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Project Title:  Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 02/22/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Adams, Gregory R. Ph.D. / University of California, Irvine 
Address:  Physiology & Biophysics 
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics 
Irvine , CA 92697-0001 
Email: gradams@uci.edu 
Phone: 949-824-5518  
Congressional District: 48 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Irvine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Baldwin, Kenneth  University of California, Irvine 
Caiozzo, Vincent  University of California, Irvine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(2) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(3) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2012, per NSBRI information (Ed., 1/17/2013)

Task Description: Extended space flight as well as existence on Mars will require exercise equipment and training protocols designed to maintain physical fitness and general health. NASA has determined that current flight rated exercise hardware is not appropriate for use on the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (JSC--Johnson Space Center--SAT Report 12/06). Studies will investigate protocols designed to maintain both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness using a gravity independent multi-mode exercise device (M-MED), which has been identified by NASA as potential flight hardware. M-MED can provide either high resistance strength- or low resistance endurance-mode exercises.

Phase I -ground based integrated strength & cardiovascular (CV) exercise training under normal weight bearing conditions.

Phases 2&3 - application of this protocol with progressive levels of inactivity.

Measurements - total body physical work capacity, muscular mass, strength, and sustained muscle endurance (i.e., extravehicular activity, EVA, related issues). CV-related exercise using M-MED "aerobic" mode configuration designed to minimize the time spent in exercise using high power output, short duration interval training. On alternate days, the M-MED will be configured for strength training which has been shown to result in increased muscle strength and size. These studies will validate the efficacy of concurrent endurance and strength training as a high economy approach to flight crew physical fitness, using a scientifically proven exercise modality that has a high probability for use during prolonged space flight missions. This work directly addresses primary requirements in the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Request for Applications (RFA):

1. "New, innovative exercise hardware for deployment on CEV and Martian surfaces that provide efficient means for maintenance of aerobic capacity, bone and muscle strength, and endurance with sufficient reserve for contingencies."

2. "New, innovative exercise protocols that minimize in-flight crew time necessary to maintain aerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance, and facilitate reserve for contingencies on lunar and Martian missions."

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, this project has demonstrated that a very modest amount of time invested in exercise using the multi-mode exercise device (M-MED) can produce substantial increases in muscle function and cardiovascular fitness. In particular, the fact that M-MED based exercise induces performance gains at many movement speeds suggests that it may be superior to more traditional methods. In total, these findings show that this equipment and these protocols developed specifically for space flight related application may provide a basis for broader use in situations where space and time constraints may limit access to effective exercise.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new exercise device, multi-mode exercise device or M-MED, for use during long-duration space flights for the maintenance of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness of astronauts. The M-MED is gravity independent and provides both the high force resistance and low force rowing type resistance. To date the results indicate that foot forces in resistance mode exercise on M-MED are similar to those seen using free weight exercises.

Electromyography (EMG) studies demonstrate that similar activation levels are seem in key muscles during either M-MED based or free weight resistance exercise. EMG during rowing demonstrate that the thigh, leg, and arm muscles are robustly activated. Endurance mode exercise was also found to stimulate recruitment of the muscles which support the spine. In a recently completed study, 32 subjects (16 male, 16 female) completed 5 weeks of combined resistance and endurance training using the M-MED. Muscle strength increased ~20% while aerobic fitness measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) increased ~8%. M-MED training increased time to hand grip fatigue by ~70% and leg extension fatigue by ~27%. Thigh muscle cross sectional area increased ~11% as a result of training. Additional deliverables include cross validation of VO2max testing results between the M-MED device and laboratory standard cycle ergometry based testing protocols. As requested by NASA, additional studies have demonstrated that M-MED based exercise can increase the size and strength of the calf and hamstrings muscle groups. These results demonstrate that the M-MED device can be used for both training and physical work capacity testing providing a platform for in-flight assessment.

In summary, findings to date indicate that the gravity independent M-MED is a viable option for resistance- and endurance-mode exercise during flight and/or planetary exploration thereby addressing two critical risks: 1) Cardiovascular deconditioning; 2) Decreased muscle strength, endurance, and size (atrophy). Endurance mode exercise may have the added benefit of maintaining and, possibly, improving endurance of arm muscles of flight crews as well as aiding in the maintenance of lower back stability and loading during flight and planetary exploration.

