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Project Title:  Enhancement of Spatial Orientation Capability of Astronauts on the Lunar Surface Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2011  
Task Last Updated: 03/08/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Li, Rongxing (Ron)  Ph.D. / The Ohio State University 
Address:  Mapping and GIS Laboratory, CEEGS 
470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue 
Columbus , OH 43210 
Email: li.282@osu.edu 
Phone: 614-292-6946  
Congressional District: 15 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: The Ohio State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Banks, Martin  University of California, Berkeley 
Bhasin, Kul  NASA Glenn Research Center 
Yilmaz, Alper  The Ohio State University 
Di, Kaichang  The Ohio State University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
(2) SHFE-HCI-07 (SM11):Can crewmember spatiomotor abilities be more accurately predicted and countermeasures and training techniques developed to mitigate spatial disorientation during spaceflight? (Merged with HCI-03)(IRP Rev D)
Task Description: 1. Original aims of project

The overall goal of this project was to develop a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) able to reduce spatial disorientation risks during future manned lunar landing missions. The detailed objectives were to: 1) Investigate methods for removal and/or alleviation of astronaut disorientation in a lunar surface operations setting by using integrated information technology along with psychological and cognitive research on spatial orientation and navigation; 2) Develop the LASOIS system; and 3) Train astronauts to enhance their LASOIS-supported spatial orientation capabilities in a simulated lunar environment. Supported by LASOIS, astronauts engaged in lunar surface operations will be capable of overcoming disorientation caused by microgravity and the altered visual environment through spatial information provided by the Earth-based control center after data collection by a coordinated group of lunar orbital, descent, and ground-based sensors. The spatial-orientation strategies, technology, and training program here developed will allow astronauts to successfully complete complex mission scenarios where spatial operations and efficient interactions and communications are required among the Earth-based control center, lander(s), lunar vehicle(s), outposts, and astronauts. This capability is critical for future lunar operations, which are expected to cover an extensive region.

2. Key findings of the project

The following summarizes the key findings, research activities, and results over the three years of the project:

1) Investigation of the typical scenarios and constraints of EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations experienced by astronauts during previous lunar missions to provide a baseline for the design of LASOIS;

2) Investigation of different astronaut locomotion patterns (including walking, jogging, and hopping) as observed on the lunar surface during Apollo mission surface operations to develop new astronaut spatial orientation capabilities through LASOIS;

3) Design and development of LASOIS prototype. In LASOIS prototype Version 3.0, we miniaturized the hardware system using a palm-sized computer and display, stabilized the communication system by replacing wireless data transfer with a secure cable system, and improved sensor integration strategies in the developed software for real-time operation and improved performance. LASOIS prototypes were tested in multiple lunar-like field sites, simulated lunar EVA scenarios, and differing step patterns. The field experiment in the third year successfully supported a 6.1 km traverse with only a 2.42% relative disclosure error based on an experiment simulating the Apollo 14 traverse.

4) Development of an additional star tracker technology to be used as a navigation solution in emergencies to improve the flexibility and robustness of the navigation system; and

5) Execution of additional research activities including a study of lunar surface beacon systems for astronaut localization, investigation of display modes most suitable for terrestrial environments for navigation aids (plan view, bird's-eye view, wingman view, pilot view), and training of subjects on how to use LASOIS.

