams are generated and received with the use of focal laws, in which software models the programs to spatially control confocal points and scanning. Setup of pulse wizards will be controlled by a house designed 16-bit microprocessor. Phased array transducers will be designed and built with 120 linear elements with the frequency range of 0.5~2.5 MHz. Each phase of excitation is approximately 2 micros. Each focal point will take approximately 0.1 ms. A 2-D electro-mechanic scanning region may take about 20 sec. Thus, the influences of soft tissue, cortical bone, and irregular shape surfaces can be greatly reduced. In this confocal scanning mode, ultrasound parameters, i.e., broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and ultrasound-UV, can generate a spatial acoustic map at the region of interest.

2) Noninvasive prediction of bone internal and principal structural orientation using SCAN: Bone has the ability to adapt its structure in response to the mechanical environment as defined as Wolff's Law. The alignment of trabecular structure is intended to adapt to the particular mechanical milieu applied to it. Due to the absence of normal mechanical loading, it will be extremely important to assess the anisotropic deterioration of bone during the extreme conditions, i.e., long term space mission and disease orientated disuse, to predict risk of fractures. In this work, 7 bovine trabecular bone balls were used for rotational ultrasound measurement around 3 anatomical axes to elucidate the ability of ultrasound to identify trabecular orientation. By comparing to the mean intercept length (MIL) tensor obtained from µCT, the angle difference of the prediction by UV was 4.45 , while it resulted in 11.67 angle difference between direction predicted by µCT and the prediction by Achilles tendon thickness (ATT). This result demonstrates the ability of ultrasound as a non-invasive measurement tool for the principal structural orientation of the trabecular bone.

3) Development of mechano-electronic array SCAN imaging for bone quality assessment: New hardware and software are developed to synchronize mechanical fine scan with electrical phase delay scan, and sequential data transaction. Computer algorithms are designed to perform data analysis and imaging forming. An accelerated continuous scan mode is further designed and built including rapid A/D (amplitude-dependent) data acquisition, microprocessor control synchronizing (for scanning, transmit signal, and A/D trigger), and control algorithm. A high-resolution ultrasound image array with 0.5 mm resolution results in scan times of less than 2 minutes is achieved in the region of interest (ROI).

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important. Ultrasound has also demonstrated its therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are focused on developing a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic and treatment modality will have great impacts as early diagnostic to prevent bone loss and accelerate fracture healing. This research will address critical questions in the Bioastronautics Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAN for assessing bone's quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAN determined data and microCT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture. The research team has been focused on the technology development of the SCAN system and on determining interrelationship between ultrasound parameters and bone's structural and strength properties in a quantitative manner. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAN for assessing bone's quality in animal, human cadaver bone samples, and in vivo human subjects (e.g., bed rest). 13 peer-reviewed journal papers and more than 36 conference short papers were published in this period directly derived from this work.

Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. We are able to develop a SCAN system combined with therapeutic ultrasound capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAN is successfully used in the bedrest subjects and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement. Ultrasound treatment for progressive bone loss is also initiated in this year's research.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cheng J, Serra-Hsu F, Tian Y, Lin W, Qin YX. "Effects of phase cancellation and receiver aperture size on broadband ultrasonic attenuation for trabecular bone in vitro." Ultrasound Med Biol. 2011 Dec;37(12):2116-25. Epub 2011 Oct 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.08.009 ; PubMed PMID: 22033134 , Dec-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lin L, Cheng J, Lin W, Qin YX. "Prediction of trabecular bone principal structural orientation using quantitative ultrasound scanning." J Biomech. 2012 Jun 26;45(10):1790-5. Epub 2012 May 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.04.022 ; PubMed PMID: 22560370 , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lin W, Serra-Hsu F, Cheng J, Qin YX. "Frequency specific ultrasound attenuation is sensitive to trabecular bone structure." Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012 Dec;38(12):2198-207. Epub 2012 Sep 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2012.07.020 ; PubMed PMID: 22975035 , Dec-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX, Lin W, Mittra E, Xia Y, Cheng J, Judex S, Rubin C, Muller R. "Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound." Acta Astronautica. 2013 Nov;92(1):79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.08.032 (originally reported as Available online 5 October 2012.) , Nov-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zhang S, Cheng J, Qin YX. "Mechanobiological modulation of cytoskeleton and calcium influx in osteoblastic cells by short-term focused acoustic radiation force." PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038343 ; PubMed PMID: 22701628 , Jun-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hu M, Cheng J, Qin YX. "Dynamic hydraulic flow stimulation on mitigation of trabecular bone loss in a rat functional disuse model." Bone. 2012 Oct;51(4):819-25. Epub 2012 Jul 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2012.06.030 ; PubMed PMID: 22820398 , Oct-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zhang ZK, Guo X, Lao J, Qin YX. "Effect of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons on bone architecture and mechanical properties in the rat hindlimb suspension model." J Orthop Translat. 2017 Jul 27;10:12-7. eCollection 2017 Jul. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2017.03.001 ; PubMed PMID: 29662756; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5822959 , Jul-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX, Xia Y, Muir J, Lin W, Rubin CT. "Quantitative ultrasound imaging monitoring progressive disuse osteopenia and mechanical stimulation mitigation in calcaneus region through a 90-day bed rest human study." J Orthop Translat. 2019 Jul;18:48-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2018.11.004 ; PubMed PMID: 31508307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6718925 , Jul-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Grover K, Hu M, Lin L, Muir J, Qin YX. "Functional disuse initiates medullary endosteal micro-architectural impairment in cortical bone characterized by nanoindentation." J Bone Miner Metab. 2019 Nov;37(6):1048-57. Epub 2019 Jul 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00774-019-01011-1 ; PMID: 31292723 , Nov-2019
Awards Qin Y-X. "Elected Corresponding Member, International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), May 2012." May-2012
Awards Qin Y-X. "First patent award, Brookhaven Town, NY, July 2012." Jul-2012
Project Title:  Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 11/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 11/14/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Lin, Wei  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Mirza, Naureen  University of Kentucky 
Gelato, Marie  University of Kentucky 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) ExMC 4.06:We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2013 (from 10/31/2013) per NSBRI (Ed., 5/14/2013)

NOTE: Extended to 10/31/2013 per NSBRI (Ed., 2/22/2013)

Task Description: Using a newly developed noninvasive Scanning Confocal Acoustic Navigation (SCAN) technology, strong correlations between SCAN determined data and bone structural and strength parameters were observed. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture. The team is continuing the technology development of a new generation of the SCAN device to access the bone quality at multiple skeletal sites, and use ultrasound to treat the bone fracture in this year. A demo device was shown at the NSBRI 5-year review in Houston in January, 2011. A combined mechanical and electrical array scan modality has been initiated, which can complete the SCAN time at the particular skeletal site less in than 2.5 minutes. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone for determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness).

Several studies were conducted:

1) Development of electronic array SCAN for bone imaging. The objective for this project is to develop computer-controlled phase delay and sequence of acoustic excitation energy for electronic focusing in the 3-D object. An accelerated continuous scan mode is further designed and built including rapid A/D data acquisition, microprocessor control synchronizing (for scanning, transmit signal, and A/D trigger) and control algorithm. A high-resolution ultrasound image array with 60x60 (mm2) and 0.5 mm resolution results in scan times of less than 2.5 minutes in the region of interest (ROI).

2) Development of SCAN for multi-site quantitative ultrasound measurement. The team is continuing to develop an image based SCAN technology for enhanced diagnostic readings at multiple anatomical sites, e.g., wrist region for distal radius and ulna. A soft contact transducer holder was designed to provide acoustic coupling free of water. The design was validated using 2D SCAN imaging system, and evaluated with its performance at the distal radius. Strong correlation between H2O and gel coupling (R2=0.89), and high repeatability (95%) were observed at the tested site. Results indicated that there was an excellent relationship between ultrasound imaging and microradiographic image. These data demonstrated feasibility of ultrasound imaging in multiple critical skeletal sites, i.e., wrist.

