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Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 10/29/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Mehta, Satish  EASI, NASA, JSC 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Increment 16

NOTE: changed end date to 9/30/2013 per B. Crucian (Ed., 2/4/2013)

NOTE: End date is 3/29/2013 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

NOTE: End date now 9/30/2013 per JSC (09/2010)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 015. Background: Post-flight data suggests immunity is dysregulated immediately following spaceflight. It is currently unknown if immune function is altered during long duration spaceflight. Persistent immune dysregulation during exploration class deep-space missions could result in specific clinical health risks for crewmembers. This study assessed various immune parameters at multiple points during 6-month spaceflight onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Methods: Blood was collected pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight from up to 22 astronauts participating in 6-month ISS expeditions. Samples were returned to Earth within 48 hours of collection for immediate analysis. Assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution, plasma cytokine levels, T cell function, T cell/monocyte cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation, and viral specific immunity.

Results: Some shifts in leukocyte distribution occurred during flight, including alterations within subsets of CD8+ T cells which indicated an increased maturation state. General T cell function (both CD4 and CD8+ subsets) was consistently reduced early in-flight. The percentage of CD4+ T cells capable of producing IL-2 was depressed early in-flight and after landing. Significant and persistent mitogen-specific reductions in culture-stimulated T cell production of IFNg, IL-10, IL-5, TNFa and IL-6 were observed during spaceflight. Monocyte production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 production was increased. Plasma cortisol was increased at landing but not in-flight. No significant changes occurred in anti-viral antibodies, but EBV T-cell function was decreased in-flight and was accompanied by an increase in EBV-infected cells in peripheral blood.

Conclusions. The data indicate that some alterations in immunity persist during spaceflight and are not merely related to the transitional stress of launch or landing. Ongoing immune dysregulation, reduced immune cell function and/or Th1/Th2 shifts, in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care may increase specific clinical risks for crewmembers during exploration-class space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This investigation provided new insights into the relationship between immunity, stress, and latent viral reactivation during spaceflight. This information may benefit terrestrial medicine. Spaceflight associated immune dysregulation is likely to be an immunodeficiency that could be very analogous to certain immunodeficiencies that occur on Earth. These terrestrial phenomenon may occur as a result of disease, or in humans subjected to unusual factors similar to spaceflight (confinement, physiological stress, etc.). In such cases, the mechanisms and monitoring strategies (and possibly countermeasure information) derived from this flight study could benefit terrestrial medicine.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: This task is completed.

This study investigated the status of the immune system during short duration spaceflight by collecting blood samples from US crewmembers during spaceflight. Flight blood samples were returned for terrestrial laboratory analysis. To our knowledge, this was the first study that returned live, ambient storage blood samples for functional assays. This approach allows an in-flight data point to be achieved without flying complicated laboratory instruments. The L-180 data were considered baseline for comparison of in-flight and landing day data. An additional sample was collected from ISS subjects at L-45, and for the Shuttle subjects at L-10; however, the L-10 sample was dictated by operational constraints. Astronauts are under considerable stress by L-10, so data at this timepoint may possibly be influenced by pre-launch stress and is not considered the best baseline measurement. The second baseline for ISS subjects was at L-45. Summary data findings are as follows:

There were alterations in the peripheral leukocyte distribution during short duration missions that were largely absent during long-duration ISS missions. However, there was an elevated WBC count and a maturation shift in CD8+ T cells during ISS missions.

T cell function was depressed during Shuttle missions in a mitogen specific fashion, with the more physiological relevant stimulus showing a consistent defect in T cell function. During ISS missions this reduction in T cell function was more apparently early, and trending to resolve as 6-month missions progressed.

A more downstream measure of T cell function, cytokine secretion, was profoundly dysregulated in ISS subjects for the duration of a 6-month mission.

Plasma cytokine levels in ISS astronauts were dysregulated for the duration of a 6-month mission.

A significant increase in constitutively activated CD8+ T cells was observed during ISS missions.