3. Impact of the findings on the objectives of the proposal

According to the proposed schedule, the above-mentioned achievements have fulfilled the designated tasks for this project. We studied lunar EVA scenarios and astronaut locomotion patterns based on past Apollo missions to investigate the lunar environment and potential factors that contribute to astronaut disorientation. A LASOIS prototype was designed and developed to provide technical assistance to alleviate astronaut disorientation during EVA traverses. We designed and conducted field tests in multiple lunar-like environments based on lunar EVA scenario criteria such as terrain type, surface land cover, traverse distance, and step patterns, using test results to improve the prototype in both hardware and software efficiency. The final system has been miniaturized into a light-weight system with real-time operational control through the arm-mounted display unit. LASOIS has proven to be able to support a 6 km simulated EVA with only a 2.42% relative disclosure error. We have trained subjects to operate the system. We have tested various combinations of display modes based on psychological and psychophysical research techniques into spatial orientation and navigation to determine the best setting to enhance the spatial orientation capabilities of astronauts on the lunar surface. In addition, we developed a star tracker system to be used as an alternative localization system in case of emergency situations during lunar surface exploration.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) will greatly enhance astronauts' spatial-orientation capabilities, reduce or even eliminate disorientation problems, decrease sensorimotor risks, and, ultimately, improve astronaut performance and safety while on the lunar surface. We have developed an applicable combination of sensors in the network workable on the lunar surface for astronaut navigation. LASOIS represents the first time that such a spatial-orientation and information system has been developed for use to improve human performance and human-robotic interaction capabilities for future manned lunar missions. Valuable expertise and experiences accumulated during the research and development process, especially during the analog field test of the LASOIS system, will significantly contribute to the improvement of existing scientific strategies. The outputs of this project will provide NASA with data and knowledge supporting lunar surface science and lunar operations scenarios and help understanding and optimization of human performance capabilities to maximize scientific return in future lunar missions. The psychological and cognitive influence on spatial orientation and navigation are other aspects studied in this project. Different types of visualization for effective delivery of navigational information on a handheld audiovisual display were investigated. Human subjects in the field used different versions of map visualization and user performance using psychological and psychophysical techniques were evaluated. As a result, this research ultimately can provide EVA planners, engineers, and astronauts with design suggestions and recommendations using human-systems integration principles for navigational display to be used in lunar-like environments. In addition, the experience and findings from this project can provide valuable information for solving the orientation problem facing astronauts in future Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) manned missions. Considering the rapidly changing lighting conditions caused by the fast spinning speed of asteroids and the zero gravity on the asteroid surface, astronauts in future NEA missions may experience severe disorientation. Research results from this project can provide useful ideas in solving this issue. The developed technologies can also be used to support personal navigation tasks on Earth and substantially influence many application domains. For example, this project team tested the developed system in an indoor environment at the Eastland Shopping Mall in Columbus, Ohio. The spatial recognition results obtained during this LASOIS test can help people to understand the relationships between acceleration, gravity, and human spatial orientation capabilities. Such relationships can be used in multiple domains where people work in environments with varying accelerations and that require the maintenance of good spatial orientation. Examples include first responders working at the site of an earthquake, people working in deep-water environments, underground mining, and military pilots of fighter planes.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: The achievements over the third year have fulfilled the designated tasks in the proposal.

1. Data processing and sensor integration

Based on the integrated sensor network established in the second year, we improved the approaches for processing and integrating spatial data and for turning the vast amount of data from the sensor network into spatial-orientation information usable by lunar astronauts in real-time scenarios. First, we improved the efficiency of the LASOIS software to collect and process data and display the spatial information in real time. Second, we improved the robustness of the vision-tracking algorithm. The situation where the vision system may lose its feature tracking ability was investigated and resolved. In addition, the sampling rate of the vision-sensor system was reduced for computational efficiency. Third, we studied a star-tracking technology for obtaining location and orientation information for astronaut navigation in emergency situations; several experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of this star-tracking technology. Fourth, we developed an approach for locating and orienting the astronaut at the beginning of an EVA using geographic landmarks. Fifth, the psychological and cognitive influences on spatial orientation and navigation were studied and tested in field experiments.

2. Development and evaluation of the third LASOIS prototype

First, we miniaturized the hardware system and optimized the placement of the instruments. Compared with the configuration of Prototype 2, the hardware system weighed less and took up less space when mounted on the suit. More importantly, the current configuration is more efficient for operations, allowing for real-time control on an arm-mounted display unit. Second, a seven-inch audiovisual display was developed to display the spatial information to the astronaut in real time. Third, we determined what spatial information to display on the interface according to results from multiple field experiments: these include optimal path (automated routing), current heading and trajectory, path deviation intensity (in different colors), time elapsed and remaining (oxygen supply simulation), distance to waypoints, and final target.