3) Characterization of cortical bone fracture with SCAN and longitudinal acoustic velocity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cortical fracture gap size using quantitative ultrasound imaging, and the longitudinal ultrasound velocity in bone to predict the fracture gap size. Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound and X-ray images in fracture size (R2=0.91). High correlation was found between gap size and the longitudinal velocity from 4000 m/s to 3000 m/s for 0-5 mm gaps (R2=0.93). These results suggest that ultrasound is capable to predict bone fracture, and provide useful information for longitudinal assessment of complications, such as non-union fracture, and for evaluating healing.

4) Improving ultrasound sensitivity with phase cancellation method. Phase cancellation in ultrasound due to large receiver size has been proposed as a contributing factor to the inaccuracy of estimating broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). In vitro ultrasound measurements were conducted on 54 trabecular bone samples (harvested from sheep femurs) in a confocal configuration with a focused transmitter and synthesized focused receivers of different aperture sizes. Phase sensitive (PS) and phase insensitive (PI) detections were performed. The results indicate that the receiver aperture size used in the confocal configuration with PI detection should at least equal the aperture of the transmitter to capture most of the energy redistributed by the interference and diffraction from the trabecular bone.

5) Mitigation of bone loss using guided therapeutic ultrasound in osteopenia. The objective of this project is to evaluate the capability of guided ultrasound in generating dynamic mechanical signal to inhibit bone loss in an estrogen deficient model of osteopenia. Specimen specific, voxel based, finite element (FE) models (E=18GPa & v=0.3), were generated using µCT image data and 1% axial compressive strain was simulated using a nonlinear FE solver (ABAQUS). US treatment significantly increased BVF compared to OVX controls for the 100mW/cm2 treated group. This study suggests that there exists a minimum intensity threshold below which US in less effective at maintaining bone's microstructural and mechanical characteristics. The paper is published in BONE.