Latent viral reactivation for three herpes viruses, EBV, VZV, and CMV was observed significantly in crewmembers during both short and long duration spaceflight. Their viral load increased during flight than both before and after flight as well as the healthy controls on the ground. This effect was more pronounced in long duration space flight as compared to short duration spaceflight. Also shedding of VZV in saliva and CMV in urine of the ISS crewmembers continued up to 30 days or more after the spaceflight as compared to 5-7 days in space shuttle crewmembers. Although not significant due to subject number and inter-subject variability, antiviral antibodies were generally elevated consistent with the increased viral load.

EBV- and CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell number did not significantly change in either the Shuttle or ISS crewmembers. However, there was a pronounced decrease in function in EBV- and CMV-specific T-cells in the Shuttle crewmembers during and after flight. For ISS crewmembers, there was a decrease in EBV-specific T-cell function during and after flight. However this effect, except for landing, was not observed for CMV in long-duration flight.

Even though some changes in salivary cortisol levels as well as their circadian rhythm were observed in both ISS and Space Shuttle crewmembers, the differences were not significantly different. Likewise, plasma cortisol was not significantly changed during short- or long-duration flights although elevated levels were found at landing for both Shuttle and ISS missions.

These data indicate that immune system dysregulation, a previously established post-flight phenomenon, actually occurs during spaceflight prior to any physiological stress associated with landing and readaptation. This means that flight-associated variables such as microgravity, radiation, or the unique stresses that occur during missions, do influence human immunity. These may include microgravity exposure, confinement, disrupted circadian rhythms, or the physiological stress associated with spaceflight itself. The extremely busy work schedules associated with a short duration Space Shuttle mission also have the potential to impact immunity. In fact, stress effects on crewmember immunity, ahead of any in-flight variables, have been documented during L-10 to L-3 pre-flight studies. During ISS missions, it is far more likely that the observations do reflect ‘space normal’ for immunity during prolonged spaceflight. No matter which variable, or combination of variables, caused the observed in-flight changes, we now consider it established that immunity is dysregulated during spaceflight. The clinical consequences of immune system dysregulation during short-duration space flight are likely to be low for short duration space missions. If immune dysregulation were found to persist for the duration of an exploration class deep space mission, consisting of elevated radiation exposure, limited clinical care, and other exploration-specific variables, clinical risk for adverse health events would likely be substantially elevated.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Mehta S, Stowe R, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Smith SM, Sams C. "Immune System Dysregulation Persists During Long-Duration Spaceflight." 2013 AAAAI (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology) Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, February 22-26, 2013.

2013 AAAAI Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, February 22-26, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian B, Mehta S, Pierson D, Sams C. "Does Long-term Spaceflight Induce an HIV-like Condition? " 84th Annual Scientific Meeting, Aerospace Medical Association, Chicago, IL, May 12-16, 2013.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2013 Apr; 84(4):430-1. , Apr-2013