Presentations at workshops and meetings are listed below and also in the Bibliography section:

Countermeasure Exercise Using a Single, Gravity Independent, Device to Prevent Cardiovascular and Muscular Deconditioning. J. Cotter, T. Owerkowicz, F. Haddad, P. Tesch, V. Caiozzo, G. Adams. American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology Annual Meeting, 2011.

Resistance and aerobic flywheel training improves muscle strength and aerobic capacity in ambulatory subjects. Owerkowicz T, Cotter JA, Yu AM, Camilon ML, Hoang T, Baker MJ, Pandorf C, Kreitenberg A, Baldwin KM, Tesch PA, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. 18th Humans in Space symposium of the International Academy of Astronauts. Houston, TX, 2011.

Gravity-independent flywheel exercise training improves aerobic capacity and muscle strength in ambulatory subjects. Owerkowicz T, Cotter JA, Tesch PA, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. Experimental Biology Washington, DC, 2011

DNA Methylation is Altered in Human Skeletal Muscle in Response to Exercise Training. Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Fadia Haddad, Tomasz Owerkowicz, Joseph M. Devaney, Eric P. Hoffman, Per A. Tesch, Gregory R. Adams. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, 2012

Influence of 10 days of unilateral lower limb suspension and combined exercise training on human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles. J. Cotter, F. Hadad, A. Yu, T. Hoang, M. Baker, P. Tesch, K. Baldwin, V. Caiozzo, G. Adams. Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, 2012.

The presence and regulation of antisense long non-coding RNA with altered myosin expression in exercising human muscle. Clay E. Pandorf, Fadia Haddad, Tomasz Owerkowicz, Kenneth M. Baldwin, Vincent J. Caiozzo, Gregory R. Adams. Experimental Biology, 2012.

The Effects Of Muscle Unloading With And Without Exercise Countermeasures On Loading Sensitive Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers. G. Adams, J. Cotter, C. Pandorf, F. Haddad, P. Tesch, K. Baldwin,V. Caiozzo. NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Meeting, 2012.

Counteracting decrements in muscle function and aerobic capacity during unloading utilizing a gravity independent device. Cotter J, Hoang T, Yu A, Tesch P, Caiozzo V, Adams G. Podium presentation at the Annual Meeting for the American College of Sports Medicine, San Francisco, CA, 2012.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/23/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Cotter J, Owerkowicz T, Haddad F, Tesch P, Caiozzo V, Adams G. "Countermeasure Exercise Using a Single, Gravity Independent, Device to Prevent Cardiovascular and Muscular Deconditioning." 27th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, San Jose, CA, November 3-6, 2011.

27th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, San Jose, CA, November 3-6, 2011. Abstract book. , Nov-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Owerkowicz T, Cotter JA, Yu AM, Camilon ML, Hoang T, Baker MJ, Pandorf C, Kreitenberg A, Baldwin KM, Tesch PA, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "Resistance and aerobic flywheel training improves muscle strength and aerobic capacity in ambulatory subjects." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Owerkowicz T, Cotter JA, Tesch PA, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "Gravity-independent flywheel exercise training improves aerobic capacity and muscle strength in ambulatory subjects." Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC, April 9-13, 2011.

FASEB Journal. 2011 Apr;25(Meeting Abstract Supplement): 668.3. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Cotter J, Haddad F, Yu A, Hoang T, Baker M, Tesch P, Baldwin K, Caiozzo V, Adams G. "Influence of 10 days of unilateral lower limb suspension and combined exercise training on human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles." Experimental Biology 2012, San Diego, CA, April 21-25, 2012.

FASEB Journal. 2012 Apr;26(Meeting Abstract Supplement):1085.4. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Pandorf CE, Haddad F, Owerkowicz T, Baldwin KM, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "The presence and regulation of antisense long non-coding RNA with altered myosin expression in exercising human muscle." Experimental Biology 2012, San Diego, CA, April 21-25, 2012.