6) Acceleration of fracture healing in vivo in a disuse animal model using guided ultrasound. Long duration microgravity not only induces bone loss, but also increases risk of fracture. The aim of this project is to evaluate the potentials of low-intensity guided therapeutic ultrasound on acceleration of fracture healing under delayed union model using hindlimb suspension (HLS) rats. The results have revealed that 6% less bone volume was observed in HLS alone group than the normal fracture (i.e., normal non-HLS condition). Ultrasound treatment on HLS fracture accelerated the healing with significant higher bone volume (25% than the HLS alone group. These data imply that guided ultrasound can speed up the healing and mineralization in the fracture callus, while disuse may delay the fracture healing.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important. Ultrasound has also demonstrated its therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are focused on developing a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic and treatment modality will have great impacts as early diagnostic to prevent bone loss and accelerate fracture healing. This research will address critical questions in the Bioastronautics Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAN for assessing bone's quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAN determined data and microCT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research. Our principal goal is to continue the development and evaluation of the SCAN system for ground-based determination of bone's physical properties, and for determining even subtle changes of bone during extended flights.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critical role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. We are able to develop a SCAN system combined with therapeutic ultrasound capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAN is successfully used in the bedrest subjects and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement. Ultrasound treatment for progressive bone loss is also initiated in this year's research.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cheng J, Lin W, Qin YX. "Extension of the distributed point source method for ultrasonic field modeling." Ultrasonics. 2011 Jul;51(5):571-80. Epub 2010 Dec 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2010.12.011 ; PubMed PMID: 21269654 , Jul-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cheng J, Lu JY, Lin W, Qin YX. "A new algorithm for spatial impulse response of rectangular planar transducers." Ultrasonics. 2011 Feb;51(2):229-37. Epub 2010 Sep 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2010.08.007 ; PMID: 20863543 , Feb-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ferreri SL, Talish R, Trandafir T, Qin YX. "Mitigation of bone loss with ultrasound induced dynamic mechanical signals in an OVX induced rat model of osteopenia." Bone. 2011 May 1;48(5):1095-102. Epub 2011 Jan 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2011.01.002 ; PubMed PMID: 21241838 , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lam H, Hu M, Qin YX. "Alteration of contraction-to-rest ratio to optimize trabecular bone adaptation induced by dynamic muscle stimulation." Bone. 2011 Feb;48(2):399-405. Epub 2010 Sep 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2010.09.018 ; PubMed PMID: 20850577 , Feb-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX. "Challenges to the musculoskeleton during a journey to Mars: Assessment and counter measures." J Cosmol. 2010 Oct- Nov;12:3778-80. http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars148.html , Oct-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Serra-Hsu F, Cheng J, Lynch T, Qin YX. "Evaluation of a pulsed phase-locked loop system for noninvasive tracking of bone deformation under loading with finite element and strain analysis." Physiol Meas. 2011 Aug;32(8):1301-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/32/8/019 ; PubMed PMID: 21765205 , Aug-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zia Uddin SM, Cheng J, Lin W, Qin YX. "Low-intensity amplitude modulated ultrasound increases osteoblastic mineralization." Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering. 2011 Mar;4(1):81-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-010-0153-8 , Mar-2011
Awards Qin YX. "Elected College Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE), February 2011." Feb-2011
Project Title:  Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 11/01/2008  
End Date: 10/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 11/09/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Lin, Wei  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Mirza, Naureen  University of Kentucky 
Gelato, Marie  University of Kentucky 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) ExMC 4.06:We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Musculoskeletal complications, i.e., osteoporosis, induced by microgravity during extended space mission and age-related disorders represent a key health problem. Osteoporosis will diminish both the structure and strength of bone, each considered critical in defining the ability of the bone to resist fracture. Early diagnosis of such progressive bone loss would allow prompt treatment, and thus inherently reduce the risk of fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is a well-accepted, standard assessment used for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis, using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in the clinic. However, it is limited to a BMD index and insensitive to bone's physical properties. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques can characterize both BMD and the material properties. Using a newly developed noninvasive Scanning Confocal Acoustic Navigation (SCAN) technology, strong correlations between SCAN determined data and bone's structural and strength parameters were observed. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture, i.e., hip, long bone and wrist regions. We will evaluate bone's quality in clinical human subjects, and at the JSC/UTMB bedrest facility. Animal models and cadaver will be used for testing feasibility of identifying bone loss, fracture, and longitudinally treatment and monitoring. A noninvasive diagnostic and treatment technology using ultrasound will have significant potentials to prevent and treat bone fracture, and will address critical questions in the NASA HRP risks related to bone loss monitoring, prevention and recovery, and acceleration of fracture healing.

In this year's research, the team is continuing the development of a new generation of the prototype SCAN system to access the bone quality at multiple skeletal sites, and use ultrasound to detect bone fracture. A combined mechanical and electrical array scan modality has been initiated, which can complete the SCAN time at the particular skeletal site less in than 2.5 minutes. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone for determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness). The team has achieved several milestones:

1) Continuing development of SCAN for multi-site quantitative ultrasound measurement. The objective of this project is to develop an image based SCAN technology for enhanced diagnostic readings at multiple anatomical sites, e.g., wrist region for distal radius and ulna. Strong correlation between H2O and gel coupling (R2=0.89), and high repeatability (95%) were observed at the tested site. Results indicated that there was an excellent relationship between ultrasound imaging and microradiographic image.

2) Characterization of cortical bone fracture with SCAN and longitudinal acoustic velocity. A real-time scanning confocal ultrasound image was developed to evaluate bone defect and bone loss. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cortical fracture gap size using quantitative ultrasound imaging, and the longitudinal ultrasound velocity in bone to predict the fracture gap size. Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound and X-ray images in fracture size (R2=0.91). These results suggest that ultrasound is capable to predict bone fracture, and provide useful information for longitudinal assessment of complications, such as non-union fracture, and for evaluating healing.