3. Field tests, database construction and management, training, and reporting

A set of tests of the LASOIS prototype Version 3.0 were performed on the Ohio State University (OSU) campus and at Haleakala National Park in Hawaii in 2011. The volcanic formation of this national park forms an environment similar to the lunar surface. In addition, experiments were performed in Cesar E. Chavez Park, Berkeley, CA to test the interface displaying spatial information. A spatial database at our test sites (including indoor and outdoor sites on the OSU campus as well as analog field test sites) has been constructed including high-resolution satellite images, ground images and videos, measurements from multi-sensors, and ground truth measured by GPS and field survey.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, He S, Skopljak B, Meng X, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks MS, Kim S, Oman C. "Development of a lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, He S, Skopljak B, Meng X, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks MS, Kim S, Oman C. "LASOIS: enhancing the spatial orientation capabilities of astronauts on the lunar surface." Eighth Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space Exploration, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011.

Eighth Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space Exploration, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, He S, Skopljak B, Meng X, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks MS, Kim S, Oman C. "The latest progress of LASOIS: a lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system." 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), The Woodlands, Texas, March 7-11, 2011.

42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), The Woodlands, Texas, March 7-11, 2011. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2011/pdf/2100.pdf , Mar-2011

Awards Li R. "Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers, July 2011." Jul-2011
Awards Li R. "Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, July 2011." Jul-2011
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Li R, Skopljak B, He S, Tang P, Yilmaz A, Jiang J. "A Spatial Orientation and Information System for Indoor Spatial Awareness." 2nd ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Indoor Spatial Awareness. In conjunction with 18th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2010), San Jose, CA, November 2-5, 2010.

In: Proceedings. Indoor Spatial Awareness - ISA 2010, 2nd International Workshop, San Jose, CA, USA, November 2, 2010. p. 10-15. New York : Association of Computing Machinery, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-4503-0433-7/10/11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1865885.1865889 , Nov-2010

Significant Media Coverage Wall JS. "All the Right Moves: Engineers Accelerate Development of Personal Navigation Systems. News report about LASOIS Earth application test at Easton Town Center, Columbus, OH." News in Engineering, 2010;82(3):14., Dec-2010
Significant Media Coverage Wall JS. "Ohio State Engineers Test Navigation System at Easton." The Ohio State University, College of Engineering News, 2010. Updated September 8, 2011. http://engineering.osu.edu/news/2010/07/ohio-state-engineers-test-navigation-system-easton ; accessed 9/7/2020., Jul-2010
Project Title:  Enhancement of Spatial Orientation Capability of Astronauts on the Lunar Surface Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2011  
Task Last Updated: 08/06/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Li, Rongxing (Ron)  Ph.D. / The Ohio State University 
Address:  Mapping and GIS Laboratory, CEEGS 
470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue 
Columbus , OH 43210 
Email: li.282@osu.edu 
Phone: 614-292-6946  
Congressional District: 15 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: The Ohio State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Banks, Martin  University of California, Berkeley 
Bhasin, Kul  NASA Glenn Research Center 
Yilmaz, Alper  The Ohio State University 
Di, Kaichang  The Ohio State University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2008 Crew Health NNJ08ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
(2) SHFE-HCI-07 (SM11):Can crewmember spatiomotor abilities be more accurately predicted and countermeasures and training techniques developed to mitigate spatial disorientation during spaceflight? (Merged with HCI-03)(IRP Rev D)
Task Description: 1. Original aims of project

The overall goal of this project is to develop a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) that will reduce spatial disorientation risks during future manned lunar landing missions. The detailed objectives are:

1.1 To investigate methods for removal and/or alleviation of astronaut disorientation in a lunar surface operations setting by using integrated information technology, and psychological and cognitive research on spatial orientation and navigation.

1.2 To develop the LASOIS system.

1.3 To train astronauts to enhance their spatial orientation capability in a LASOIS-supported simulated lunar environment. Supported by LASOIS, astronauts will be capable of overcoming disorientation in lunar surface operations caused by microgravity and the altered visual environment through spatial information provided by the Earth control center and collected by a coordinated group of sensors from lunar orbit, descending path, and ground. The developed spatial orientation strategy, system and training will allow astronauts to have a systematic preparation for complex mission scenarios where spatial operations and efficient interactions and communications are required among the Earth-based control center, lander(s), lunar vehicle(s), outposts, and astronauts. This capability is critical for lunar operations that will have an extensive traversing region (around 100km).