FASEB Journal. 2012 Apr;26(Meeting Abstract Supplement):1086.15. , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Radom-Aizik S, Haddad F, Owerkowicz T, Devaney JM, Hoffman EP, Tesch PA, Adams GR. "DNA Methylation Is Altered in Human Skeletal Muscle in Response to Exercise Training." American College of Sports Medicine 59th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, May 29-June 2, 2012.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2012 May;44(Suppl 2):348. Search: http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/toc/2012/05002#-1957448170 , May-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Cotter JA, Hoang T, Yu A, Tesch P, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "Counteracting decrements in muscle function and aerobic capacity during unloading utilizing a gravity independent device." American College of Sports Medicine 59th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, May 29-June 2, 2012. Podium presentation.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2012 May;44(Suppl 2):110. Search: http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/toc/2012/05002#-1957448170 , May-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Adams G, Cotter J, Pandorf C, Haddad F, Tesch P, Baldwin K, Caiozzo V. "The effects of muscle unloading with and without exercise countermeasures on loading sensitive cellular and molecular biomarkers." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cotter JA, Yu A, Haddad F, Kreitenberg A, Baker MJ, Tesch PA, Baldwin KM, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "Concurrent exercise on a gravity-independent device during simulated microgravity." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 May;47(5):990-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000483 ; PubMed PMID: 25160844; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4340828 , May-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Owerkowicz T, Cotter JA, Haddad F, Yu AM, Camilon ML, Hoang TN, Jimenez DJ, Kreitenberg A, Tesch PA, Caiozzo VJ, Adams GR. "Exercise responses to gravity-independent flywheel aerobic and resistance training." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016 Feb;87(2):93-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4229.2016 ; PubMed PMID: 26802373; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4832934 , Feb-2016
Project Title:  Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/04/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Adams, Gregory R. Ph.D. / University of California, Irvine 
Address:  Physiology & Biophysics 
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics 
Irvine , CA 92697-0001 
Email: gradams@uci.edu 
Phone: 949-824-5518  
Congressional District: 48 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Irvine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Baldwin, Kenneth  University of California, Irvine 
Caiozzo, Vincent  University of California, Irvine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(2) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(3) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2012, per NSBRI information (Ed., 1/17/2013)

Task Description: Extended space flight as well as existence on Mars will require exercise equipment and training protocols designed to maintain physical fitness and general health. NASA has determined that current flight rated exercise hardware is not appropriate for use on the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (JSC SAT Report 12/06). Studies will investigate protocols designed to maintain both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness using a gravity independent multi-mode exercise device (M-MED), which has been identified by NASA as potential flight hardware. M-MED can provide either high resistance strength- or low resistance endurance-mode exercises. Phase I -ground based integrated strength & CV exercise training under normal weight bearing conditions. Phases 2&3 - application of this protocol with progressive levels of inactivity. Measurements - total body physical work capacity, muscular mass, strength and sustained muscle endurance (i.e., EVA related issues). CV-related exercise using M-MED "aerobic" mode configuration designed to minimize the time spent in exercise using high power output, short duration interval training. On alternate days, the M-MED will be configured for strength training which has been shown to result in increased muscle strength and size. These studies will validate the efficacy of concurrent endurance and strength training as a high economy approach to flight crew physical fitness, using a scientifically proven exercise modality that has a high probability for use during prolonged spaceflight missions. This work directly addresses primary requirements in the NSBRI RFA:

1. "New, innovative exercise hardware for deployment on CEV and Martian surfaces that provide efficient means for maintenance of aerobic capacity, bone and muscle strength, and endurance with sufficient reserve for contingencies".

2. "New, innovative exercise protocols that minimize in-flight crew time necessary to maintain aerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance, and facilitate reserve for contingencies on lunar and Martian missions".