3) Continuing development of electronic SCAN with array ultrasound transducer. To develop computer-controlled phase delay and sequence of acoustic excitation energy for electronic focusing in the 3-D object, an accelerated continuous scan mode is designed and built including rapid A/D data acquisition, microprocessor control synchronizing (for scanning, transmit signal, and A/D trigger) and control algorithm. A high-resolution 2-D ultrasound image array with 60x60 (mm2) and 0.5 mm resolution results in scan times of less than 2.5 minutes in the region of interest (ROI), i.e., in calcaneus, wrist, and knee. 4) Guided low-energy therapeutic ultrasound in an OVX rat model of osteopenia. The objective of this project is to evaluate the capability of therapeutic ultrasound in mitigation of bone loss in an estrogen deficient model of osteopenia. US treatment significantly increased BVF compared to OVX controls for the 100mW/cm2 treated group. This study suggests that there exists a minimum intensity threshold below which US in less effective at maintaining bone's microstructural and mechanical characteristics.

5) Bone fracture healing using low-energy guided ultrasound. The aim of this project is to evaluate the potentials of low-intensity guided therapeutic ultrasound on acceleration of fracture healing under delayed union model (femur) using hindlimb suspension (HLS) rats. The results have revealed that 6% less bone volume was observed in HLS alone group than the normal fracture (i.e., normal non-HLS condition). Ultrasound treatment on HLS fracture accelerated the healing with significant higher bone volume (25%) than the HLS alone group.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important.

Ultrasound has also demonstrated its therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are focused on developing a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAN imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound.

Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic and treatment modality will have great impacts as early diagnostic to prevent bone loss and accelerate fracture healing. This research will address critical questions in the Bioastronautics Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing.

The results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of SCAN for assessing bone's quality in bone. We have been able to demonstrate that the bone quality is predictable via non-invasive scanning ultrasound imaging in the ROI, and to demonstrate the strong correlation between SCAN determined data and µCT identified BMD, structural index, and mechanical modulus. These data have provided a foundation for further development of the technology and the clinical application in this research.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. We are able to develop a SCAN system combined with therapeutic ultrasound capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone's physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAN is successfully used in the bedrest subjects and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement. Ultrasound treatment for progressive bone loss is also initiated in this year's research.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cheng J, Lu JY, Lin W, Qin YX. "A new algorithm for spatial impulse response of rectangular planar transducers." Ultrasonics. 2010 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20863543 , Sep-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lam H, Hu M, Qin YX. "Alteration of contraction-to-rest ratio to optimize trabecular bone adaptation induced by dynamic muscle stimulation." Bone. 2010 Sep 17. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 20850577 , Sep-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lin W, Xia Y, Qin YX. "Characterization of the trabecular bone structure using frequency modulated ultrasound pulse." J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Jun;125(6):4071-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3126993 ; PMID: 19507988 , Jun-2009
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX, Lam H, Ferreri S, Rubin C. "Dynamic skeletal muscle stimulation and its potential in bone adaptation." J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2010 Mar;10(1):12-24. PMID: 20190376 , Mar-2010
Awards Qin Y-X. "NYSTAR Distinguished Faculty Development Award, October 2009." Oct-2009
Patents US Patent 7,727,152 B2. Patent awarded June 1, 2010. Jun-2010 Qin Y, Rubin C, Lin W. "Method and apparatus for scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic for bone quality."
Project Title:  Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 11/01/2008  
End Date: 10/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 12/09/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Rubin, Clinton  Research Foundation of SUNY 
Lin, Wei  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Mirza, Naureen  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Gelato, Marie  SUNY- The State University of New York 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) ExMC 4.06:We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Musculoskeletal complications, i.e., osteoporosis, induced by microgravity during extended space mission and age-related disorders represent a key health problem. Osteoporosis will diminish both the structure and strength of bone, each considered critical in defining the ability of the bone to resist fracture. Early diagnosis of such progressive bone loss would allow prompt treatment, and thus inherently reduce the risk of fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is a well-accepted, standard assessment used for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis, using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in the clinic. However, it is limited to a BMD index and insensitive to bone's physical properties. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques can characterize both BMD and the material properties. Using a newly developed noninvasive Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic (SCAD) technology, strong correlations between SCAD determined data and bone's structural and strength parameters were observed. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAD imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture, i.e., hip, long bone and wrist regions. We will evaluate bone’s quality in clinical human subjects, and at the JSC/UTMB bedrest facility. Animal models and cadaver will be used for testing feasibility of identifying bone loss, fracture, and longitudinally treatment and monitoring. A noninvasive diagnostic and treatment technology using ultrasound will have significant potentials to prevent and treat bone fracture, and will address critical questions in the HRP Bioastronautics Roadmap related to bone loss monitoring, prevention and recovery.