2. Key findings of the project

2.1 Based on the integrated sensor network established in the first year, we improved the approaches for processing and integrating spatial data collected by the integrated sensor network, and approaches for turning the vast amount of data from the integrated sensor network into necessary spatial-orientation information usable by lunar astronauts.

2.1.1 Further development and systematical evaluation of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to integrate measurements from IMU, step sensor, and stereo cameras, the closure error of a loop traverse of more than one kilometer can be less than 4% of the traverse length (500 m) now.

2.1.2 Improvements of a Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi algorithm for astronaut navigation from video tracking, and explorations about how to utilize various spatial constraints for improving the computational efficiency of this algorithm. An algorithm can run in real-time mode now.

2.1.3 Development of a Star Tracker technology as a navigation solution in emergency to improve the flexibility and robustness of the navigation system. Preliminary finding is that the localization accuracy of this approach is 30 km, but the angle accuracy is about 1 degree.

2.1.4 Development of an approach for matching orbital and ground imagery based DEMs for initial localization of astronauts. The localization accuracy was 12m on Moses Lake data.

2.2 Design and development of LASOIS prototype 2.

2.2.1 Improving the precision, robustness and mobility of LASOIS through incorporating a tactical IMU, the redesign of the astronaut boot and on-suit package. Extensive field experiments show that LASOIS 2 can support long walks of more than 2 km.

2.2.2 Investigation on different on-suit sensor (IMU, step sensor, and stereo cameras) configurations for best navigation capability through extensive experiments.

2.2.3 A set of tests of the LASOIS 2 were performed at OSU. For example, a trajectory was derived using a tactical IMU and a step sensor. Comparing the derived trajectory to a trajectory determined using GPS, a disclosure of 4% was obtained (20 m over 500 m).

2.2.4 Two field tests for LASOIS 2 were conducted at NASA Plum Brook station on March 10, 2010, and at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona, from June 10th to June 14th. We analyzed and summarized these experiments results as research reports for guiding further developments of the LASOIS prototype system.

2.3 Other research activities.

2.3.1 Study on lunar surface beacon systems for astronaut localization;

2.3.2 Investigations on display formats most frequently used in terrestrial environments for navigation aids (plan view, bird's eye view, wingman view, pilot view).

2.3.3 Training of subjects on how to use LASOIS 2, evaluating displays that the subject will wear when navigating the environment.

3. Impact of the findings on the objectives of the proposal

According to the proposed master schedule, the above mentioned achievements have fulfilled the designated tasks for the second year of this project. We conducted further tests and improvements of the developed technologies for spatial data processing, integration, and spatial information derivation and visualization. These improvements reduce the computational complexity, and improve the precision, reliability and robustness of the system to achieve real-time high-quality navigation information delivery. LASOIS 2 has been developed and tested. A spatial database containing data collected on all LASOIS test sites is being constructed including high-resolution satellite and ground imagery, videos, measurements from multi-sensory data, and ground truth measured by GPS and field survey. This database will be available to other NSBRI funded scientists and NASA researchers. All these results and experiences achieved in the second year will significantly contribute to the further research and development of LASOIS.

4. Proposed research plan for the coming year

4.1 Improvement of LASOIS 2 by integrating additional sensors (beacons) and considering different astronaut locomotion patterns in a micro-gravity environment.

4.2 Development of LASOIS 3 with real-time navigation capability, integrated on-suit navigation package, and robust data integration software for supporting 5 km long traverses.

4.3 Test LASOIS 3 in NASA or NSBRI led field analog testing campaign. 4.4 Explore and evaluate visualization approaches for effective delivery of the navigation information to astronauts on a small display.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: LASOIS will greatly enhance astronauts' spatial-orientation capabilities, reduce or even eliminate disorientation problems, decrease sensorimotor risks, and ultimately improve astronaut performance and safety while on the lunar surface. It will be the first time that such a spatial-orientation and information system was developed and used to improve human performance and human-robotic interaction capabilities in manned missions. Valuable expertise and experience accumulated during the research and development process, especially, the analog field test of the LASOIS system will significantly contribute to the improvement of existing scientific strategies. The outputs of this proposed project will provide NASA with data and knowledge supporting lunar surface science and lunar operations scenarios and help understanding and optimization of human performance capabilities to maximize scientific return in future lunar missions. In addition, with applications developed on the lunar surface, the system could be further extended to support and Mars manned missions in the future.