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pierson DL, Mehta SK, Gilden D, Cohrs RJ, Nagel MA, Schmid DS, Tyring SK. "Varicella zoster virus DNA at inoculation sites and in saliva after Zostavax immunization." J Infect Dis. 2011 Jun 1;203(11):1542-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir139 ; PubMed PMID: 21592982; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3096786 , Jun-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Nagel MA, Choe A, Cohrs RJ, Traktinskiy I, Sorensen K, Mehta SK, Pierson DL, Tyring SK, Haitz K, DiGiorgio C, LaPolla W, Gilden D. "Persistence of varicella zoster virus DNA in saliva after herpes zoster." J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 15;204(6):820-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir425 ; PubMed PMID: 21849278; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3156921 , Sep-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian B, Stowe RP, Mehta S, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams C. "Alterations in adaptive immunity persist during long-duration spaceflight." npj Microgravity. 2015;1:15013. Published online 2015 Sep 3. http://dx.doi.org10.1038/npjmgrav.2015.13 , Sep-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian B, Johnston S, Mehta S, Stowe R, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Laudenslager ML, Sams C. "A case of persistent skin rash and rhinitis with immune system dysregulation onboard the International Space Station." J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Jul-Aug;4(4):759-762.e8. Epub 2016 Mar 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2015.12.021 ; PubMed PMID: 27036643 , Jul-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Kunz H, Quiriarte H, Simpson RJ, Ploutz-Snyder R, McMonigal K, Sams C, Crucian B. "Alterations in hematologic indices during long-duration spaceflight." BMC Hematol. 2017 Sep 8;17:12. eCollection 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12878-017-0083-y ; PubMed PMID: 28904800; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5590186 , Sep-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spielmann G, Agha NH, Kunz HE, Simpson RJ, Crucian BE, Mehta SK, Laughlin M, Campbell J. "B-cell homeostasis is maintained during long duration spaceflight." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019 Feb 1;126(2):469-476. Epub 2018 Nov 29. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00789.2018 ; PubMed PMID: 30496712; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6397409 , Feb-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Urbaniak C, Lorenzi H, Thissen J, Jaing C, Crucian B, Sams C, Pierson D, Venkateswaran K, Mehta S. "The influence of spaceflight on the astronaut salivary microbiome and the search for a microbiome biomarker for viral reactivation." Microbiome. 2020 Apr 20;8(1):56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00830-z ; PMID: 32312311; PMCID: PMC7171750 , Apr-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian B, Stowe R, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams C. "Immune system dysregulation occurs during short duration spaceflight on board the space shuttle." Journal of Clinical Immunology. 2013 Feb;33(2):456-65. Epub 2012 Oct 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-012-9824-7 ; PubMed PMID: 23100144 , Feb-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Crucian BE, Stowe RP, Simpson RJ, Ott CM, Sams CF, Pierson DL "Reactivation of latent viruses is associated with increased plasma cytokines in astronauts." Cytokine. 2013 Jan;61(1):205-9. Epub 2012 Oct 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.09.019 ; PubMed PMID: 23107825 , Jan-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte HD, Pierson D, Sams CF, Smith SM. "Plasma cytokine concentrations indicate that in vivo hormonal regulation of immunity is altered during long-duration spaceflight." Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research. 2014 Oct;34(10):778-86. Epub 2014 Apr 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2013.0129. PubMed PMID: 24702175; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4186776 (Originally reported in January 2014 as "Submitted") , Oct-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian B, Babiak-Vazquez A, Johnston S, Pierson DL, Ott CM, Sams C. "Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight." Int J Gen Med. 2016 Nov 3;9:383-91. eCollection 2016. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S114188 ; PubMed PMID: 27843335; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5098747 [NOTE reported originally in Oct 2013 as "Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2014, Submitted."] , Nov-2016
Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 04/10/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Mehta, Satish  EASI, NASA, JSC 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Not Available 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Not Available 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Increment 16

NOTE: changed end date to 9/30/2013 per B. Crucian (Ed., 2/4/2013)

NOTE: End date is 3/29/2013 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

NOTE: End date now 9/30/2013 per JSC (09/2010)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 015. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and determine any clinical risk for exploration related to immune dysregulation. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. Should it persist for extended durations, this decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers. To assess this, crewmember white blood cells collected during flight will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses and measurements of stress hormones. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of adverse clinical events related to immunology that may occur during space flight, and in particular for exploration-class missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This investigation will provide new insights into the relationship between immunity, stress and latent viral reactivation that may benefit terrestrial medicine. Spaceflight associated immune dysregulation is likely to be an immunodeficiency that could be very analogous to certain immunodeficiencies that occur on earth. These terrestrial phenomenon may occur as a result of disease, or in humans subjected to unusual factors similar to space flight (confinement, physiological stress, etc.). In such cases, the mechanisms and monitoring strategies (and possibly countermeasure information) derived during this flight study could benefit terrestrial medicine.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: As of April, 2012, Integrated Immune has been manifested on 9 Space Shuttle missions. In this time period, 18 short-duration crewmembers, and 16 long-duration crewmembers have successfully completed the study requirements. The total 'n' for Integrated Immune will be 17 long-duration crewmembers and 17 short-duration crewmembers. The short duration component is now completed, it is anticipated that the long duration component should be completed on Soyuz 29S in mid-2012.

