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Project Title:  Information Presentation Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/02/2006  
End Date: 09/30/2010  
Task Last Updated: 10/25/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Holden, Kritina  Ph.D. / Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy/SF3 
Mail Code: C46 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: kritina.l.holden@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-8829  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
McCann, Robert  NASA Ames Research Center 
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Display and control user interfaces are the critical vehicle elements supporting crew performance for many, if not most, mission operations. Correctly defining, refining, and validating the requirements for the proper display and use of information for systems monitoring and vehicle control is critical for optimizing operational performance and minimizing operational risk. The goal of this Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. This includes not only the issues of information formatting, style, and layout, but also methods of interacting with the information, use of information under the extreme environments encountered in space travel, and refinement of human factors techniques, such as modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques, and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost efficient manner. This DRP will result in the development of guidelines, requirements, and validation techniques for advanced information display solutions currently contemplated for the various spacecraft systems being designed and developed under the Constellation program.

The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The Displays subtask addresses label formatting, text color, auditory alarms, and navigation across and within display units. The effects of vibration on reading and speech communication are also investigated. The Controls subtask concentrates on cursor control functionality, design, and use under vibration and microgravity. The Electronic Procedures and Fault Management subtask focuses on information architecture issues for nominal and off-nominal electronic procedures, and their integration with advanced caution and warning systems. The Modeling subtask focuses on human performance modeling of user interfaces in the space environment.

The focus within each major subtask has been carefully selected to address either 1) a near-term identified need within ongoing Orion development work, or 2) a longer-term Exploration need that is sufficiently complex to warrant initiation of research. It is envisioned that activities within these subtasks will evolve and be modified for out-years, as additional research needs are identified.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research on Displays involves label design, auditory alarms, and readability under vibration. Standards and guidelines resulting from this research can be applied to software labels and auditory alarms in any domain. Results from readability under vibration studies may be relevant to race car drivers, pilots or other operators in vibration environments. Research results on Controls, such as cursor control devices (CCD), can be applied in any setting using CCDs, and the CCD Test Battery developed can be used in many types of research involving CCD use or motor control related topics. Electronic Procedures and Fault Management study results apply in any domain having procedure-driven tasks that involve alerting, such as plant control rooms, air traffic control, and piloting. Modeling results can offer insights into human interaction with real-time control systems, whether these are spacecraft, aircraft, or other types of real-time task displays.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: FY10 Accomplishments for DISPLAYS

Completed a study on the effects of peak vs. extended vibration on readability, including post vibration motor control.

Completed a final report describing the Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation 1904 (Visual Performance under Shuttle Launch Vibration).

Completed a study on the effects of strobing as a countermeasure to vibration effects on reading.

Completed a white paper describing a comparative analysis between vibration, g+vibration, and simulated vibration.

Completed a study of candidate alarm sounds for Emergency, Warning, and Caution, including speech alarms. Finalized alarm requirements were accepted into the CxP Human-Systems Integration Requirements document.

Completed a study on speech intelligibility and the effects of alarm source.

Completed an evaluation of a prototype spatial auditory display to aid situation awareness for an EVA crewmember.

Completed a study on color coding and multi-monitor display interaction.

FY10 accomplishments for CONTROLS

Completed the first ever test of cursor control devices under various vibration conditions (frequencies/amplitudes).

Completed a survey of CCD needs for future lunar/exploration missions.

Completed the first ever test of pressurized gloved operations with small controls in a glovebox with pressures up to 8.1 psid.

Enhanced the Cursor Control Device Test Battery and completed initial paperwork for release as a NASA Innovation.

FY10 accomplishments for ELECTRONIC PROCEDURES & FAULT MANAGEMENT

Completed a study investigating how displayed information is used during a fault management task.

Completed an analysis of "look forward" and "look backward" behaviors when using electronic procedures

Completed a study on the effects of serial vs. parallel availability of electronic procedures when using system summary displays during a fault management task.

FY10 accomplishments for MODELING

Developed an enhanced human occulomotor performance model. Validated the model with comparisons to operator-based performance.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kaiser M, Allen C, Barshi I, Billman D, Holden K. "Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation." Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, October 1, 2010.

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 2010. , Sep-2010

Awards Thompson S, Holden K, Ebert D, Root P, Adelstein B, Jones J. "Best Poster Award for Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) 1904. Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch. May 2010." May-2010
NASA Technical Documents Adelstein B, Beutter B, Kaiser M, McCann R, Stone L. "Effects of Transverse Seat Vibration on Near-Viewing Readability of Alphanumeric Symbology." NASA Ames Research Center. NASA Technical Memorandum 2009-215385. , Oct-2009
NASA Technical Documents Adelstein B, Beutter B, Kaiser M, McCann R, Stone L, Anderson M, Renema F, Paloski W. "Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance." NASA Ames Research Center. NASA Technical Memorandum 2009-215386. , Oct-2009
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Begault D. "Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part I: Stimuli Recording and Speech Analysis." Audio Engineering Society 127th Convention, New York, NY, October 9-12, 2009.

