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Project Title:  Intuitive Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 01/01/2007  
End Date: 06/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 10/12/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dulchavsky, Scott A. M.D., Ph.D. / Henry Ford Health System 
Address:  Surgery 
2799 W. Grand Boulevard, CFP-1 
Detroit , MI 48202-2608 
Email: sdulcha1@hfhs.org 
Phone: 313 916 9306  
Congressional District: 13 
Web:  
Organization Type: PUBLIC SERVICE 
Organization Name: Henry Ford Health System 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hamilton, Doug  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Melton, Shannon  Wyle Laboratories 
Sargsyan, Ashot  Wyle Laboratories 
Peck, Donald  Henry Ford Health System 
Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid  Henry Ford Health System 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 6/30/2011 (previously 12/31/2010) per NSBRI (Ed., 10/10/2011)

NOTE: Title change in October 2009 (previous title, "Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care").

Task Description: The diagnosis and management of acute health problems in space is problematic; there is no radiological capability aboard the International Space Station (ISS); however, an ultrasound system is operational.

Terrestrial investigations suggest expanded clinical applications of ultrasound, which could be used to diagnose over 75% of space medical conditions. This proposal will use an outcomes oriented approach to develop an intuitive ultrasound image catalog, coupled with just-in-time training methods, to allow non-experts to acquire and interpret advanced ultrasound examinations.

Specific Aim 1: Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will acquire ground based crew-member images to use for medical diagnosis in space.

Specific Aim 2: A mathematical coupling model will be developed based on existing ground/in-flight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted.

Specific Aim 3: Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officers (CMO) analogs to acquire and interpret complex ultrasound examinations autonomously or with remote guidance.

The constraints of spaceflight require the development of novel strategies for crew member health problems including ultrasound. Evidence based trials have demonstrated the accuracy of ultrasound in aerospace relevant clinical conditions when performed and interpreted by experts. ISS experiments have shown that just-in-time trained astronaut crew-members, augmented by on-board proficiency enhancement, can acquire complex, diagnostic quality ultrasound images. Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploratory class space missions. The majority of the training algorithms in this proposal are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The educational methods that were developed for the Intuitive Ultrasound Catalog are directly beneficial to medical care on Earth. These methods have been successfully transitioned to the following organizations:

United States Olympic Committee: We supported the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver

National Football League: We are currently working with the Detroit Lions, Atlanta Falcons, and Chicago Bears

National Hockey League: Detroit Red Wings

American League Baseball: Detroit Tigers

National Basketball Association: Detroit Pistons

United Nations: Millenium Development Project, Team Leader Infopoverty Section

WINFOCUS: World Conference on Ultrasound, Critical Care Medicine Symposium

University of Michigan Center for Entrepreneurship: Technology Development

Wayne State University School of Medicine: used for medical student ultrasound education

American College of Surgeons: the Basic Ultrasound Course for Surgeons uses this technology.

