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Project Title:  Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite and Satiety Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 05/01/2011  
End Date: 08/31/2014  
Task Last Updated: 04/23/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. / Cornell University 
Address:  Dept of Biological & Environmental Engineering 
207 Riley Robb Hall, Wing Drive 
Ithaca , NY 14853-5701 
Email: jbh5@cornell.edu 
Phone: 607-255-2297  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Cornell University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Binsted, Kim  University of Hawaii, Honolulu 
Spies, Rupert  Cornell University 
Halpern, Bruce  Cornell University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AE53G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Douglas, Grace  
Center Contact:  
grace.l.douglas@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AE53G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Food-02:SHFH We need to determine how the sensory and psychosocial acceptability of the food system changes due to microgravity, processing, storage, choice, and eating environment. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT3 - How can the acceptability of the food system be maintained throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: New end date is 8/31/2014, per PI and NSSC information (Ed., 4/23/14)

NOTE: New end date is 4/30/2014, per NSSC information (Ed., 1/31/13)

Task Description: Menu fatigue and its sequelae, lower food intake and weight loss, have been documented in military, polar exploration, and space settings, and among subjects in bed rest studies. Isolation, confinement, stress, and low acceptability of available foods amplify menu fatigue. Adequate levels of acceptability, variety, and usability are required to maintain food intake and crew health and performance.

We wish to use isolated and confined subjects at the NASA bed rest facility, and different subjects in a Mars analog environment, to explore three issues: 1) the relationship between nasal patency and smelling (orthonasal and retronasal) in the microgravity analog of bed rest and in the isolation/confinement setting of a Mars-like habitat, 2) the effect of orthonasal and retronasal smelling on appetite under conditions of menu fatigue, and 3) the hypothesis that a bulk ingredient based food system, with crew-prepared foods, will improve crew food satisfaction and mitigate menu fatigue. The last study will include an ESM cost comparison of crew-prepared and prepackaged food systems.

Study #1 on smelling and nasal patency reopens an earlier finding (Vickers et al, 2001) that taste, olfaction and trigeminal response are unaffected by fluid shifts resulting from bed rest. We have returned to the olfaction aspect of that question with objective measurements of nasal cavity dimensions and nasal airway resistance, with a broader and more closely food-related set of odorants, and by adding tests of retronasal smelling which is more representative of odorant perception during eating.

Study #2 seeks to link odorant acceptability ratings for pure, food-related odorants to bed-rested subjects' appetite, or desire to eat a meal. Subjects will rate the pleasantness and perceived food-relatedness of odorants connected and unconnected with the bed rest menu. Subjects will also be asked to observe and smell their meals, then rate their appetite and desire to eat the meal. These measurements are taken during the pre-bed rest ambulatory period, during the period of dynamic adaptation to fluid shift in early bed rest, in late bed rest when fluid shifts have stabilized and menu fatigue is increasing, and during the recovery period. Odorants used include the vapor phase odors of foods on the bed rest menu, other food-related odorants not related to the bed rest menu, and pure odorants as controls. We expect to find shifts in odorant acceptability over the course of the study, testing the hypothesis that odorants related to the menu will drop in acceptability over time due to menu fatigue.

Study #3, a Mars analog study, will test the hypothesis that allowing crews to prepare some of their own meals will mitigate menu fatigue and increase food satisfaction. An analog crew of 6 volunteers will inhabit a Mars analog habitat for 4 months. After an initial acclimation period they will consume meals of two different types: meals containing only prepackaged, shelf-stable foods including instant backpacking foods and commercial packaged foods from the bed rest study, and meals prepared by the crew from a pantry of shelf-stable ingredients. Food preparation time, recipes used, acceptability and intake of each food, self-reported mood and self-reported health status will be tracked; estimated nutritional intake will be tracked from intake and recipe data. We will also generate an ESM cost comparison of the two food systems from video estimates of crew time spent on food-related activities, and from usage data for water and electrical power related to food preparation and cleanup.