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: To date, this project has demonstrated that a very modest amount of time invested in exercise using the multi-mode exercise device (M-MED) can produce substantial increases in muscle function and cardiovascular fitness. In particular, the fact that M-MED based exercise induces performance gains at many movement speeds suggests that it may be superior to more traditional methods. In total, these findings show that this equipment and these protocols developed specifically for space flight related application may provide a basis for broader use in situations where space and time constraints may limit access to effective exercise.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new exercise device, multi-mode exercise device or M-MED, for use during long-duration spaceflights for the maintenance of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness of astronauts. The M-MED is gravity independent and provides both the high force resistance and low force rowing type resistance. To date the results indicate that foot forces in resistance mode exercise on M-MED are similar to those seen using free weight exercises. Electromyography (EMG) studies demonstrate that similar activation levels are seem in key muscles during either M-MED based or free weight resistance exercise. EMG during rowing demonstrate that the thigh, leg and arm muscles are robustly activated. Endurance mode exercise was also found to stimulate recruitment of the muscles which support the spine. In a recently completed study, 32 subjects (16 male, 16 female) completed 5 weeks of combined resistance and endurance training using the M-MED. Muscle strength increased ~20% while aerobic fitness measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) increased ~8%. M-MED training increased time to hand grip fatigue by ~70% and leg extension fatigue by ~27%. Thigh muscle cross sectional area increased ~11% as a result of training. Additional deliverables include cross validation of VO2max testing results between the M-MED device and laboratory standard cycle ergometry based testing protocols. As requested by NASA, additional studies have demonstrated that M-MED based exercise can increase the size and strength of the calf and hamstrings muscle groups. These results demonstrate that the M-MED device can be used for both training and physical work capacity testing providing a platform for in-flight assessment. In summary, findings to date indicate that the gravity independent M-MED is a viable option for resistance- and endurance-mode exercise during flight and/or planetary exploration thereby addressing two critical risks: 1) cardiovascular deconditioning; 2) Decreased muscle strength, endurance and size (atrophy). Endurance mode exercise may have the added benefit of maintaining and, possibly, improving endurance of arm muscles of flight crews as well as aiding in the maintenance of lower back stability and loading during flight and planetary exploration.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/23/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2011
Project Title:  Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/01/2008  
End Date: 05/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/21/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Adams, Gregory R. Ph.D. / University of California, Irvine 
Address:  Physiology & Biophysics 
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics 
Irvine , CA 92697-0001 
Email: gradams@uci.edu 
Phone: 949-824-5518  
Congressional District: 48 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Irvine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Baldwin, Kenneth  University of California, Irvine 
Caiozzo, Vincent  University of California, Irvine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(2) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(3) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: Extended space flight as well as existence on the Moon and Mars will require exercise equipment and training protocols designed to maintain physical fitness and general health. NASA has determined that current flight rated exercise hardware is not appropriate for use on the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (JSC SAT Report 12/06). Studies will investigate protocols designed to maintain both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness using a gravity independent multi-mode exercise device (M-MED), which has been identified by NASA as potential flight hardware. M-MED can provide either high resistance strength- or low resistance endurance-mode exercises. Phase I -ground based integrated strength & CV exercise training under normal weight bearing conditions. Phases 2&3 - application of this protocol with progressive levels of inactivity. Measurements - total body physical work capacity, muscular mass, strength and sustained muscle endurance (i.e., EVA related issues). CV-related exercise using M-MED "aerobic" mode configuration designed to minimize the time spent in exercise using high power output, short duration interval training. On alternate days, the M-MED will be configured for strength training which has been shown to result in increased muscle strength and size. These studies will validate the efficacy of concurrent endurance and strength training as a high economy approach to flight crew physical fitness, using a scientifically proven exercise modality that has a high probability for use during prolonged spaceflight missions. This work directly addresses primary requirements in the NSBRI RFA:

1. "New, innovative exercise hardware for deployment on CEV, lunar and Martian surfaces that provide efficient means for maintenance of aerobic capacity, bone and muscle strength, and endurance with sufficient reserve for contingencies".

2. "New, innovative exercise protocols that minimize in-flight crew time necessary to maintain aerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance, and facilitate reserve for contingencies on lunar and Martian missions".