Our ocular ultrasound technique to measure intra-cranial pressure is being tested in human trials in the ICU and was presented to the Armed forces. A number of spinoff companies, Medical Imagineering and Ultrasound Education Technologies, were formed to produce phantom ultrasound models, and ultrasound training videos, respectively. Major ultrasound manufacturers (GE, Sonosite) and simulation centers now use these products.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: We are concluding data analysis.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Afonso N, Amponsah D, Yang J, Mendez J, Bridge P, Hays G, Baliga S, Crist K, Brennan S, Jackson M, Dulchavsky S. "Adding new tools to the black bag--introduction of ultrasound into the physical diagnosis course." J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Nov;25(11):1248-52. Epub 2010 Aug 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1451-5 ; PMID: 20697974 , Nov-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Benninger MS, McFarlin K, Hamilton DR, Rubinfeld I, Sargsyan AE, Melton SL, Moyhi M, McLaren PJ, Dulchavsky SA. "Ultrasonic evaluation of sinusitis during microgravity in a novel animal model." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Nov;136(11):1094-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archoto.2010.196 ; PMID: 21079162 , Nov-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hamilton DR, Sargsyan AE, Martin DS, Garcia KM, Melton SL, Feiveson A, Dulchavsky SA. "On-orbit prospective echocardiography on International Space Station crew." Echocardiography. 2011 May;28(5):491-501. Epub 2011 Apr 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8175.2011.01385.x ; PMID: 21535119 , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hamilton DR, Sargsyan AE, Melton SL, Garcia KM, Oddo B, Kwon DS, Feiveson AH, Dulchavsky SA. "Sonography for determining the optic nerve sheath diameter with increasing intracranial pressure in a porcine model." J Ultrasound Med. 2011 May;30(5):651-9. PMID: 21527613 , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Otto C, Comtois JM, Sargsyan A, Dulchavsky A, Rubinfeld I, Dulchavsky S. "The Martian Chronicles; remotely guided diagnosis and treatment in the Arctic Circle." Surg Endosc. 2010 Sep;24(9):2170-7. Epub 2010 Mar 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-010-0917-1 ; PMID: 20229213 , Sep-2010
Project Title:  Intuitive Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 01/01/2007  
End Date: 06/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 02/11/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dulchavsky, Scott A. M.D., Ph.D. / Henry Ford Health System 
Address:  Surgery 
2799 W. Grand Boulevard, CFP-1 
Detroit , MI 48202-2608 
Email: sdulcha1@hfhs.org 
Phone: 313 916 9306  
Congressional District: 13 
Web:  
Organization Type: PUBLIC SERVICE 
Organization Name: Henry Ford Health System 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hamilton, Doug  NASA JSC 
Melton, Shannon  Wyle Laboratories 
Sargsyan, Ashot  Wyle Laboratories 
Peck, Donald  Henry Ford Health System 
Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid  Henry Ford Health System 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 6/30/2011 (previously 12/31/2010) per NSBRI (Ed., 10/10/2011)

NOTE: Title change in October 2009 (previous title, "Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care").

Task Description: The diagnosis and management of acute health problems in space is problematic; there is no radiological capability aboard the International Space Station (ISS) however, an ultrasound system is operational.

Terrestrial investigations suggest expanded clinical applications of ultrasound which could be used to diagnose over 75% of space medical conditions. This proposal will use an outcomes oriented approach to develop an intuitive ultrasound image catalog, coupled with just-in-time training methods, to allow non-experts to acquire and interpret advanced ultrasound examinations.

Specific Aim 1: Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will acquire ground based crew-member images to use for medical diagnosis in space.

Specific Aim 2: A mathematical coupling model will be developed based on existing ground/in-flight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted.

Specific Aim 3: Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officers (CMO) analogs to acquire and interpret complex ultrasound examinations autonomously or with remote guidance.

The constraints of spaceflight require the development of novel strategies for crew member health problems including ultrasound. Evidence based trials have demonstrated the accuracy of ultrasound in aerospace relevant clinical conditions when performed and interpreted by experts. ISS experiments have shown that just-in-time trained astronaut crew-members, augmented by on-board proficiency enhancement, can acquire complex, diagnostic quality ultrasound images. Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploratory class space missions. The majority of the training algorithms in this proposal are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploratory class space missions. The majority of the training algorithms in this proposal are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications. We have already modified these training methodologies for professional sporting activities in the NHL, NFL, Olympics, and baseball. We partnered with the University of Ottawa and the Canadian Space Agency to monitor High Altitude Pulmonary and Cerebral Edema on Mt. Everest this spring. We are working with the United Nations to develop a Maternal Care ultrasound program which will enhance maternal health worldwide. We recently completed a computer based ultrasound education course which is now used by the American College of Surgeons for education of all surgeons in ultrasound, the "Basic Ultrasound Course for Surgeons". We have also completed a textbook "ICU ultrasound" which incorporates all of the materials developed for the catalog grant.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: Specific Aim 1: Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will allow ground based crew-member organ system images to be acquired and stored in an enhanced format for medical operations personnel to use for medical diagnosis in space.

We are currently 60% complete on developing the intuitive, autonomous catalog grant and have begun populating the backbone with normal and pathologic images. We met with astronaut Leroy Chiao recently for user feedback on the design of the catalog and user interface. We will acquire additional normal and pathologic images in an ongoing fashion.