The developed technologies can also be used to support personal navigation tasks on Earth, and substantially influence many application domains. Specifically, the spatial recognition results obtained during the process of testing LASOIS can help people to understand the relationships between acceleration, gravity, and human spatial sensing capabilities. Such relationships can be used in multiple domains, where people work in environments with varying accelerations and require maintaining good spatial orientation in such environments. Examples include first responders working in earthquake site, people working in deep water environment, and pilots of fighters.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: As presented below, the achievements over the second year have fulfilled the designated tasks in the proposal.

1. Data processing and sensor integration: Based on the integrated sensor network established in the first year, we improved the approaches for processing and integrating spatial data collected by the sensor network, and for turning the vast amount of data from the sensor network into spatial-orientation information usable by lunar astronauts. First, we improved an Extended Kalman Filter to integrate measurements from multiple sensors for generating precision walking trajectory of an astronaut, and carried out systematical evaluations of this approach. Second, we improved a Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi algorithm for astronaut navigation from video tracking, and explored how to utilize various spatial constraints for reducing the computational complexity. Third, we studied a Star Tracker technology for obtaining the location and orientation information for astronaut navigation, and evaluated its performance through simulated experiments on Earth. Fourth, we developed an approach for matching orbital and ground imagery based DEMs, which enables initial localization of the astronaut while landing.

2. Development and evaluation of the LASOIS prototype 2: First, we improved the precision, robustness and mobility of LASOIS through incorporating a tactical IMU, the redesign of the astronaut boot and on-suit package. Extensive field experiments show that the new LASOIS can collect data with less noise, high-precision, and can reliably support long walks of more than 2 km. Second, we investigated different on-suit sensor (IMU, step sensor, and cameras) configurations for best navigation capability through extensive experiments. We found that mount stereo cameras on the chest improved the reliability of the vision data based tracking results. Third, we have determined what display formats are used most frequently in terrestrial environments for navigation aids (plan view, bird's eye view, wingman view, pilot view), and have investigated the usefulness of non-visual information presented in a navigation aid (e.g., sound).

3. Field tests, database construction and management, training, and reporting: A set of tests of the LASOIS prototype 2 were performed at OSU. In addition, two analog field tests were conducted at NASA Plum Brook station on March 10, 2010, and at Black Point Lava Flow, Arizona, from June 10th to June 14th. For NASA Plum Brook test, we conducted some basic training of test subjects. A spatial database at our test sites (including the in-door and out-door campus fields at OSU and analog field test sites) is being constructed including high-resolution satellite images, ground images and videos, measurements from multi-sensors, and ground truth measured by GPS and field survey. In addition, we are writing reports on these experiments, and plan to share our database and reports with other NSBRI funded scientists and NASA researchers.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, He S, Skopljak B, Jiang J, Tang P, Yilmaz A, Banks M, Oman C. "On-suit navigation information system for manned lunar landing missions." Joint Symposium of AutoCarto 2010 and the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission IV, Orlando, FL, November 15-19, 2010.

Abstract. Symposium of AutoCarto 2010 and the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission IV, 2010. , Nov-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, He S, Tang P, Skopljak B, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks M, Oman C. "Development of a lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system." 41st Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Tex., March 1-5, 2010.

Abstract No. 1782. 41st Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2010. , Mar-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, Skopljak B, He S, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks M, Oman C. "Reducing spatial disorientation risks in manned missions." NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, Texas, February 3-5, 2010.

