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Task Book: Biological & Physical Sciences Division and Human Research Program
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Project Title:  Suited Contingency Ops Food Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2008  
End Date: 10/01/2011  
Task Last Updated: 10/20/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Catauro, Patricia  M.S. / NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: patricia.catauro@nasa.gov, erin.s.connell@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.3632  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Glass, John W MEI Technologies 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Co- Investigator John Glass (MEI Technologies) added for FY2011.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Perchonok, Michele  
Center Contact: (281) 483-7632 
michele.perchonok22@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-01:SHFH We need to determine how processing and storage affect the nutritional content of the food system. (IRP RevG)(Previous Title: AFT1 - How can the food system deliver the required level of nutrition throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 10/1/2011 for reporting purposes (Ed., 9/26/2011)

NOTE: Start date changed to 10/01/2008 per M. Perchonok (was 10/01/2007)--5/2009

Task Description: The Advanced Food Technology (AFT) project aims to provide astronauts with a food system that will maintain safety and ensure performance throughout NASA exploration missions. Part of this task has involved the development of a nutrition delivery system for use in suited survival operations. In addition to the constraints of mass, volume, and crew resources that influence design of all spaceflight systems, design of a contingency food system is also affected by other constraints. A contingency food system must have adequate interface with mission pressure suits and relevant vehicle hardware, and must function in a hypobaric and microgravity contingency environment. Proposed in FY2009, the Suited Contingency Ops directed research project has sought to define the requirements for and facilitate the development of such a contingency food system. Although the need for NASA to develop a food system to support contingency events is no longer immediate, the tasks conducted to date for this project offer valuable insight into hardware design for nutrition delivery to suited crewmembers, and are likely to have relevance to NASA in the future. These tasks and the corresponding findings are summarized within this report.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The study seeks to define a nutrition delivery system for in-suit use. The results likely have relevance to future manned spaceflight programs, and may also prove useful for pharmaceutical, medical, and performance foods industries.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: To ensure that the NASA food system promotes crew safety and performance in all mission phases, AFT has worked to develop a nutrition system that would feed astronauts in pressurized spacesuits. In addition to the constraints of mass, volume, and crew resources that influence the development of all spaceflight systems, design of a contingency food system is also affected by other constraints. The designed delivery system hardware must interface with pressurized spacesuits and vehicle hardware, and must function in the absence of pressure and gravity. Additionally, the beverage for use in this system must meet a variety of requirements related to crew health and nutrition in contingency events.

After working to identify all considerations from hardware design teams and health-related disciplines, AFT continued to act as the primary integrator in developing delivery hardware and selecting an appropriate nutritional beverage.

In light of the findings of the FY2010 glove box assessment of contingency feeding system design concepts, 8 new designs were created during the period, as part of “Generation 2” hardware design for this project. Five of these designs represented modifications to the most successful “Generation 1” hardware to further improve its performance. The remaining 3 designs, although relying on some hardware tested in Generation 1, represent distinct (new) design concepts.

The main proposal in Generation 2 that was expected to improve on earlier hardware was the modification of the feedport nozzle adapter hardware to incorporate a backfill prevention mechanism. Such a backfill prevention mechanism was a resultant recommendation from the glove box testing, as a means to overcome the pressure differential between suit and cabin, but still allow effective dispensing of beverages to a crewmember. The backfill prevention mechanism identified as part of Generation 2 was a one-way check valve that would prevent air from flowing out of the suit and into the feeding system, but still allow liquid to dispense from feeding system into suit. Several watch items were identified relating to the placement of the one-way valve on the nozzle adapter, including a need to confirm that the valve could be cleaned adequately, and that it would function with both low and high viscosity nutritional beverages and nutritional beverage dispersions. Follow on testing is encouraged to verify these watch items for future applications.

Furthermore, if the placement of the one-way check valve on the nozzle adapter is verified, testing of the Apollo Soft Goods Pouch, Toothpaste Key, Toothpaste Turnkey, and Commercial Spouted Pouch designs should also be performed at differential pressure. This would assess the combined effects of backfill prevention and mechanical aids on the effectiveness of dispensing fluid from these designs.

In addition to these proposed modifications to articles evaluated in the glove box assessment, three new designs were proposed to build on the evaluated concepts: a Ratcheting Key, Cable Constricting Restrainer Pouch, and Bag in Bag Concept. The Ratcheting Key design would rely on a rotating key as a mechanical aid.

Due to changes in agency direction, the direct need for a contingency food system is no longer present. This project has, therefore, been concluded prematurely. Still, the work conducted to date on this project is likely to be relevant to NASA needs in the future. In the event that there becomes an interest in pursuing this type of development in the future, researchers have made a diligent effort to summarize project methods, task findings, and specific recommendations for future work.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/22/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Catauro P. "Design of a Nutrition Delivery System for Use in Suited Contingency Survival Operations." Poster Presentation. 2010 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 3-5, 2010.