Specific Aim 2: Develop a microgravity predictive, mathematical coupling model based on existing ground/in-flight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted in the ultrasound catalog. The catalog will allow ground based crew-member organ system images to be acquired and stored in an enhanced format for medical operations personnel to use for medical diagnosis or research in space.

We have converted and decoded 3/4 of the ISS ultrasound imagery (over 20,000 total!) for population and integration into the intuitive catalog. We have MRI/US data on 4 subjects to date to determine the correlation between MRI and ultrasound for use in the catalog.

Specific Aim 3: Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officers (CMO) analogs to acquire and interpret normal and pathologic ultrasound examinations using exam specific, cue cards and computer based proficiency enhancement autonomously or with remote guidance.

We have developed and verified cue cards for cardiovascular, renal, eye, and musculoskeletal examinations and have successfully used these aids to teach non-physician medical students to perform advanced ultrasound examinations. We have developed intuitive multimedia videos for the majority of the remaining exam sections included in the catalog and will test these with CMO analogs this summer.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Books/Book Chapters Killu K, Dulchavsky S. "ICU ultrasound handbook." Ed. K. Killu, S. Dulchavsky. Electronic Publication, November 2009., Nov-2009
Project Title:  Intuitive Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 01/01/2007  
End Date: 12/31/2010  
Task Last Updated: 06/11/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dulchavsky, Scott A. M.D., Ph.D. / Henry Ford Health System 
Address:  Surgery 
2799 W. Grand Boulevard, CFP-1 
Detroit , MI 48202-2608 
Email: sdulcha1@hfhs.org 
Phone: 313 916 9306  
Congressional District: 13 
Web:  
Organization Type: PUBLIC SERVICE 
Organization Name: Henry Ford Health System 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hamilton, Doug  NASA JSC 
Melton, Shannon  Wyle Laboratories 
Sargsyan, Ashot  Wyle Laboratories 
Peck, Donald  Henry Ford Health System 
Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid  Henry Ford Health System 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Title change in October 2009 (previous title, "Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care").

Task Description: The diagnosis and management of acute health problems in space is problematic; there is no radiological capability aboard the International Space Station (ISS) however, an ultrasound system is operational.

Terrestrial investigations suggest expanded clinical applications of ultrasound which could be used to diagnose over 75% of space medical conditions. This proposal will use an outcomes oriented approach to develop an intuitive ultrasound image catalog, coupled with just-in-time training methods, to allow non-experts to acquire and interpret advanced ultrasound examinations.

Specific Aim 1: Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will acquire ground based crew-member images to use for medical diagnosis in space.

Specific Aim 2: A mathematical coupling model will be developed based on existing ground/in-flight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted.

Specific Aim 3: Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officers (CMO) analogs to acquire and interpret complex ultrasound examinations autonomously or with remote guidance.

The constraints of spaceflight require the development of novel strategies for crew member health problems including ultrasound. Evidence based trials have demonstrated the accuracy of ultrasound in aerospace relevant clinical conditions when performed and interpreted by experts. ISS experiments have shown that just-in-time trained astronaut crew-members, augmented by on-board proficiency enhancement, can acquire complex, diagnostic quality ultrasound images. Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploratory class space missions. The majority of the training algorithms in this proposal are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploratory class space missions. The majority of the training algorithms in this proposal are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications. We have already modified these training methodologies for professional sporting activities in the NHL, NFL, Olympics, and baseball. We are currently partnered with the University of Ottawa and the Canadian Space Agency to monitor High Altitude Pulmonary and Cerebral Edema on Mt. Everest this spring. We are working with the United Nations to develop a Maternal Care ultrasound program which will enhance maternal health worldwide.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: Specific Aim 1: Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will allow ground based crew-member organ system images to be acquired and stored in an enhanced format for medical operations personnel to use for medical diagnosis in space.

We are currently 30% complete on developing the intuitive, autonomous catalog grant and have begun populating the backbone with normal and pathologic images. We met with astronaut Leroy Chiao recently for user feedback on the design of the catalog and user interface. We will acquire additional normal and pathologic images over the ensuing 8 months.