Proceedings of Audio Engineering Society 127th Convention, October 2009. Paper 7820. , Oct-2009

Project Title:  Information Presentation Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/02/2006  
End Date: 09/30/2010  
Task Last Updated: 06/21/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Holden, Kritina  Ph.D. / Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy/SF3 
Mail Code: C46 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: kritina.l.holden@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-8829  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
McCann, Robert  NASA Ames Research Center 
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Display and control user interfaces are the critical vehicle elements supporting crew performance for many, if not most, mission operations. Correctly defining, refining, and validating the requirements for the proper display and use of information for systems monitoring and vehicle control is critical for optimizing operational performance and minimizing operational risk. The goal of this Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. This includes not only the issues of information formatting, style, and layout, but also methods of interacting with the information, use of information under the extreme environments encountered in space travel, and refinement of human factors techniques, such as modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques, and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost efficient manner. This DRP will result in the development of guidelines, requirements, and validation techniques for advanced information display solutions currently contemplated for the various spacecraft systems being designed and developed under the Constellation program.

The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The Displays subtask addresses label formatting, text color, auditory alarms, and navigation across and within display units. The effects of vibration on reading and speech communication are also investigated. The Controls subtask concentrates on cursor control functionality, design, and use under vibration and microgravity. The Electronic Procedures and Fault Management subtask focuses on information architecture issues for nominal and off-nominal electronic procedures, and their integration with advanced caution and warning systems. The Modeling subtask focuses on human performance modeling of user interfaces in the space environment.

The focus within each major subtask has been carefully selected to address either 1) a near-term identified need within ongoing Orion development work, or 2) a longer-term Exploration need that is sufficiently complex to warrant initiation of research. It is envisioned that activities within these subtasks will evolve and be modified for out-years, as additional research needs are identified.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research on Displays involves label design, auditory alarms, and readability under vibration. Standards and guidelines resulting from this research can be applied to software labels and auditory alarms in any domain. Results from readability under vibration studies may be relevant to race car drivers, pilots or other operators in vibration environments. Research results on Controls, such as cursor control devices (CCD), can be applied in any setting using CCDs, and the CCD Test Battery developed can be used in many types of research involving CCD use or motor control related topics. Electronic Procedures and Fault Management study results apply in any domain having procedure-driven tasks that involve alerting, such as plant control rooms, air traffic control, and piloting. Modeling results can offer insights into human interaction with real-time control systems, whether these are spacecraft, aircraft, or other types of real-time task displays.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: Label Design

In FY09, the series of studies from FY08 was followed up with a study on label/ value visual distinction. Of the design features investigated (colon, bolding, space), no significant effects were found. Results from these and prior studies have led to several label guidelines/recommendations on orientation, alignment, and label/value distinction. These recommendations have been or will be documented in several NASA standards and requirements documents.

Readability under Vibration

The results of vibration research in FY08 and FY09 suggested that different forms of symbology were differentially sensitive to vibration effects, with larger, more graphical symbols (such as those found on a primary flight display) more resistant to vibration than alphanumeric symbology. On the basis of this and other considerations, a study (jointly funded by Orion and HRP) investigated the performance impacts of a realistic Orion vibration profile during Thrust Oscillation on a task measuring operator capability to process and integrate information from candidate primary flight display (graphical) symbology. The results of the study were provided to the Orion Project Office, as well as the astronaut office, and formed the basis of a crew-consensus report that broke out crew requirements for maximum vibration during Orion ascents into two components: a maximum vibration level for peaks or bursts set at 0.70 (zero-to-peak), and a sustained vibration level at 0.31 Root Mean Square (RMS).

Effect of vibration on speech intelligibility

Initial work was begun in FY09 to look at speech communication under vibration. In this study, the effect of 0.5 and 0.7 g whole body vibration was evaluated on speech production of words (Diagnostic Rhyme Test word list). Initial observations indicate that, while discrimination of consonants in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm may be only moderately affected, an absolute word identification test will yield low scores. Software and hardware were developed for future testing of speech intelligibility using the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT).

Alarms

In FY09, a third study in a series was completed to investigate alarms currently in use within NASA space programs, along with some new, candidate alarm tones. Eleven non-crew and 3 crew subjects were asked to rate six candidate alarms in comparison to the current alarm for each of the following categories of alert: Emergency (fire/smoke), Emergency (depressurization), Warning, and Caution. Ratings were also obtained for perceived urgency of the alarm, overall satisfaction with the alarm, and the perceived value of a speech component. The results firmed up a recommended alarm set and indicated that the use of a speech component is preferred by both crew and non-crew.