2010 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Houston, TX, February 3-5, 2010. , Feb-2010

Project Title:  Suited Contingency Ops Food Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 09/07/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Catauro, Patricia  M.S. / NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: patricia.catauro@nasa.gov, erin.s.connell@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.3632  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-01:SHFH We need to determine how processing and storage affect the nutritional content of the food system. (IRP RevG)(Previous Title: AFT1 - How can the food system deliver the required level of nutrition throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Start date changed to 10/01/2008 per M. Perchonok (was 10/01/2007)--5/2009

Task Description: The Advanced Food Technology (AFT) project is currently working to provide crews with a food system that will maintain safety and ensure performance throughout NASA exploration missions. Part of this task involves the development of a nutrition delivery system for use in suited survival operations. This task seeks to define requirements for such a system, develop the system, and allow delivery of the system to the stakeholders. In addition to the constraints of mass, volume, and crew resources that influence the development of all spaceflight systems, design of the contingency food system is also affected by other constraints. The designed delivery system must have adequate interface with mission pressure suits and vehicle hardware, and must function in the hypobaric and microgravity contingency environment. Additionally, it must meet other requirements relevant to other Space Life Sciences stake-holding disciplines. In light of these challenges, a two-stage development process has been initiated. The progress made with respect to this process is summarized herein.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The study seeks to define a nutrition delivery system for in-suit use. The results have immediate relevance to the Constellation and future manned spaceflight programs, but may also prove useful for pharmaceutical, medical, and performance foods industries.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Advanced Food Technology (AFT) has worked throughout the period to assemble representatives from Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) disciplines, in order to ensure effective consideration of their input in the first stage of requirements definition. As of early FY10, 12 disciplines were identified as stake-holding and integrating groups for this task. These groups collaborated frequently throughout the period to identify and document their concerns, including but not limited to their ownership of existing requirements, individual working assumptions, watch items, and risks. An agreement was made between these disciplines, whereby development of a contingency nutrition capability would address a conservative scenario of delivering a diet of nominal nutritive composition to crew in contingency scenarios.

In light of the conservative design reference scenario identified by integrating disciplines, initial recommendations were provided during the period to EVA hardware design teams on the expected physical properties of a contingency nutrition provision. Top-level assessment and in-house laboratory evaluations of physical properties were conducted on a broad range of commercial nutritional beverages. Upon completion of the in-house evaluation, design input was provided to the EVA T&E hardware team. The input included confirmation that a fluid beverage would be identified or designed to provide at maximum nominal nutrient and kilocalorie levels to suited crew in contingency events. The estimated kinematic and dynamic viscosity ranges for a suited contingency liquid beverage were also provided to the suit and vehicle design teams.

To further aid in designing delivery system hardware, a review of heritage aviation and spaceflight feeding systems was conducted by the Principle Investigator. The review identified several design concepts and open issues that may assist in the design of future contingency feeding capability. A summary of the identified heritage feeding systems and open issues identified in the review was provided to Constellation Program stakeholders. The open issues generally address gaps in an understanding of the food system behavior in (1) the absence of pressure and (2) after exposure to differential pressure, such as that of a spacesuit. To address these issues, the following activities have been performed to date: in-house vacuum testing of packaging materials and glove box assessment of contingency design concepts. Several key findings were confirmed in these efforts.

Integrating disciplines also worked throughout the period to develop detailed schedules for collaboration on this task. A main element of the Space Life Sciences input in the integrated schedule is that of the multi-phased development process for the beverage. By working to the conservative design scenario referenced above, nutritional requirements will be identified by the Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory and commercial products that meet a majority of the requirements will be scoped by AFT. Upon completion of each market survey assessment, SLSD stakeholders would be informed and have the opportunity to modify their initial recommendations, if necessary. This iterative process is to continue until the most appropriate and technologically feasible beverage requirements have been identified.