Samples for Integrated Immune per crew time point are 18.5 ml blood, 1 ml liquid saliva a dry saliva sample (pre-, in- and post-flight) and 4.0 ml of a 24hr urine pool (pre- and post-flight only). In-flight urine will be obtained via sample sharing if any other in-flight study is making the collection. The assays included in the study and the responsible laboratory are as follows:

JSC Immunology Laboratory

Leukocyte subsets

T cell function

Intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles

Mercer University

Plasma cytokine balance

Leukocyte cytokine RNA

Microgen Laboratories

Virus specific T cell number

Virus specific T cell function

Plasma stress hormones

Antiviral antibody titers

JSC Microbiology Laboratory

Latent herpesvirus reactivation (saliva/urine)

Saliva/urine stress hormones

Circadian rhythm analysis

As this study has progressed, 2 formerly long duration subjects with mission durations of ~45 days were reclassified as short duration. This allowed the short duration component to be completed on schedule, thus saving program resources, and also provided additional subject slots for full 6-month duration crewmembers. In all cases, no adverse clinical events except some bruising related to venipuncture have been reported. Most all urine and saliva samples were collected as planned.

From a technical perspective, the Integrated Immune science continues according to plan. All in-flight samples have been collected within 24-48 hours of landing/undocking, and for all in-flight samples the cellular viability upon sample processing has been acceptable. To date, live cells are being returned to Earth within the required timeframe to allow an in-flight determination of immune cell functional capabilities. The investigator team is grateful to the mission planners, schedulers, and crewmembers for enabling this to occur.

The science team is satisfied with the data obtained thus far. The distribution of the peripheral leukocyte populations, T cell functional characteristics, viral-specific immune parameters, the status of latent herpesvirus reactivation, and physiological stress has been determined for all completed subjects. For ISS subjects, 2-3 data collections have occurred per mission, allowing a determination of the kinetics related to observed changes. In most cases, this is completely novel data and represents our first comprehensive observation of the in-flight status of the immune system.

The final completed short duration data was recently presented at the 2010 NASA HRP Investigators Workshop. The abstract for that presentation may be found here: http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2010/pdf/Immunology/1151CrucianMehta-IntImm.pdf In general, the data show that alterations in the distribution and function of the peripheral leukocytes, as well as alterations in viral specific immunity, physiological stress, and latent viral reactivation occur during short-duration spaceflight.

Mid-point long-duration data was presented at the April 2011 Humans in Space meeting, Houston, Texas. This presentation is completed and the long duration data are intriguing. The abstract for the ISS presentation may be found here: http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/IAA/pdf/2104.pdf .

Also, via collaboration with the NASA-JSC Nutrition Laboratory and the in-flight Nutrition flight study (SMO-016E), the assessment of plasma cytokines, an original component of the Immunology flight study, has been expanded to include additional in-flight timepoints. The additional samples were provided by the Nutrition Laboratory, and augment the timepoints originally baselined by the Immunology flight study. This is fortuitous, because Immunology samples are collected during high-stress docked-operations timeperiods, near to undocking. Nutrition samples are collected away from docked-operations, and frozen for later transport to Earth. The joint-analysis allows a more complete sampling for both studies, including both high-stress and lower-stress in-flight periods. The initial joint-study plasma cytokine data was recently presented at the February 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Meeting. The abstract may be found here: http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2012/pdf/4165.pdf

This flight study is progressing well from a technical perspective, with robust crew participation and consistent positive feedback from the crewmembers. To date, the data indicate that some of the parameters that define spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation do indeed persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. This may represent a clinical risk to crewmember during exploration-class missions. Risks could include hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, infection, and malignancies. The ISS data will become better defined from a statistical perspective as the study progresses and the ‘n’ increases. Following completion of this study, it is expected that a monitoring strategy may be defined, that focuses on the most relevant parameters that are altered in-flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian BE, Zwart SR, Quiriarte HA, Smith SM, Sams CF. "Plasma cytokine levels during long-duration spaceflight." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian B, Stowe R, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams C. "Monocyte phenotype and cytokine production profiles are dysregulated by short-duration spaceflight." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 Sep;82(9):857-62. PubMed PMID: 21888268 , Sep-2011
Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 03/29/2013  
Task Last Updated: 03/24/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Not Available 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Not Available 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Increment 16

