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Project Title:  Ground-based Biomechanical Analyses of Resistance Exercise Using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 10/29/2010  
Task Last Updated: 07/14/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center  
English, Kirk  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Fincke, Renita S Wyle/NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project 
Logan, Rachel  Midwestern University, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Rachel Logan, M.S., NSBRI intern participated in the data collection; Renita S. Fincke, MBA, particpated as support personel during all phases of the project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Received extension until 10/29/2010, per PI; original end date was 7/02/2010 (Ed., 10/7/10)

Task Description: The new integrated resistance and aerobic training study (SPRINT) exercise prescription is being designed using ground-based evidence with the intent of increasing the loads experienced by the musculoskeletal system during in-flight exercise. Prescription optimization is dependent upon a complete understanding of exercise biomechanics in order to include exercises that are most beneficial to increasing crewmember health. Furthermore, variations in exercise biomechanics of specific exercises, such as the range of motion during the performance of the parallel squat, could have large influences upon the loads experienced by the musculoskeletal system. A detailed biomechanical analysis is required to determine which variations lead to the greatest site-specific joint loading forces and can be used to inform the optimal exercise prescription. The objective of this project was to determine the joint loads that occur during exercise in microgravity on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). The goal is to determine the best exercises for use during crewmember exercise during long-term missions.

There are various complexities with performing in-flight investigations. In order to maximize the potential for the most relevant data to be collected with minimal impact on crew time, we propose a two-phase program. Biomechanical analyses need to occur during actual exercise in microgravity to ensure optimal application of the results. However, since crew time is limited, ground-based evaluations should occur prior to in-flight data collection to ensure that the analyses performed on International Space Station (ISS) are completed as efficiently as possible. We propose to complete the analysis in three phases. Phase 1, which is detailed in this study, involved a detailed data collection on ground while subjects performed variations of squat and deadlift exercises on the ARED. Variations of each exercise included placement of the feet, speed of the lift, and range of motion and were examined. A computational model was used to compute joint loads and torques during each exercise. Six subjects (3 M/3 F) of small, medium, and large body types as described by NASA anthropometric standards were tested. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the joint loading that occurred during typical resistance exercise on the ARED. The goal was to better understand the kinematic and kinetic similarities between exercise variations and to determine a subset of exercises that will be included in a future proposal that will include a biomechanical analysis of exercise on the ISS using the subset of exercises determined during phase 2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Resistance exercise is a common activity performed by individuals wishing to increase muscular strength and bone health. Crewmembers perform squat and deadlift exercise to load the lower extremity and core musculature and the axial skeleton. Each exercise is fundamentally similar in that a subject performs hip, knee, and ankle flexion and extension as a load is lowered and raised. During the lowering phase, musculature primarily acts eccentrically, while during the raise musculature primarily acts concentrically. Squat and deadlift exercises are common activities performed in exercise programs used by athletes and during rehabilitation from injury.

Each exercise can be modified by increasing or decreasing stance width, movement velocity, and/or range of motion. Although the fundamental movement remains the same, these variations or combinations thereof may result in differences in long-term training effects. In order for practitioners to better understand and utilize these variations in creating optimal exercise programs, the joint motions and loads need to be quantified. This research, because it was performed in normal gravity, is beneficial to strength coaches, rehabilitation personnel, and scientists who use squat and deadlift exercise as a part of their exercise programs. In addition, this is the first study to quantify the hip joint motions in the frontal and transverse planes, which is important in differentiating between exercise variations and better understanding why slight variations load the musculoskeletal system differently.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: This investigation was completed in 2010, and a final report was submitted to NASA.

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the joint kinematics and kinetics that occur during squat and deadlift exercise on the ARED to inform a future proposal that will include a biomechanical analysis of exercise on the ISS. Six subjects (3m/3f) were tested while performing single legged squats, normal squats, increased range of motion squats, wide stance squats, fast squats, reduced range of motion squats, normal deadlift, and sumo deadlift. Ground reaction force (GRF) and motion capture data were collected as each subject performed a single repetition using a load that approximated their 10 repetition maximum. Testing loads were determined during an earlier training session. Three dimensional joint kinematics and kinetics were computed using a standard inverse dynamics approach. GRF data indicated that peak loads were dependent upon exercise type and that the peak GRF did not always occur at the same time during a repetition depending upon the exercise. Bilateral joint kinematics were generally symmetrical; however, hip adduction and rotation displayed increased bilateral asymmetry. Joint kinetics differed between exercise types although there were no specific trends across all variables. In general during the downward motion, work was performed on the hip and knee extensors for all exercises, and work was performed by the hip and knee extensors during the upward motion. Positive and negative work for hip adduction/abduction, hip internal/external rotation, and ankle flexion varied across exercises. Bilateral joint kinetics were asymmetrical, which may reflect a property of ARED that needs further study.