The first set of nutritional recommendations for contingency events was received by the PI from SK/Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory in January 2010. The PI has used these recommendations to conduct commercial product scoping and identify products that may be appropriate for contingency scenarios. During the period, over 300 beverages were considered against the contingency recommendations, including both Ready-to-Drink (RTD) aseptically packaged liquid and Ready-to-Use (RTU) soluble, dry powder formulas. None of the commercial options considered were found to meet the recommendations in full. The results of this scoping will be provided for consideration to SLSD stakeholders, and allow an opportunity for further refinement of the requirements.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/22/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2011
Project Title:  Suited Contingency Ops Food Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 09/03/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Catauro, Patricia  M.S. / NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: patricia.catauro@nasa.gov, erin.s.connell@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.3632  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-01:SHFH We need to determine how processing and storage affect the nutritional content of the food system. (IRP RevG)(Previous Title: AFT1 - How can the food system deliver the required level of nutrition throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Start date changed to 10/01/2008 per M. Perchonok (was 10/01/2007)--5/2009

Task Description: NASA is currently working to return to the Moon by 2020, in preparation for extending space exploration to Mars. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is being designed to provide a livable pressurized environment for crew transport to these destinations. In the event of depressurization of the CEV, crew members will be required to operate while wearing individual pressurized suits. These suit systems are primarily being designed to maintain a pressurized environment and provide adequate oxygen for crew survival in such contingency situations. However, as the specific events that result in cabin depressurization are not typical, crews must be able to operate in suited systems under a variety of conditions. These conditions include both limited and extended duration activity, as well as intra-vehicular (IVA) and extra-vehicular activities (EVA). The goal of this project is to develop a Food System for use in these situations that will be compatible with IVA and EVA suit designs, and will provide adequate nutrient delivery to crew in long- and short-duration operations. The developed Suited Contingency Operations Food System may also be reapplied to support Lunar EVA Operations.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The study seeks to define a nutrition delivery system for in-suit use. The results have immediate relevance to the Constellation program, but may also prove useful for pharmaceutical, medical, and performance foods industries.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: Integration with representatives of the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) design group has been initiated and will continue into FY10. The Advanced Food Technology (AFT) group will likely collaborate with CSSE throughout the maturation of the feed port design. Additionally, AFT will continue to integrate with relevant Constellation medical operations to finalize in-suit nutrition requirements. Specifically, AFT will participate in a meeting with the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) project and other interested parties in Quarter 4 of FY09 to define a formal set of nutrition requirements. These requirements will guide the development of in-suit nutrition capability through FY10-11.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/22/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2010
Project Title:  Suited Contingency Ops Food Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/01/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 09/01/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Catauro, Patricia  M.S. / NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Address:  1300 Hercules MC:C09 
 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: patricia.catauro@nasa.gov, erin.s.connell@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281.483.3632  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center/Lockheed Martin 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Food:Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Food-01:SHFH We need to determine how processing and storage affect the nutritional content of the food system. (IRP RevG)(Previous Title: AFT1 - How can the food system deliver the required level of nutrition throughout the mission?)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Start date changed to 10/01/2008 per M. Perchonok (was 10/01/2007)--5/2009

Task Description: NASA has a vision of returning to the moon by 2020. The Moon will be used as a testing ground for future missions to Mars. A vehicle capable of transporting crewmembers to the Moon and Mars is being developed under the Constellation Program. To explore in space, the cabin must provide a livable gaseous environment for the astronauts. In case of vehicle depressurization, a pressure suit system is required to supply oxygen for breathing and maintain pressure (NASW-4938). The purpose of this task is to provide the capability for nutrition consumption by a crewmember in a pressurized suit during unpressurized vehicle survival operations.

The Suited Contingency Food System should provide the nutrient composition specified in HS6062 in per the Constellation Program Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document No: CxP 70024, section 3.10.3.1.2, In-Suit Nutrition during Unpressurized Vehicle Survival. The nutrition consumption capability would be needed during limited-duration pressurized survival, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) or contingency Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), and extended duration pressurized survival for up to 120 hours. When unplanned cabin pressure reduction occurs and during long duration pressurized suited operations, the crew will need to consume nutrition to maintain enough strength to perform vehicle survival tasks. The design specifications placed upon the feeding system of the pressure suit were restrictive. Understanding the feeding system design limitations, requirements, relevant parameters, and guidelines through discussions with the pressurized suit team in the Advanced EVA Technology group will be the first task of this project. The second task will coordinate interface options with nutrition team to obtain the nutritional requirements for crewmember in a pressurized suit during unpressurized vehicle survival operations.

After the establishment of selection criteria for the pressure suited food delivery system, commercially available food items will be identified. All potential food structures will be explored (e.g., liquid foods including true solution and emulsion, semi-solid foods including paste and gel, and solid foods including bar and bite-size foods, etc.)

An evaluation system will be developed with consideration of the selection criteria and be divided into four areas: (1) nutrition evaluation, (2) safety and shelf-life evaluation, (3) systems interface evaluation, and (4) human factors evaluation. The commercially available food items will be screened accordingly. If potentially available food items are selected, further testing will be conducted to assure maximum suitability for a pressure suit feeding system.

If insufficient commercial food items are available, new products will be developed to support astronauts in pressure-suited contingency operations. The developed Suited Contingency Operations Food System can be reapplied to Lunar EVA Operations.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/22/2018)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009