NOTE: End date is 3/29/2013 per HRP Master Task List dtd 7/12/2011 (Ed., 8/9/2011)

NOTE: End date now 9/30/2013 per JSC (09/2010)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 015. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and determine any clinical risk for exploration related to immune dysregulation. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. Should it persist for extended durations, this decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers. To assess this, crewmember white blood cells collected during flight will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses and measurements of stress hormones. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of adverse clinical events related to immunology that may occur during space flight, and in particular for exploration-class missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This investigation will provide new insights into the relationship between immunity, stress and latent viral reactivation that may benefit terrestrial medicine. Spaceflight associated immune dysregulation is likely to be an immunodeficiency that could be very analogous to certain immunodeficiencies that occur on earth. These terrestrial phenomenon may occur as a result of disease, or in humans subjected to unusual factors similar to space flight (confinement, physiological stress, etc.). In such cases, the mechanisms and monitoring strategies (and possibly countermeasure information) derived during this flight study could benefit terrestrial medicine.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: As of March 2, 2011 Integrated Immune has been manifested on 9 Space Shuttle missions. In this time period, 18 short-duration crewmembers, and 10 long-duration crewmembers have successfully completed the study requirements. The total 'n' for Integrated Immune will be 17 long-duration crewmembers and 17 short-duration crewmembers. The short duration component is now completed, it is anticipated that the long duration component should be completed on Soyuz 29S in mid-2012.

Samples for Integrated Immune per crew time point are 18.5 ml blood, 1 ml liquid saliva a dry saliva sample (pre-, in- and post-flight) and 4.0 ml of a 24hr urine pool (pre- and post-flight only). In-flight urine will be obtained via sample sharing if any other in-flight study is making the collection. The assays included in the study and the responsible laboratory are as follows:

JSC Immunology Laboratory: Leukocyte subsets; T cell function; Intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles

Mercer University: Plasma cytokine balance; Leukocyte cytokine RNA

Microgen Laboratories: Virus specific T cell number; Virus specific T cell function; Plasma stress hormones; Antiviral antibody titers

JSC Microbiology Laboratory: Latent herpesvirus reactivation (saliva/urine); Saliva/urine stress hormones; Circadian rhythm analysis As this study has progressed, 2 formerly long duration subjects with mission durations of ~45 days were reclassified as short duration. This allowed the short duration component to be completed on schedule, thus saving program resources, and also provided additional subject slots for full 6-month duration crewmembers. In all cases, no adverse clinical events except some bruising related to venipuncture have been reported. Most all urine and saliva samples were collected as planned.

From a technical perspective, the Integrated Immune science continues according to plan. All in-flight samples have been collected within 24-48 hours of landing/undocking, and for all in-flight samples the cellular viability upon sample processing has been acceptable. To date, live cells are being returned to Earth within the required timeframe to allow an in-flight determination of immune cell functional capabilities. The investigator team is grateful to the mission planners, schedulers and crewmembers for enabling this to occur.

The science team is satisfied with the data obtained thus far. The distribution of the peripheral leukocyte populations, T cell functional characteristics, viral-specific immune parameters, the status of latent herpesvirus reactivation and physiological stress has been determined for all completed subjects. For ISS subjects, 2-3 data collections have occurred per mission, allowing a determination of the kinetics related to observed changes. In most cases, this is completely novel data and represents our first comprehensive observation of the in-flight status of the immune system.

The final completed short duration data was recently presented at the 2010 NASA HRP Investigators Workshop. The abstract for that presentation may be found here: http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2010/pdf/Immunology/1151CrucianMehta-IntImm.pdf In general, the data show that alterations in the distribution and function of the peripheral leukocytes, as well as alterations in viral specific immunity, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation occur during short-duration spaceflight.

Mid-point long-duration data will be presented at the April 2011 Humans in Space meeting, Houston, Texas. This presentation is completed and the long duration data are intriguing. The abstract for the ISS presentation may be found here: http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/IAA/pdf/2104.pdf .