Finally, analog crewmembers will undergo the same airway patency and odorant identification tests as the bed rest subjects, both to provide an ambulatory isolated/confined control and to detect, if possible, effects of habituation to environmental odors upon perception. Analog subjects will also replicate the study of odorant liking, food-relatedness, and appetite done on the bed rested subjects.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Our investigation of nasal patency, olfaction, and appetite in bed rested subjects is generally relevant to the care and nutrition of patients confined to bed for medical reasons. Our research on foods and cooking for long term planetary surface missions is relevant to the provisioning of small isolated groups on Earth such as scientific field stations, and also generally relevant to the adventure tourism industry.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Task Progress: Bed rest data has been acquired for seven subjects. As measured by acoustic rhinometry for the first 5 cm of distance behind the nasal entrance, nasal cavity volume is reduced on average 15% within an hour of the start of bed rest, then fluctuates through day 5 of bed rest. Thereafter, weekly nasal patency testing during bed rest reveals a characteristic profile: a ~10% reduction in nasal volume except for an apparent return to baseline at day 30. Nasal volume briefly increases to 15% over baseline during the first few hours of recovery from bed rest with a gradual return toward baseline during rehabilitation. A data sharing agreement under negotiation with another researcher is expected to give us access to confirmatory MRI data of the pre-, during, and post-bed rest anatomy of the nasal passages.

The clinical literature on nasal patency observes that patients’ self-assessed degree of nasal congestion is poorly correlated with objective measures of congestion. 3 of the 6 subjects tested so far are able to self-assess changes in nasal tissue swelling and nasal airflow 77 to 86% of the time (P < 0.05). The remaining subjects’ ratings are poorly correlated. Half of the bed rest subjects report nasal congestion during bed rest even though all experience nasal congestion. The 2010 Integrated Medical Model indicates that 60% of astronauts report nasal congestion. It is possible to conjecture that more astronauts may be undergoing changes in nasal patency but are not sensitive to it.

Menu fatigue is measured by asking the subjects to indicate their interest in eating each food served to them, the pleasantness of its odor, the acceptability of the food when consumed, and hunger and satiety ratings before and after the meal. Two out of six subjects have demonstrated significant menu fatigue coupled with diminished ratings of intensity, pleasantness, and “interest in eating” for odors sourced from the FARU meals. This association requires further analysis which will begin in the next year. The analog phase of the study is in the final stages of preparation. Arrangements have been made to lease a testbed facility specifically designed for long-term simulations and sited in a barren, rugged environment analogous to Martian volcanic terrain. An environmental assessment of the site, including both an archaeological survey and an arthropod survey, has resulted in a finding of no significant impact. Six “astronaut-like” crewmembers have been selected from an application pool of nearly 700. The crew and three backups were trained at a Cornell workshop and the six prime crewmembers undertook a two-week training mission in January 2013, at the Mars Desert Research Station in southern Utah. Equipment, experimental procedures, survey webforms, EVA procedures, and crew/ground communications were evaluated. Crew diet planning and food ordering are in progress. The analog study is anticipated to run mid-April through mid-August, 2013.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/01/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Caldwell BJ, Halpern BP, Binsted K, Hunter JB. "Transient and Long Term Nasal Tissue Swelling in 70-day 6° Head-Down Tilt." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. /hrp2013_abstract_Caldwell_Hunter.pdf , Feb-2013

Project Title:  Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite and Satiety Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 05/01/2011  
End Date: 04/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 07/11/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. / Cornell University 
Address:  Dept of Biological & Environmental Engineering 
207 Riley Robb Hall, Wing Drive 
Ithaca , NY 14853-5701 
Email: jbh5@cornell.edu 
Phone: 607-255-2297  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Cornell University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Binsted, Kim  University of Hawaii, Honolulu 
Spies, Rupert  Cornell University 
Halpern, Bruce  Cornell University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AE53G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Douglas, Grace  
Center Contact:  
grace.l.douglas@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AE53G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Food-02:SHFH We need to determine how the sensory and psychosocial acceptability of the food system changes due to microgravity, processing, storage, choice, and eating environment. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT3 - How can the acceptability of the food system be maintained throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: New end date is 4/30/2014, per NSSC information (Ed., 1/31/13)

Task Description: Menu fatigue and its sequelae, lower food intake and weight loss, have been documented in military, polar exploration, and space settings, and among subjects in bed rest studies. Isolation, confinement, stress, and low acceptability of available foods amplify menu fatigue. Adequate levels of acceptability, variety, and usability are required to maintain food intake and crew health and performance.