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The data collection associated with this study includes extensive cellular and molecular analysis that will provide information on the mechanisms by which skeletal muscle adapts. This information will contribute to the basic science necessary to understand regulatory processes in muscle. A number of disease states result in changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular level. The fundamental information developed in the current studies will contribute to the knowledge base necessary to understand these processes. Specific questions, such as the potential for cross- talk or interference between endurance and resistance mode exercise also have high relevance in the area of rehabilitation medicine as well as occupational and sports performance. The M-MED itself represents a single stand alone system that can be used for a wide variety of exercises. As such it can provide a useful platform for either rehabilitation and/or health maintenance in circumstances wherein access to a number of much larger devices is limiting.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: It has been established that long term residence in an environment with effective gravity loading significantly lower than earth normal will cause deconditioning of the cardiovascular, skeletal and skeletal muscular systems. Resistance and endurance mode exercise will be required to counter these deconditioning effects. The multi-mode exercise device or M-MED is gravity independent and is designed to provide both the high force concentric (muscles shorten against resistance) and eccentric (muscles resist lengthening due to an external load) and low force rowing type resistance. This allows the M-MED to be used for both low repetition high force strength training and high repetition low force endurance mode training. The aims of this study are to validate the effectiveness of M-MED exercise as countermeasures to physical deconditioning. To date the results indicate that foot forces in resistance mode exercise on M-MED are similar to those seen using free weight exercises. Similarly, electromyography (EMG) studies demonstrate that similar activation levels are seem in key agonist muscles during either M-MED based or free weight resistance exercise. These findings indicate that the gravity independent M-MED is a viable option for resistance mode exercise during flight and/or planetary exploration. Results also show that, when configured for endurance mode exercise, the thigh, leg and arm muscles are robustly activated. Thus M-MED endurance mode exercise may have the added benefit of maintaining and, possibly, improving strength and endurance of arm muscles of flight crews. Endurance mode exercise was also found to stimulate recruitment of the muscles which support the spine indicating that M-MED based exercise may promote the maintenance of lower back stability and loading during flight and planetary exploration.

Year 2 training studies involve eight weeks of subject participation and are conducted in serial campaigns. To date, three eight week campaigns have been completed. A total of sixteen subjects have completed training. In addition, nine subjects are currently participating in campaign number four. Data analysis is ongoing. Interim results indicate that subjects completing the combined interval endurance plus heavy resistance training protocol experienced significant increases in: VO2 max (12%), 3RM (18%) and myofiber cross sectional area (14.5%). These results indicate that training on the M-MED device has the potential to address two critical risks: 1) cardiovascular deconditioning; 2) Decreased muscle strength and size (atrophy). Additional deliverables from year 2 include cross validation of VO2 testing results between the M-MED device and laboratory standard cycle ergometry based testing protocols (r=0.95, p<0.0001; n=16). These results indicate that the M-MED device can be used for both training and physical work capacity testing providing a platform for in-flight assessment.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/23/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Adams GR. "Insulin-like growth factor I signaling in skeletal muscle and the potential for cytokine interactions." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jan;42(1):50-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b07d12 ; PubMed PMID: 20010130 , Jan-2010
Project Title:  Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/01/2008  
End Date: 05/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 06/05/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Adams, Gregory R. Ph.D. / University of California, Irvine 
Address:  Physiology & Biophysics 
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics 
Irvine , CA 92697-0001 
Email: gradams@uci.edu 
Phone: 949-824-5518  
Congressional District: 48 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Irvine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Baldwin, Kenneth  University of California, Irvine 
Caiozzo, Vincent  University of California, Irvine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(2) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(3) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: Extended space flight as well as existence on the Moon and Mars will require exercise equipment and training protocols designed to maintain physical fitness and general health. NASA has determined that current flight rated exercise hardware is not appropriate for use on the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (JSC SAT Report 12/06). Studies will investigate protocols designed to maintain both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness using a gravity independent multi-mode exercise device (M-MED), which has been identified by NASA as potential flight hardware. M-MED can provide either high resistance strength- or low resistance endurance-mode exercises. Phase I -ground based integrated strength & CV exercise training under normal weight bearing conditions. Phases 2&3 - application of this protocol with progressive levels of inactivity. Measurements - total body physical work capacity, muscular mass, strength and sustained muscle endurance (i.e., EVA related issues). CV-related exercise using M-MED "aerobic" mode configuration designed to minimize the time spent in exercise using high power output, short duration interval training. On alternate days, the M-MED will be configured for strength training which has been shown to result in increased muscle strength and size. These studies will validate the efficacy of concurrent endurance and strength training as a high economy approach to flight crew physical fitness, using a scientifically proven exercise modality that has a high probability for use during prolonged spaceflight missions.

This work directly addresses primary requirements in the NSBRI RFA:

1. "New, innovative exercise hardware for deployment on CEV, lunar and Martian surfaces that provide efficient means for maintenance of aerobic capacity, bone and muscle strength, and endurance with sufficient reserve for contingencies".

2. "New, innovative exercise protocols that minimize in-flight crew time necessary to maintain aerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance, and facilitate reserve for contingencies on lunar and Martian missions".