This flight study is progressing well from a technical perspective, with robust crew participation and consistent positive feedback from the crewmembers. To date, the data indicate that some of the parameters that define spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation do indeed persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. This may represent a clinical risk to crewmember during exploration-class missions. Risks could include hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, infection and malignancies. The ISS data will become better defined from a statistical perspective as the study progresses and the ‘n’ increases. Following completion of this study, it is expected that a monitoring strategy may be defined, that focuses on the most relevant parameters that are altered in-flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian BE, Stowe RP, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams CF. "Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist during Long-Duration Spaceflight." To be presented at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 03/02/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Not Available 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Not Available 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Increment 16

NOTE: End date now 9/30/2013 per JSC (09/2010)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 015. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and determine any clinical risk for exploration related to immune dysregulation. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. Should it persist for extended durations, this decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers. To assess this, crewmember white blood cells collected during flight will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses and measurements of stress hormones. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of adverse clinical events related to immunology that may occur during space flight, and in particular for exploration-class missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This investigation will provide new insights into the relationship between immunity, stress and latent viral reactivation that may benefit terrestrial medicine. Spaceflight associated immune dysregulation is likely to be an immunodeficiency that could be very analogous to certain immunodeficiencies that occur on earth. These terrestrial phenomenon may occur as a result of disease, or in humans subjected to unusual factors similar to space flight (confinement, physiological stress, etc.). In such cases, the mechanisms and monitoring strategies (and possibly countermeasure information) derived during this flight study could benefit terrestrial medicine.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: As of March 2, 2010, Integrated Immune has been manifested on 9 Space Shuttle missions. In this time period, 18 short-duration crewmembers, and 10 long-duration crewmembers have successfully completed the study requirements. The total 'n' for Integrated Immune will be 17 long-duration crewmembers and 17 short-duration crewmembers. The short duration component is now completed, it is anticipated that the long duration component should be completed in early 2012.

Samples for Integrated Immune per crew time point are 18.5 ml blood, 1 ml liquid saliva a dry saliva sample (pre-, in- and post-flight) and 4.0 ml of a 24hr urine pool (pre- and post-flight only). In-flight urine will be obtained via sample sharing if any other in-flight study is making the collection. The assays included in the study and the responsible laboratory are as follows:

JSC Immunology Laboratory: Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, Intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles

Mercer University: Plasma cytokine balance, Leukocyte cytokine RNA

Microgen Laboratories: Virus specific T cell number, Virus specific T cell function, Plasma stress hormones, Antiviral antibody titers

JSC Microbiology Laboratory: Latent herpesvirus reactivation (saliva/urine), Saliva/urine stress hormones, Circadian rhythm analysis The vast majority of the Integrated Immune in-flight blood collections have been successful. Only 3 short duration subjects have been dismissed, due to insufficient in-flight samples. To date, only 2 long duration subjects have been dismissed. One of these was due to insufficient samples at the late timepoint, and the other was due to compatibility reasons. In addition, 2 formerly long duration subjects with mission durations of ~45 days were reclassified as short duration. This allowed the short duration component to be completed on schedule, thus saving program resources, and also provided additional subject slots for full 6-month duration crewmembers. In all cases, no adverse clinical events except some bruising related to venipuncture have been reported. Most all urine and saliva samples were collected as planned.

From a technical perspective, the Integrated Immune science continues according to plan. All in-flight samples have been collected within 24-48 hours of landing/undocking, and for all in-flight samples the cellular viability upon sample processing has been acceptable. To date, live cells are being returned to Earth within the required timeframe to allow an in-flight determination of immune cell functional capabilities. The investigator team is grateful to the mission planners, schedulers and crewmembers for enabling this to occur.

The science team is satisfied with the data obtained thus far. The distribution of the peripheral leukocyte populations, T cell functional characteristics, viral-specific immune parameters, the status of latent herpesvirus reactivation and physiological stress has been determined for all completed subjects. For ISS subjects, 2-3 data collections have occurred per mission, allowing a determination of the kinetics related to observed changes. In most cases, this is completely novel data and represents our first comprehensive observation of the in-flight status of the immune system.