Specific Aim 2: Develop a microgravity predictive, mathematical coupling model based on existing ground/in-flight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted in the ultrasound catalog. The catalog will allow ground based crew-member organ system images to be acquired and stored in an enhanced format for medical operations personnel to use for medical diagnosis or research in space.

We have converted and decoded 1/4 of the ISS ultrasound imagery (over 20,000 total!) for population and integration into the intuitive catalog. We have MRI/US data on 4 subjects to date to determine the correlation between MRI and ultrasound for use in the catalog.

Specific Aim 3: Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officers (CMO) analogs to acquire and interpret normal and pathologic ultrasound examinations using exam specific, cue cards and computer based proficiency enhancement autonomously or with remote guidance.

We have developed and verified cue cards for cardiovascular, renal, eye, and musculoskeletal examinations and have successfully used these aids to teach non-physician medical students to perform advanced ultrasound examinations. We will continue this effort this summer with the remaining exam sections included in the catalog.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008
Project Title:  Intuitive Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2007 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Start Date: 01/01/2007  
End Date: 12/31/2010  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dulchavsky, Scott A. M.D., Ph.D. / Henry Ford Health System 
Address:  Surgery 
2799 W. Grand Boulevard, CFP-1 
Detroit , MI 48202-2608 
Email: sdulcha1@hfhs.org 
Phone: 313 916 9306  
Congressional District: 13 
Web:  
Organization Type: PUBLIC SERVICE 
Organization Name: Henry Ford Health System 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hamilton, Doug  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Melton, Shannon  Wyle Laboratories 
Peck, Donald  Henry Ford Health System 
Sargsyan, Ashot  Wyle Laboratories 
Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid  Henry Ford Health System 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-SMS00002 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) ExMC:Exploration Medical Capabilities
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ExMC:Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities (IRP Rev E)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) ExMC 4.02:We do not have the capability to provide non-invasive medical imaging during exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Title change in October 2009 (previous title, "Ultrasound Catalog for Autonomous Medical Care").

Task Description: The diagnosis and management of acute health problems in space is problematic. There is no radiological capability aboard the International Space Station (ISS) however, an ultrasound system is operational.

Terrestrial investigations suggest expanded clinical applications of ultrasound, which could be used to diagnose over 75 percent of space medical conditions. This proposal will use an outcomes-oriented approach to develop an intuitive ultrasound image catalog, coupled with just-in-time training methods, to allow non-experts to acquire and interpret advanced ultrasound examinations.

Specific Aims

1. Develop an intuitive ultrasound image cataloging system which incorporates ground-acquired ultrasound whole body images. The catalog will acquire ground-based crew member images to use for medical diagnosis in space.

2. Develops a mathematical coupling model based on existing ground/inflight ultrasound data which will allow microgravity-associated morphometric and topographic changes to be predicted.

3. Assess the ability of non-physician crew medical officer analogs to acquire and interpret complex ultrasound examinations autonomously or with remote guidance.

The constraints of spaceflight require the development of novel strategies for crew member health problems including ultrasound. Evidence-based trials have demonstrated the accuracy of ultrasound in aerospace-relevant clinical conditions when performed and interpreted by experts. ISS experiments have shown that just-in-time trained astronaut crew members, augmented by on-board proficiency enhancement, can acquire complex, diagnostic-quality ultrasound images. Expanding just-in-time ultrasound training to autonomous ultrasound operation, coupled with enhanced on-site interpretative capabilities, significantly expands diagnostic capabilities during exploration-class space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The majority of the training algorithms in this project are readily transferable to terrestrial medicine and provide a significant, clinically-relevant advance in space medical capabilities with profound Earth-based ramifications. We have already modified these training methodologies for professional sporting activities in the NHL, NFL, Olympics and MLB. We are currently partnered with the University of Ottawa and the Canadian Space Agency to monitor High-Altitude Pulmonary and Cerebral Edema on Mt. Everest. We are working with the United Nations to develop a maternal care ultrasound program which will enhance maternal health worldwide.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2007 
Task Progress: New project for FY2007.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2007