In this year’s research, the research team is continuing in development of a new generation of the prototype of scanning confocal acoustic navigation (SCAN) system to access the bone quality at the multiple skeletal sites, and use ultrasound to detect bone fracture. A combined mechanical and electrical array scan modality has been initiated, which can complete the SCAN time at the particular skeletal site less than 2.5 minutes. The new development is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution quantitative ultrasound (QUS) attenuation and velocity maps of bone for determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness). Several studies were conducted.

(1) Multi-Site Quantitative Ultrasound Scanner for Osteoporosis Diagnostics - Evaluated at the Distal Radius. The objective of this study was to provide validation of the new mechanical setup for the 2D scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, and evaluate its performance at the distal radius.

(2) Non-invasive assessment of long bone fracture and its potential healing process using quantitative ultrasound.

In this study, we evaluated a hypothesis that the ultrasonic velocity drop is dependent on the fracture gap size. A three transducers ultrasound system was setup to measure fracture gap size. This was verified by both experiment and mathematical simulation.

(3) Mediation of Bone Loss with Ultrasound Induced Dynamic Mechanical Signals in an OVX Rat Model of Osteopenia.

This study tests the hypothesis that an ultrasound generated dynamic mechanical signal can inhibit bone loss in an estrogen deficient model of osteopenia.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Musculoskeletal decay due to a microgravity environment has greatly impacted the nation's civil space missions and ground operations. Such musculoskeletal complications are also major health problems on Earth, i.e., osteoporosis, and the delayed healing of fractures. About 13 to 18 percent of women aged 50 years and older and 3 to 6 percent of men aged 50 years and older have osteoporosis in the US alone. One-third of women over 65 will have vertebral fractures and 90% of women aged 75 and older have radiographic evidence of osteoporosis. Thus, approximately a total of 24 million people suffer from osteoporosis in the United States, with an estimated annual direct cost of over $18 billion to national health programs. Hence, an early diagnosis that can predict fracture risk and result in prompt treatment is extremely important.

Ultrasound has also demonstrated its therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are focused on developing a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAD imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound.