Cursor Control Device

In FY09, an additional cursor control device evaluation was completed in order to collect data on some new device types, and add to the growing database of cursor control device data. Devices tested included the leading candidate prototype for Orion, as well as some other concepts that had been considered for CxP use. The testing used discrete modes of cursor movement, and participants wore space gloves. Devices tested included the Kensington trackball, a smaller castle-type switch, an F-18 aircraft-derived device, and a rocker switch (Orion candidate). Results showed that the smaller castle-type switch and rocker switch had some of the fastest movement times and lowest frequency of errors. In addition, subjective ratings found the rocker to be most preferred. This study provides important objective performance data to the Orion program, confirming that the rocker switch is a good design.

Cursor Control Device Test Battery

In FY09, the Cursor Control Device Test Battery was further improved by adding a study set-up screen that allows study conductors to set the parameters and the order of the tasks for a study. Usability testing was also conducted on the test battery to improve the user experience with the application.

Electronic Procedures and Fault Management

During FY09, the eye movement data collected as part of the FY07 fault management study were re-analyzed at a more granular level to subdivide originally specified “regions of interest” into more specific “areas of interest” down to the level of specific display symbols. Temporal sequences of fixations to these areas of interest are currently being compared to predictions derived from the application of N-SEEV, a computational model of visual attention that assigns specific weightings to individual display elements on the basis of bottom-up factors (perceptual dimensions such as brightness, contrast, etc.) and top-down factors (derived from dynamic assessments of the task relevance of that particular display element at that specific point in time), and then makes predictions for fixation sequencing based on Luce’s choice rule

Human Performance Modeling

Data analyses of the FY07 Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS) study in support of model development was continued in FY09. Individual fixations from study participants are being analyzed for intent, based on real-time viewing of fixations in conjunction with videotape viewing of the participants.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Boyer JL, Sándor A, Holden KL. "Dual-Task Performance under Unimanual and Bimanual Control." Poster presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) Houston Chapter Conference, Houston, Texas, April 24, 2009.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) Houston Chapter Conference, Houston, Texas, April 24, 2009. , Apr-2009

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hayashi M, Ravinder U, Beutter B, McCann RS, Spirkovska L, Renema F. "Operator performance evaluation of fault management interfaces for next-generation spacecraft." SAE International Journal of Aerospace. 2009 Apr;1(1): 164-77. http://saeaero.saejournals.org/content/1/1/164.abstract , Apr-2009
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Sándor A, Holden K. "Cursor Control Device Test Battery: Development and Application." Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 52nd Annual Meeting, New York, NY, September 2008.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 52nd Annual Meeting, New York, NY, September 2008. , Sep-2008

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Begault DR. "Effect of whole-body vibration on speech. Part 1: stimuli recording and speech analysis." Audio Engineering Society 127th Convention, Oct 9-12, 2009, New York, NY.

Proceedings, Audio Engineering Society 127th Convention, Oct 9-12, 2009, New York, NY. , Oct-2009

Project Title:  Information Presentation Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2007 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 10/02/2006  
End Date: 09/30/2010  
Task Last Updated: 04/28/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Holden, Kritina  Ph.D. / Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy/SF3 
Mail Code: C46 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: kritina.l.holden@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-8829  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: Leidos Corporation at NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
McCann, Robert  NASA Ames Research Center 
Project Information: 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Woolford, Barbara  
Center Contact: 218-483-3701 
barbara.j.woolford@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SHFH:Space Human Factors & Habitability (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HCI:Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SHFE-HCI-03:We need HCI guidelines (e.g., display configuration, screen-navigation) to mitigate the performance decrements identified in SHFE-HCI-08 due to the spaceflight environment (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: Display and control user interfaces are the critical vehicle elements supporting crew performance for many, if not most, mission operations. Correctly defining, refining, and validating the requirements for the proper display and use of information for systems monitoring and vehicle control is critical for optimizing operational performance and minimizing operational risk. The goal of this Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. This includes not only the issues of information formatting, style, and layout, but also methods of interacting with the information, use of information under the extreme environments encountered in space travel, and refinement of human factors techniques, such as modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques, and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost efficient manner. This DRP will result in the development of guidelines, requirements, and validation techniques for advanced information display solutions currently contemplated for the various spacecraft systems being designed and developed under the Constellation program.

The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The Displays subtask addresses label formatting, text color, auditory alarms, and navigation across and within display units. The effects of vibration on reading and speech communication are also investigated. The Controls subtask concentrates on cursor control functionality, design, and use under vibration and microgravity. The Electronic Procedures and Fault Management subtask focuses on information architecture issues for nominal and off-nominal electronic procedures, and their integration with advanced caution and warning systems. The Modeling subtask focuses on human performance modeling of user interfaces in the space environment.

The focus within each major subtask has been carefully selected to address either 1) a near-term identified need within ongoing Orion development work, or 2) a longer-term Exploration need that is sufficiently complex to warrant initiation of research. It is envisioned that activities within these subtasks will evolve and be modified for out-years, as additional research needs are identified.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2007 
Task Progress: New project for FY2007.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2018) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2007