We wish to use isolated and confined subjects at the NASA bed rest facility, and different subjects in a Mars analog environment, to explore three issues: 1) the relationship between nasal patency and smelling (orthonasal and retronasal) in the microgravity analog of bed rest and in the isolation/confinement setting of a Mars-like habitat, 2) the effect of orthonasal and retronasal smelling on appetite under conditions of menu fatigue, and 3) the hypothesis that a bulk ingredient based food system, with crew-prepared foods, will improve crew food satisfaction and mitigate menu fatigue. The last study will include an ESM cost comparison of crew-prepared and prepackaged food systems.

Study #1 on smelling and nasal patency reopens an earlier finding (Vickers et al, 2001) that taste, olfaction and trigeminal response are unaffected by fluid shifts resulting from bed rest. We have returned to the olfaction aspect of that question with objective measurements of nasal cavity dimensions and nasal airway resistance, with a broader and more closely food-related set of odorants, and by adding tests of retronasal smelling which is more representative of odorant perception during eating.

Study #2 seeks to link odorant acceptability ratings for pure, food-related odorants to bed-rested subjects' appetite, or desire to eat a meal. Subjects will rate the pleasantness and perceived food-relatedness of odorants connected and unconnected with the bed rest menu. Subjects will also be asked to observe and smell their meals, then rate their appetite and desire to eat the meal. These measurements are taken during the pre-bed rest ambulatory period, during early and late bed rest when fluid shifts have stabilized and menu fatigue is increasing, and during the recovery period. Odorants used include the vapor phase odors of foods on the bed rest menu, other food-related odorants not related to the bed rest menu, and pure odorants as controls. We expect to find shifts in odorant acceptability over the course of the study, testing the hypothesis that odorants related to the menu will drop in acceptability over time due to menu fatigue.

Study #3, a Mars analog study, will test the hypothesis that allowing crews to prepare some of their own meals will mitigate menu fatigue and increase food satisfaction. An analog crew of 6 volunteers will inhabit a Mars analog habitat for 4 months. After an initial acclimation period they will consume meals of two different types: meals containing only prepackaged, shelf-stable foods including instant backpacking foods and commercial packaged foods from the bed rest study, and meals prepared by the crew from a pantry of shelf-stable ingredients. Food preparation time, recipes used, acceptability and intake of each food, self-reported mood and self-reported health status will be tracked; estimated nutritional intake will be tracked from intake and recipe data. We will also generate an ESM cost comparison of the two food systems from video estimates of crew time spent on food-related activities, and from usage data for water and electrical power related to food preparation and cleanup.

Finally, analog crewmembers will undergo the same airway patency and odorant identification tests as the bed rest subjects, both to provide an ambulatory isolated/confined control and to detect, if possible, effects of habituation to environmental odors upon perception. Analog subjects will also replicate the study of odorant liking, food-relatedness, and appetite done on the bed rested subjects.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Our investigation of nasal patency, olfaction, and appetite in bed rested subjects is generally relevant to the care and nutrition of patients confined to bed for medical reasons. Our research on foods and cooking for long term planetary surface missions is relevant to the provisioning of small isolated groups on Earth and generally relevant to the adventure tourism industry.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Data was acquired for only one bed rested subject in the last quarter of 2011 due to a hold on admitting additional subjects while an internal review unrelated to the olfaction study was being conducted. During early 2012, nasal patency data was analyzed fully for this subject. Preliminary findings show that nasal cavity dimension was reduced by head-down tilted bed rest with a simultaneous increase in nasal airflow resistance. Bed rest produced an immediate, marked reduction in nasal cavity volume for both left and right nostrils. Over several days the average nasal cavity volume recovered somewhat, but a net reduction persisted throughout bed rest. Odorant Identification data was assembled and is awaiting comparison with data from future subjects. Meal questionnaire scores were assembled and showed only a slight diminishment in interest by the subject for some meal items very late in bed rest (around 65 days).