Based on our results, we suggest that the exercises included in a future flight study include, along with the justification:

1) Normal Squat: A baseline measure

2) Single Legged Squat: Increased net hip torque and only exercise inducing hip adduction

3) Wide Normal Squat: Hip adduction and rotation kinematics suggest femoral head loading differences

4) Normal Deadlift: Baseline measure, but with different kinematics than the squat

Furthermore, we suggest the following:

1) Increasing the subject size of the current study to allow for standard statistical analyses

2) Retest of current subjects bilateral symmetry using a free weight condition

3) Further study of the FS condition relative to free weights to better understand joint kinetic differences

Although IR (increased range of motion) squats had larger kinetic values than others, variation was also increased because of between subject differences. We did not recommend this lift because of the larger subject variation, but this lift should also be considered in a future study.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Fincke RS, Logan RL, Guilliams ME, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Kinematics and kinetics of squat and deadlift exercises with varying stance widths." Presented at the 34th National Strength and Conditioning Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV, July 6-9, 2011.

Program and Abstracts. 34th National Strength and Conditioning Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV, July 6-9, 2011. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110007993.pdf ; accessed 2/11/2021. , Jul-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings De Witt JK, Fincke RS, Logan RL, Guilliams ME, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Load variation influences on joint work during squat exercise in reduced gravity." Presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Long Beach, CA, August 10-13, 2011.

35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Long Beach, CA, August 10-13, 2011. , Aug-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals De Witt JK, English KL, Crowell JB, Kalogera KL, Guilliams ME, Nieschwitz BE, Hanson AM, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Isometric mid-thigh pull reliability and relationship to deadlift 1RM." J Strength Cond Res. 2018 Feb;32(2):528-33. Epub ahead of print 2016 Aug 18. https://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001605 ; PubMed PMID: 27548797 , Feb-2018
Project Title:  Ground-based Biomechanical Analyses of Resistance Exercise Using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/13/2009  
End Date: 10/29/2010  
Task Last Updated: 02/19/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   De Witt, John  Ph.D. / Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Human Adaptation and Countermeasures/SK 
1290 Hercules Drive  
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: john.k.dewitt@nasa.gov  
Phone: (281) 483-8939  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA/NASA Johnson Space Center  
Scott-Pandorf, Melissa  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
English, Kirk  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Guilliams, Mark  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Newby, Nate  Wyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M03:What tasks will be required for Exploration missions? (Gap Retired - Gap content is covered in Gap M6, per IRP Rev F)
(2) M04:Establish muscle fitness standards for successful completion of mission tasks (IRP Rev F)
(3) M06:Develop pre-flight and in-flight evaluations to determine if muscle fitness standards are met (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) M08:What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for tasks? (Gap merged with M7, per IRP Rev F)
(6) M09:Identify and validate exploration hardware for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Received extension until 10/29/2010, per PI; original end date was 7/02/2010 (10/7/10)

Task Description: The new integrated resistance and aerobic training study (iRATS) exercise prescription is being designed using ground-based evidence with the intent of increasing the loads experienced by the musculoskeletal system during in-flight exercise. Prescription optimization is dependent upon a complete understanding of exercise biomechanics in order to include exercises that are most beneficial to increasing crewmember health. Furthermore, variations in exercise biomechanics of specific exercises, such as the range of motion during the performance of the parallel squat, could have large influences upon the loads experienced by the musculoskeletal system. A detailed biomechanical analysis is required to determine which variations lead to the greatest site-specific joint loading forces and can be used to inform the optimal exercise prescription. The objective of this program is to determine the joint loads that occur during exercise in microgravity on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). The goal is to determine the best exercises for use during crewmember exercise during long-term missions.

There are various complexities with performing in-flight investigations. In order to maximize the potential for the most relevant data to be collected with minimal impact on crew time, we propose a two-phase program. Biomechanical analyses need to occur during actual exercise in microgravity to ensure optimal application of the results. However, since crew time is limited, ground-based evaluations should occur prior to in-flight data collection to ensure that the analyses performed on ISS are completed as efficiently as possible. We propose to complete the analysis in three phases. Phase 1, which is detailed in this proposal, will involved a detailed data collection on ground while subjects perform squat and deadlift exercise on the ARED. Variations of each exercise, including resistance level and placement of the feet, hands, and range of motion will be examined to quantify the specific condition that optimizes joints loads. A computational model will be used to analyze joint loads and torques during each exercise. Six subjects (3 M/3 F) of small, medium, and large body types as described by NASA anthropometric standards will be used as subjects. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify the joint loading that occurs during typical resistance exercise on the ARED. The goal is to determine a subset of exercises that show the greatest potential for maximizing health benefits to inform a future proposal that will include a biomechanical analysis of exercise on the ISS using the subset of exercises determined during phase 2.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: New project for FY2009.

[Ed. note: project added to Task Book in February 2010 when information received from JSC]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009