Abstract #1140, NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, 2010. , Feb-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, Skopljak B, He S, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks M, Oman C. "Reducing spatial disorientation risks to astronauts in manned missions." 81st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Phoenix, Ariz., May 9-13, 2010.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2010 Mar;81(3):215. , Mar-2010

Awards Banks MS. "Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 2008." Dec-2008
Awards Banks MS. "Fellow of the American Psychological Society, January 2009." Jan-2009
Awards Li R. "2010 International Space Ops Award, as MER team member, Apri 2010." Apr-2010
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Li R, He S, Skopljak B, Jiang J, Tang P, Yilmaz A, Banks M, Oman C. "Development of a lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system (LASOIS)." ASPRS 2010 Annual Conference, San Diego, Calif., April 26-30, 2010.

ASPRS paper. ASPRS 2010 Annual Conference, San Diego, Calif., April 26-30, 2010. , Apr-2010

Project Title:  Enhancement of Spatial Orientation Capability of Astronauts on the Lunar Surface Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2011  
Task Last Updated: 08/12/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Li, Rongxing (Ron)  Ph.D. / The Ohio State University 
Address:  Mapping and GIS Laboratory, CEEGS 
470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue 
Columbus , OH 43210 
Email: li.282@osu.edu 
Phone: 614-292-6946  
Congressional District: 15 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: The Ohio State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Banks, Martin  University of California, Berkeley 
Bhasin, Kul  NASA GRC 
Yilmaz, Alper  The Ohio State University 
Di, Kaichang  The Ohio State University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
(2) SHFE-HCI-07 (SM11):Can crewmember spatiomotor abilities be more accurately predicted and countermeasures and training techniques developed to mitigate spatial disorientation during spaceflight? (Merged with HCI-03)(IRP Rev D)
Task Description: 1. Original aims of project

The aim of this project is to develop a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) that will enhance astronauts' spatial orientation capability and reduce sensorimotor risks during future manned lunar mission operations. The detailed objectives are:

1.1 To investigate methods for removal and/or alleviation of astronaut disorientation in a lunar surface operations setting by using integrated information technology, and psychological and cognitive research on spatial orientation and navigation.

1.2 To develop the Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS).

1.3 To train astronauts to enhance their spatial orientation capability in a LASOIS-supported simulated lunar environment.

Supported by LASOIS, astronauts will be capable of overcoming disorientation in lunar surface operations caused by microgravity and the altered visual environment through spatial information provided by the Earth control center and collected by a coordinated group of sensors from lunar orbit, descending path, and ground. The developed spatial orientation strategy, system and training will allow astronauts to have a systematic preparation for complex mission scenarios where spatial operations and efficient interactions and communications are required among the Earth-based control center, lander(s), lunar vehicle(s), outposts, and astronauts. This capability is extremely important for lunar operations that will have an extensive traversing region.

2. Key findings of the project

The following summarizes the key findings, research activities and results for the first project year:

2.1 Investigation of the typical scenarios and constraints of EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) operations by astronauts of previous missions to provide a baseline for the design of LASOIS.

2.2 Investigation on different astronaut locomotion patterns on the lunar surface including walking, jogging, and hopping etc., as observed in Apollo mission documentation to develop new astronaut spatial orientation capabilities through LASOIS.

2.3 Building an initial version of LASOIS prototype (V1.0) consisting of cameras, MEMS IMU, step sensor, and orbital images, which is being tested at Moses Lake, WA at the end of July 2009. An OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) very thin wrist display is on loan from Honeywell and will be used in the test.

2.4 Development of spatial information technology to handle the data from the sensors. Algorithms are developed to synchronize the step sensor and IMU using both hardware integration and intelligent data processing. Image based localization using stereo image frames at a video rate is developed and will be tested.

A set of tests of the LASOIS prototype V1.0 were performed at OSU. For example, a trajectory was derived using an industrial-grade IMU and a step sensor. Comparing the derived trajectory to a trajectory determined using GPS, a disclosure of 11 m for a traverse of 122 m was obtained (9%). The image based localization method used in MER mission is being modified and extended to fit the new camera configuration. Tests of placement of the cameras suggest that head mount and torso/chest are feasible, but chest mount would provide wider baseline, meaning higher accuracy. The combination of the IMU, step sensor, and cameras should provide continuous localization information at 2%.

An industrial-grade IMU (much better than the MEMS IMU) is ordered from Honeywell and will be used to reduce the accumulative errors that is significant in MEMS IMU.