Development of a low mass, compact, noninvasive diagnostic and treatment modality will have great impacts as early diagnostic to prevent bone loss and accelerate fracture healing. This research will address critical questions in the Bioastronautics Roadmap related to non-invasive assessment of the acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and the monitoring of fractures and impaired fracture healing.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: Musculoskeletal complications induced by age-related diseases like osteoporosis, and in long-term disuse osteopenia such as a lack of microgravity during extended space missions and long-term bed rest, represent a key health problem. Such a skeletal disorder changes both the structural and strength properties of bone, and the latter plays a critic role in ultimately leading to fracture. Early diagnosis of progressive bone loss or poor bone quality would allow prompt treatment and thus will dramatically reduce the risk of bone fracture. While most of the osteoporotic fractures occur in cancellous bone, non-invasive assessment of trabecular strength and stiffness is extremely important in evaluating bone quality. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. We are able to develop a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system capable of generating acoustic images at the regions of interest (e.g., in the human calcaneus) for identifying the strength of trabecular bone, in which the system is capable of generating non-invasive, high-resolution ultrasound (US) attenuation and velocity maps of bone, and thus determining the relationship between ultrasonic specific parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength and bone’s physical properties (i.e., stiffness and modulus). The ultrasound resolution and sensitivity are significantly improved by its configuration, compared to the existing technology. Developed prototype of SCAD is successfully used in the bedrest subjects and clinical test (Stony Brook University). A fast scan mode (~2.5 min) and a surface topology mapping technology using scanning ultrasound are developed and capable of determining calcaneus bone thickness accurately and hence enhancing the accuracy of UV measurement. Ultrasound treatment for progressive bone loss is also initiated in this year’s research.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lam H, Qin YX. "The effects of frequency-dependent dynamic muscle stimulation on inhibition of trabecular bone loss in a disuse model." Bone. 2008 Dec;43(6):1093-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.07.253 ; PMID: 18757047 , Dec-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mittra E, Rubin C, Gruber B, Qin YX. "Evaluation of trabecular mechanical and microstructural properties in human calcaneal bone of advanced age using mechanical testing, microCT, and DXA." J Biomech. 2008;41(2):368-75. PMID: 17953972 , Oct-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Qin YX, Lam H. "Intramedullary pressure and matrix strain induced by oscillatory skeletal muscle stimulation and its potential in adaptation." J Biomech. 2009 Jan 19;42(2):140-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.10.018 ; PMID: 19081096 ; PMID: 19081096 , Jan-2009
Awards Ferreri S, Qin YX. "2nd Place Paper Award for: Ultrasound Mitigating Bone Loss, ASME Bioengineering Annual Summer Conference, June 2009." Jun-2009
Awards Qin YX. "NYSTAR Distinguished Professor--Development Award, May 2009." May-2009
Project Title:  Combined Scanning Confocal Ultrasound Diagnostic and Treatment System for Bone Quality Assessment and Fracture Healing Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 11/01/2008  
End Date: 10/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 10/06/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Qin, Yi-Xian  Ph.D. / SUNY- The State University of New York 
Address:  Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory 
Room 215, Bioengineering Bldg 
Stony Brook , NY 11794-5281 
Email: yi-xian.qin@stonybrook.edu 
Phone: 631-632-1481  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: SUNY- The State University of New York 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mirza, Naureen  The Research Foundation of the State University of New York 
Gelato , Marie  The Research Foundation of the State University of New York 
Rubin, Clinton  State University of New York 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMST01603 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo:Risk Of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due To Spaceflight (No longer used, July 2020)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) ExMC 4.06:We do not have the capability to stabilize bone fractures and accelerate fracture healing during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(3) Fracture01:We do not understand how the space flight environment affects bone fracture healing in-flight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Musculoskeletal complications, i.e., osteoporosis, induced by microgravity during extended space mission and age-related disorders represent a key health problem. Osteoporosis will diminish both the structure and strength of bone, each considered critical in defining the ability of the bone to resist fracture. Early diagnosis of such progressive bone loss would allow prompt treatment, and thus inherently reduce the risk of fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is a well-accepted, standard assessment used for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis, using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in the clinic. However, it is limited to a BMD index and insensitive to bone's physical properties. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques can characterize both BMD and the material properties. Using a newly developed noninvasive Scanning Confocal Acoustic Diagnostic (SCAD) technology, strong correlations between SCAD determined data and bone's structural and strength parameters were observed. Ultrasound has also been shown therapeutic potentials to accelerate fracture healing. The objectives of this study are to develop a combined diagnostic and treatment ultrasound technology for early prediction of bone disorder and guided acceleration of fracture healing, using SCAD imaging and low-intensity pulse ultrasound. The technology will target to the critical skeletal sites, where may be significantly affected by disuse osteopenia and potentially at the risk of fracture, i.e., hip, long bone and wrist regions. We will evaluate bone¿s quality in clinical human subjects, and at the JSC/UTMB bedrest facility. Animal models and cadaver will be used for testing feasibility of identifying bone loss, fracture, and longitudinally treatment and monitoring. A noninvasive diagnostic and treatment technology using ultrasound will have significant potentials to prevent and treat bone fracture, and will address critical questions in the Bioastronautics Roadmap related to bone loss monitoring, prevention and recovery.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: A noninvasive diagnostic and treatment technology using ultrasound will have significant potentials to prevent and treat bone fracture.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/17/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009