The final completed short duration data was recently presented at the 2010 NASA HRP Investigators Workshop. The abstract for that presentation may be found here:

http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2010/pdf/Immunology/1151CrucianMehta-IntImm.pdf

In general, the data show that alterations in the distribution and function of the peripheral leukocytes, as well as alterations in viral specific immunity, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation occur during short-duration spaceflight. An analysis of the ISS data will be necessary to determine if these changes persist or resolve during prolonged space missions. The investigator team is currently analyzing the ISS data to date for an official mid-point assessment.

Conclusion

This flight study is progressing well from a technical perspective, with robust crew participation and consistent positive feedback from the crewmembers. To date, the data indicate that some of the parameters that define spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation from prior post-flight studies seem to be in-flight phenomenon as well. Although this does not indicate immediate illness, if these alterations were to persist for the duration of exploration-class missions there could be clinical risk. Risks could include hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, infection and malignancies. The data will become better defined from a statistical perspective as the study progresses and the ‘n’ increases. Following completion of this study, it is expected that a monitoring strategy may be defined, that focuses on the most relevant parameters that are altered in-flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian B, Mehta S, Stowe R, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams C. "Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function." NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 3-5, 2010.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 3-5, 2010. Program and abstracts. , Feb-2010

Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 02/05/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Not Available 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Not Available 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Increment 16

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 015. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and determine any clinical risk for exploration related to immune dysregulation. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. Should it persist for extended durations, this decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers. To assess this, crewmember white blood cells collected during flight will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses and measurements of stress hormones. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of adverse clinical events related to immunology that may occur during space flight, and in particular for exploration-class missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This investigation will provide new insights into the relationship between immunity, stress and latent viral reactivation that may benefit terrestrial medicine. Spaceflight associated immune dysregulation is likely to be an immunodeficiency that could be very analagous to certain immunodeficiencies that occur on earth. These terrestrial phenomenon may occur as a result of disease, or in humans subjected to unusual factors similar to space flight (confinement, physiological stress, etc.). In such cases, the mechanisms and monitoring strategies (and possibly countermeasure information) derived during this flight study could benefit terrestrial medicine.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: As of January 28, 2009 Integrated Immune has been manifested on 5 Space Shuttle missions. In this time period, 9 short-duration crewmembers, and 4 long-duration crewmembers have successfully completed the study requirements. The total 'n' for Integrated Immune will be 17 long-duration crewmembers and 17 short-duration crewmembers.

Samples for Integrated Immune per crew time point are 18.5 ml blood, 1 ml liquid saliva a dry saliva sample (pre-, in- and post-flight) and 4.0 ml of a 24hr urine pool (pre- and post-flight only). In-flight urine will be obtained via sample sharing if any other in-flight study is making the collection. The assays included in the study and the responsible laboratory are as follows:

JSC Immunology Laboratory: Leukocyte subsets ; T cell function ; Intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles

Mercer University: Plasma cytokine balance ; Leukocyte cytokine RNA

Microgen Laboratories: Virus specific T cell number ; Virus specific T cell function ; Plasma stress hormones ; Antiviral antibody titers

JSC Microbiology Laboratory: Latent herpesvirus reactivation (saliva/urine) ; Saliva/urine stress hormones

Circadian rhythm analysis

Of 12 planned in-flight blood collections for long-duration crewmembers to date, 11 were successful. Of 11 planned in-flight blood collections for short-duration crewmembers, 9 were successful and 1 was completed partially. The combined success rate for in-flight blood collections is 20 out of 23. In all cases, no adverse clinical events except some bruising related to venipuncture have been reported. All urine and saliva samples were collected as planned.

From a technical perspective, the Integrated Immune science continues according to plan. All in-flight samples have been collected within 24-48 hours of landing/undocking, and for all in-flight samples the cellular viability upon sample processing has been acceptable. To date, live cells are being returned to Earth within the required timeframe to allow an in-flight determination of immune cell functional capabilities. The investigator team is grateful to the mission planners, schedulers and crewmembers for enabling this to occur.