2.5 Other research activities.

2.5.1 Study on possible solutions for astronaut localization from lunar surface beacon systems; 2.5.2 Study on star tracker technology for astronaut localization.

3. Impact of the findings on the objectives of the proposal

The project is on schedule. According to the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) in the proposal, the designated first year tasks are carried out on time. We reviewed astronaut disorientation issues and problems experienced in Apollo missions and the possible scenarios and requirements in future lunar manned missions. This provided us useful knowledge for a better design of the LASOIS using new technologies. We completed system design for the LASOIS based on extensive analysis and experiments in the lab, on campus, and in the field. We completed study on sensor integration and developed technologies for data processing and spatial information derivation.

Integration of the step sensor and IMU allows us to identify the zero velocity of the foot where IMU is mounted. Using this knowledge we are able to use ZUPS (zero velocity correction) method to correct the significant cumulative error of the MEMS IMU (12%). The new industrial grade IMU with other integrated sensors should give us a much better accuracy of 2%. A set of tests of the sensors have been carried out, including the in-door laboratory, out-door fields on campus, in Columbus, at Moses Lake, WA and Silver Lake, CA. The database includes high-resolution satellite images, ground images and videos, measurements from multi-sensors, and ground truth measured by GPS and field survey. They are critical to the development and tests of the first version of the LASOIS prototype.

The individual LASOIS sensors were either not used or not used in the new integrated network way for astronaut navigation in Apollo missions. The LASOIS system will be further improved based on the tests of the current LASOIS prototype V1.0.

4. Proposed research plan for the coming year

4.1 Improvement of LASOIS prototype V1.0 by integrating all the possible sensors and considering different astronaut locomotion patterns in a micro-gravity environment.

4.2 Development of LASOIS prototype V2.0 with real-time navigation capability.

4.3 Improvement based on integrated data processing, performance analysis, and capability enhancement of individual ensors and together as a system.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: LASOIS will greatly enhance astronauts' spatial-orientation capabilities, reduce or even eliminate disorientation problems, decrease sensorimotor risks, and ultimately improve astronaut performance and safety while on the lunar surface. It will be the first time that such a spatial-orientation and information system was developed and used to improve human performance and human-robotic interaction capabilities in manned missions. Valuable expertise and experience accumulated during the research and development process, especially, the analog field test of the LASOIS system will significantly contribute to improvement of existing scientific strategies. The outputs of this project will provide NASA with data and knowledge supporting lunar surface science and lunar operations scenarios and help understanding and optimization of human performance capabilities to maximize scientific return in future lunar missions.

With applications developed on the lunar surface, the system could be further extended to support and Mars manned missions in the future. In addition, the developed technologies can also be used to support personal navigation on earth. Other applications can include environment monitoring, military operations, and complex spatial sensor and sensor network research.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: The achievements over the last funded year have fulfilled the designated tasks in the proposal. The following briefly describes the progress of the project's research tasks:

1. We reviewed the relevant literatures related to this project, such as the basic information of the Moon, the astronaut disorientation problems in previous Apollo missions, and the possible scenarios and requirements in future lunar manned missions. Useful knowledge has been obtained, which provides a better understanding to design and development our technologies and systems.

2. We completed system design for the LASOIS based on extensive analysis and experiments.

3. We completed study on sensor integration and developed technologies for data processing and spatial information derivation. An extended Kalman filter is being developed to integrate measurements from IMU, step sensor, and stereo cameras. A KLT tracker algorithm has been improved and implemented for astronaut navigation from video tracking.

4. The LASOIS prototype V1.0 has been developed and tested. It uses a combination of stereo cameras, IMUs, step sensors, and orbiter imagery. A set of tests of the LASOIS prototype V1.0 were performed at The Ohio State University. For example, a trajectory was derived using an industrial-grade IMU and a step sensor. Comparing the derived trajectory to a trajectory determined using GPS, a disclosure of 11 m for a traverse of 122 m was obtained (9%). By incorporating additional observations from stereo cameras, we expect that an improved localization accuracy of less than 2% can be achieved.