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The cellular and molecular analyses conducted as part of these studies will provide important information about the mechanisms by which the body adapts to increased and decreased loading. In particular, the interplay between resistance mode and endurance mode exercise and how this effects cellular and molecular adaptation has not been extensively studied. As such these findings will be of benefit to clinicians and practitioners who deal with conditions involving muscle wasting and cardiovascular disease.

The M-MED device itself represents a potentially useful modality for the maintenance of both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health. This could be of benefit in circumstances when limitations in cost or space requirements preclude the availability of a wide spectrum of exercise equipment.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: The primary tasks for year one involved procurement, validation and instrumentation of the M-MED. The M-MED was delivered to UCI in September of 2008. Validation studies including comparisons with free weights (see below) commenced immediately and were conducted in parallel with engineering tasks.

As presented at the recent NASA HRP workshop, preliminary studies using the M-MED device indicate that foot force measurements of resistance mode exercise are similar to those seen using free weight exercises. Similarly, electromyography (EMG) studies demonstrate that similar activation levels are seem in key agonist muscles during either M-MED based or free weight resistance exercise. These findings indicate that the gravity independent M-MED is a viable option for resistance mode exercise during flight and during planetary exploration.

When configured for endurance mode rowing exercise, EMG measurements indicate that, in addition to the thigh and leg muscles, there is a robust activation of upper and forearm muscles. This suggests that M-MED endurance mode exercise may have the added benefit of maintaining and, possibly, improving strength and endurance of arm muscles of flight crews.

Significantly, endurance mode exercise also stimulated robust recruitment of the muscles which support the spine. This finding suggests that M-MED based exercise may promote the maintenance of lower back stability and loading during flight and planetary exploration.

Foot force measurements obtained during endurance mode rowing exercise demonstrated that forces equivalent to earth normal walking (e.g., 1G) were generated during this exercise. This result indicates that, in addition to the cardiovascular benefits of this exercise, time spent rowing will contribute to musculoskeletal loading as well. This suggests that M-MED endurance mode exercise should contribute significantly to crew health maintenance while maximizing the value of time spent on countermeasure exercise.

In response to NASA JSC requests, the M-MED device has been instrumented to provide power output measurements during endurance mode exercise. This technological modification will facilitate the monitoring of crew exercise volume. The addition of this capability will also allow the M-MED device to be used for in-flight and planetary quantitative exercise capacity testing of crew members.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/23/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009
Project Title:  Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/01/2008  
End Date: 05/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2008 
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Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Adams, Gregory R. Ph.D. / University of California, Irvine 
Address:  Physiology & Biophysics 
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics 
Irvine , CA 92697-0001 
Email: gradams@uci.edu 
Phone: 949-824-5518  
Congressional District: 48 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Irvine 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Baldwin, Kenneth  University of California, Irvine 
Caiozzo, Vincent  University of California, Irvine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-MA01601 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(2) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(3) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: Extended space flight as well as existence on the Moon and Mars will require exercise equipment and training protocols designed to maintain physical fitness and general health. NASA has determined that current flight rated exercise hardware is not appropriate for use on the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (JSC SAT Report 12/06). Studies will investigate protocols designed to maintain both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness using a gravity independent multi-mode exercise device (M-MED), which has been identified by NASA as potential flight hardware. M-MED can provide either high resistance strength- or low resistance endurance-mode exercises.

Phase I -ground based integrated strength & CV exercise training under normal weight bearing conditions.

Phases 2&3 - application of this protocol with progressive levels of inactivity. Measurements - total body physical work capacity, muscular mass, strength and sustained muscle endurance (i.e., EVA related issues). CV-related exercise using M-MED "aerobic" mode configuration designed to minimize the time spent in exercise using high power output, short duration interval training. On alternate days, the M-MED will be configured for strength training which has been shown to result in increased muscle strength and size.

These studies will validate the efficacy of concurrent endurance and strength training as a high economy approach to flight crew physical fitness, using a scientifically proven exercise modality that has a high probability for use during prolonged spaceflight missions. This work directly addresses primary requirements in the NSBRI RFA:

1. "New, innovative exercise hardware for deployment on CEV, lunar and Martian surfaces that provide efficient means for maintenance of aerobic capacity, bone and muscle strength, and endurance with sufficient reserve for contingencies".

2. "New, innovative exercise protocols that minimize in-flight crew time necessary to maintain aerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance, and facilitate reserve for contingencies on lunar and Martian missions".

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/23/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008