The science team is satisfied with the data obtained thus far. The distribution of the peripheral leukocyte populations, T cell functional characteristics, viral-specific immune parameters, the status of latent herpesvirus reactivation and physiological stress has been determined for all completed subjects. For ISS subjects, 2-3 data collections have occurred per mission, allowing a determination of the kinetics related to observed changes. In most cases, this is completely novel data and represents our first comprehensive observation of the in-flight status of the immune system.

Although the ‘n’ completed to date is too low to allow statistical calculations, a summation of the data through the indicated 'n' follows:

Immunophenotype:

• No in-flight changes in bulk leukocyte subsets • Postflight granulocytosis • Late in-flight/postflight elevated B cells, reduced NK cells • In-flight, postflight trend toward elevated CD4:CD8 ratio, elevated memory T cell subsets • In-flight elevated effector memory, central memory T cells • No change in peripheral constitutively activated T cells

T cell function:

• Reduced T cell function consistently observed early in-flight (shuttle + ISS early), with at some indication of partial recovery (note: number of long-duration subjects at later in-flight points is reduced). • Dysregulated cytokine production profiles observed in-flight. The most consistently observed alteration is an in-flight reduction in IFNg production following activation, at levels similar to post-flight observations.

Viral specific immunity:

• Reduced function of EBV specific T cells in-flight and post-flight.

Latent herpesvirus reactivation:

• CMV reactivation via urine DNA analysis elevated post-flight. In-flight determination in-progress. • VZV reactivation via salivary DNA analysis elevated in-flight and post-flight. In-flight data indicate no resolution as long-duration missions progress.

Conclusion

This flight study is progressing well from a technical perspective, with robust crew participation and consistent positive feedback from the crewmembers. To date, the data indicate that some of the parameters that define spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation from prior post-flight studies seem to be in-flight phenomenon as well. Although this does not indicate immediate illness, if these alterations were to persist for the duration of exploration-class missions there could be clinical risk. Risks could include hypersensitivities, autoimmunity, infection and malignancies. The data will become better defined from a statistical perspective as the study progresses and the ‘n’ increases. Following completion of this study, it is expected that a monitoring strategy may be defined, that focuses on the most relevant parameters that are altered in-flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Crucian B, Stowe R, Mehta S, Uchakin P, Quiriarte H, Pierson D, Sams C. "Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function." Presented at the NASA-HRP Investigators' Workshop, Southshore Harbor, Texas, February 2-4, 2009.

NASA-HRP Investigators' Workshop, Southshore Harbor, Texas, February 2-4, 2009. p 29. , Feb-2009

Project Title:  Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (Integrated Immune - SMO 015/SDBI 1900) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2005 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 05/03/2005  
End Date: 09/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 11/27/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Sams, Clarence  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office  
2101 NASA Parkway, Mail Code SK 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: clarence.sams-1@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7160  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Pierson, Duane  NASA JSC 
Stowe, Raymond  Microgen Laboratories 
Crucian, Brian  Wyle Laboratories 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Not Available 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Not Available 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
(2) Microhost:Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) AEH 14:We need to determine how physical stimuli specific to the spaceflight environment, such as microgravity, induce unique changes in the dose-response profiles of expected medically significant microorganisms (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Start of Definition Phase

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2011 per PI ; original end date was 4/30/2010 (2/09)

Task Description: SMO 008. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. This decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers during flight. To assess this, white blood cells will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation as a consequence of space flight. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of infection during space flight.

SMO 015. The objective of this experiment is to understand the effects of space flight on the human immune system, and determine any clinical risk for exploration related to immune dysregulation. Numerous investigations have demonstrated a decrease in specific immune cell functions following space flights of varied duration. Should it persist for extended durations, this decrease in host defense may increase the potential for illness in crewmembers. To assess this, crewmember white blood cells collected during flight will be tested for changes in function or response to stimulation. The concentrations of factors that regulate immune function will also be determined. These data will be correlated with reactivation and shedding of latent herpes viruses and measurements of stress hormones. This information is needed to determine the crewmembers’ risk of adverse clinical events related to immunology that may occur during space flight, and in particular for exploration-class missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2005 
Task Progress: New project for FY2005.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/11/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2005