5. A spatial database at our test sites (including the in-door laboratory and out-door campus field at the Ohio State University and the analog sites at Moses Lake, WA and Silver Lake, CA) is being constructed including high-resolution satellite images, ground images and videos, measurements from multi-sensors, and ground truth measured by GPS and field survey. Detailed field test data and results from future test campaigns will be incorporated into the spatial database, which will be available to other NSBRI funded scientists and NASA researchers.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings He S, Wu B, Lee YJ, Skopljak B, Li R. "Inertial measurement unit (IMU) placement analysis for future lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system." Student Poster. The 2nd Annual NLSI Lunar Science Forum, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, July 21-23, 2009.

2nd Annual NLSI Lunar Science Forum, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, July 21-23, 2009. , Jul-2009

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Li R, Wu B, Skopljak B, He S, Lee YJ, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks M, Oman C. "Prototype development for a lunar astronaut spatial orientation and information system (LASOIS)." The 2nd Annual NLSI Lunar Science Forum, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, July 21-23, 2009.

The 2nd Annual NLSI Lunar Science Forum, Abstract Book, 2009. , Jul-2009

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Li R, Di K, Wu B, Yilmaz A, Banks M, Oman C, Bhasin C, Tang M. "Enhancement of spatial orientation capability of astronauts on the lunar surface supported by integrated sensor network and information technology." NLSI Lunar Science Conference, Moffett Field, CA, July 20-23, 2008.

Proceedings of the NLSI Lunar Science Conference, 2008. , Jul-2008

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Li R, Wu B, He S, Skopljak B, Yilmaz A, Jiang J, Banks MS, Oman C, Bhasin KB, Warner JD, Knoblock EJ. "LASOIS: Enhancing the spatial orientation capabilities of astronauts on the lunar surface." 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, March 23-27, 2009.

Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2009. , Mar-2009

Project Title:  Enhancement of Spatial Orientation Capability of Astronauts on the Lunar Surface Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2011  
Task Last Updated: 07/09/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Li, Rongxing (Ron)  Ph.D. / The Ohio State University 
Address:  Mapping and GIS Laboratory, CEEGS 
470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue 
Columbus , OH 43210 
Email: li.282@osu.edu 
Phone: 614-292-6946  
Congressional District: 15 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: The Ohio State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Banks, Martin  UC Berkeley 
Bhasin, Kul  NASA Glenn Research Center 
Yilmaz, Alper  The Ohio State University 
Di, Kaichang  The Ohio State University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SA01602 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
(2) SHFE-HCI-07 (SM11):Can crewmember spatiomotor abilities be more accurately predicted and countermeasures and training techniques developed to mitigate spatial disorientation during spaceflight? (Merged with HCI-03)(IRP Rev D)
Task Description: The scientific goal of this proposed project is to develop a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) that will enhance astronauts spatial orientation capability and reduce sensorimotor risks during manned and landed lunar mission operations. The main objectives of this project are:

(1) To investigate methods for removal and/or alleviation of astronaut disorientation in a lunar surface operations setting by using integrated information technology, and psychological and cognitive research on spatial orientation and navigation;

(2) To develop the Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System; and

(3) To train astronauts to enhance their spatial orientation capability in a LASOIS-supported simulated lunar environment.

Supported by LASOIS, astronauts will be capable of overcoming disorientation in lunar surface operations caused by microgravity and the altered visual environment through spatial information provided by the Earth control center and collected by a coordinated group of sensors from lunar orbit, descending path, and ground. The developed spatial orientation strategy, system and training will allow astronauts to have a systematic preparation for complex mission scenarios where spatial operations and efficient interactions and communications are required among the Earth-based control center, lander(s), lunar vehicle(s), outposts, and astronauts. This capability is extremely important for lunar operations that will have an extensive traversing region (around 100km).

This project fits well into NSBRI's Sensorimotor Adaptation Team Strategic Plan. In particular, it directly supports the first sensorimotor risk area "Disorientation and Manual Control" by providing the advanced LASOIS to reduce/remove the disorientation risk. Risks 44 and 45 defined in the Advanced Human Support Technologies (AHST) and Risks 24 and 26 defined in the BHP (Behavioral Health and Performance) roadmap crosscutting area can be significantly reduced by improving the spatial orientation capability through use of the proposed LASOIS system.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/07/2020) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008