The website for the analog mission arm of the study was set up at http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hi-seas/ and a call was published on the website and in electronic and print media inviting applications for the analog crew. Around 700 responses were received and are still being evaluated in March 2012. An ideal habitat site was identified and the permitting process initiated. The site, near a cinder cone in the Saddle Road area of Mauna Loa, is not ecologically pristine nor culturally sensitive. Design of the HI-SEAS habitat, which will be a temporary, portable analog habitat testbed designed to accommodate 6 test subjects for isolation/confinement analog research, was initiated. Current design alternatives include concepts based on converted shipping containers and on geodesic dome structures. Engineering evaluation of the power, water, and logistics requirements are in progress.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/01/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Caldwell BJ, Halpern BP, Binsted K, Hunter JB. "Fluid Shift to the Upper Body Reduces Nasal Cavity Dimension and Airflow in Head-Down Bed Rest Subjects." Presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Project Title:  Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite and Satiety Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 05/01/2011  
End Date: 04/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 07/14/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. / Cornell University 
Address:  Dept of Biological & Environmental Engineering 
207 Riley Robb Hall, Wing Drive 
Ithaca , NY 14853-5701 
Email: jbh5@cornell.edu 
Phone: 607-255-2297  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Cornell University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Binsted, Kim  University of Hawaii, Honolulu 
Spies, Rupert  Cornell University 
Halpern, Bruce  Cornell University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX11AE53G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Sullivan, Thomas  
Center Contact:  
thomas.a.sullivan@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2009 Crew Health NNJ09ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX11AE53G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) Food-02:SHFH We need to determine how the sensory and psychosocial acceptability of the food system changes due to microgravity, processing, storage, choice, and eating environment. (IRP Rev G) (Previous title: AFT3 - How can the acceptability of the food system be maintained throughout the mission?)
Task Description: Menu fatigue and its sequelae, lower food intake and weight loss, have been documented in military, polar exploration, and space settings, and among subjects in bed rest studies. Isolation, confinement, stress, and low acceptability of available foods amplify menu fatigue. Adequate levels of acceptability, variety, and usability are required to maintain food intake and crew health and performance.

We wish to use isolated and confined subjects at the NASA bed rest facility, and different subjects in a Mars analog environment, to explore three issues: 1) the relationship between nasal patency and smelling (orthonasal and retronasal) in the microgravity analog of bed rest and in the isolation/confinement setting of a Mars-like habitat, 2) the effect of orthonasal and retronasal smelling on appetite under conditions of menu fatigue, and 3) the hypothesis that a bulk ingredient based food system, with crew-prepared foods, will improve crew food satisfaction and mitigate menu fatigue. The last study will include an ESM cost comparison of crew-prepared and prepackaged food systems.

The first bed rest study reopens an earlier finding (Vickers et al, 2001) that taste, olfaction and trigeminal response are unaffected by fluid shifts resulting from bed rest. We propose to return to the olfaction aspect of that question with objective measurements of nasal cavity dimensions and nasal airway resistance, with a broader and more closely food-related set of odorants, and by measuring retronasal smelling which is more representative of odorant perception during eating.

The second bed rest study seeks to link odorant acceptability ratings for pure, food-related odorants to bed-rested subjects' appetite, or desire to eat a meal. Subjects will rate the pleasantness and perceived food-relatedness of odorants connected and unconnected with the bed rest menu. Subjects will also be asked to observe and smell their meals, then rate their appetite and desire to eat the meal. These measurements will be taken during pre-bed rest, during early and late bed rest when fluid shifts have stabilized and menu fatigue is increasing, and during the recovery period. Odorants used will include the vapor phase odors of foods on the bed rest menu, other food-related odorants not related to the bed rest menu, and pure odorants as controls. We expect to find shifts in odorant acceptability over the course of the study, testing the hypothesis that odorants related to the menu will drop in acceptability over time due to menu fatigue.

Our main analog study will test the hypothesis that allowing the crew to prepare some of their own meals will mitigate menu fatigue and increase food satisfaction. An analog crew of 5 volunteers will inhabit the Mars Desert Research Station analog site for 4 months. After an initial acclimation period they will consume meals of two different types: meals containing only prepackaged foods including NASA foods and commercial packaged foods from the bed rest study and meals prepared by the crew from shelf-stable ingredients. Food preparation time, recipes used, acceptability and intake of each food, and mood will be tracked; estimated nutritional intake will be tracked from intake and recipe data. We will also generate an ESM cost comparison of the two food systems from crew time, water, and usage data and estimates of power.

Finally, analog crewmembers will undergo the same airway patency and odorant identification tests as the bed rest subjects, both to provide an ambulatory isolated/confined control and to detect, if possible, effects of habituation to environmental odors upon perception. Analog subjects will also replicate the study of odorant liking, food-relatedness, and appetite done on the bed rested subjects.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: New project for FY2011.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/01/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2011