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Project Title:  Phoenix Scout Lander: Countermeasures testbed for spaceflight ground controllers Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 12/17/2007  
End Date: 04/16/2010  
Task Last Updated: 10/28/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barger, Laura  Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave, BLI438 
Boston , MA 02115-5817 
Email: lkbarger@hms.harvard.edu 
Phone: 530-753-2876  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sipes, Walter  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Brainard, George  Thomas Jefferson University 
Gilliland, Kirby  Oklahoma University 
Lockley, Steven  Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Andrea, Vincent  University of Oklahoma 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AD66A 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AD66A 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Project extended to April 2010, per PI (12/2009)

Task Description: A multi-institutional team of investigators (PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Med. School) provided fatigue management education to the scientists and engineers working on the Mars Phoenix Lander project. The investigators also recruited 19 subjects to participate in a research study to investigate the work hours, sleep, circadian rhythmicity and performance of individuals living on a Mars sol schedule in an operational environment. This project was funded by NASA/JSC Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research program element and provided an operational opportunity, in a Mars Time Analog, to evaluate countermeasures in a real-time, field setting. Investigators sought to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of a photic countermeasure used to treat fatigue, circadian misalignment, and sleep loss associated with the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight missions, where crewmembers, mission controllers, and support personnel are scheduled to live on non-24 hour days, which could enable these individuals to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. Moreover, this work could have a profound impact not only on the health, productivity, and safety of those associated with space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers, who work unusual and non-24 hour schedules, and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: The Phoenix spacecraft landed on Mars on May 25, 2008 and the scientists and engineers supporting the Phoenix Mars Lander worked on a Mars sol schedule until August 11, 2008 when the official schedule reverted to an Earth schedule. A multi-institutional team of investigators provided fatigue management education to the scientists and engineers working on the Mars Phoenix Lander project. The investigators also recruited 19 subjects to participate in a research study to investigate the work hours, sleep, circadian rhythmicity and performance of individuals living on a Mars sol schedule in an operational environment. Investigators sought to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of countermeasures used to treat fatigue, circadian misalignment, and sleep loss associated with the Phoenix Mars Lander mission.

We provided 3 educational sessions to the scientists, engineers and support personnel working on the Phoenix Mars Lander project in the week prior to the mission. During those 1-hour sessions, our scientific team provided information on sleep, circadian rhythms and appropriate countermeasures to facilitate entrainment to a Mars sol schedule and to maximize alertness and performance during work hours.

Investigators provided a blue light box to research subjects as well as instructions for when to seek and avoid light to facilitate entrainment to the Mars sol schedule. Ocular light exposure of a specific narrowband wavelength (±30 nm half-peak bandwidths) was encouraged using a light delivery system developed by Apollo Light Systems Inc., (American Fork, UT).

Research subjects continuously wore actigraphs on their wrists to monitor sleep and light exposure. They completed daily logs indicating work times and the fatigue countermeasures they used, and provided subjective evaluations of sleep and alertness. Subjects also accomplished daily performance testing and completed 48-hour urine collections about every two weeks to permit analysis of a melatonin conjugate to estimate circadian timing.

Subjects wore a Motionlogger (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY) on their wrists throughout the study period to provide sleep/wake activity and light exposure information. Each subject was given a personal digital assistant (PDA; Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY) that contained two programs: a sleep-work log that was completed each day and a 5-minute version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT)/ Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) that was completed twice per day. Subjects were requested to complete the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM4) at the beginning and end of each work shift. The ANAM battery also included a mood scale.

Nineteen subjects completed the study, although data collection was abbreviated in some subjects who traveled throughout the data collection period. The Mars Phoenix Lander project provided an operational opportunity, in a Mars Time Analog, to evaluate countermeasures in a real-time, field setting.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Brainard GC, Sipes W, Gilliland K, Schlegel R, Smith P. "Phoenix Scout Lander: Countermeasures testbed for spaceflight ground controllers." NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, League City, Texas, February 2008.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, League City, Texas, February 2008. , Feb-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Brainard GC, Evans EE, Fiedler E, Gilliland K, Sipes W, Smith P, Sullivan JP, Vincent A, Lockley SW. "Acceptability, Feasibility and Effectiveness of Fatigue Countermeasures for Ground Controllers During Phoenix Mars Lander Mission." NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, League City, TX, February 2009.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, League City, TX, February 2009. Poster Number 55, Abstract Number 1128. , Feb-2009

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Brainard GC, Evans EE, Fiedler E, Gilliland K, Sipes W, Sullivan JP, Vincent A, Lockley SW. "Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance of Ground Controllers During the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission." NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 2010.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 2010. Abstrtact #1086. , Feb-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Brainard GC, Evans EE, Fiedler E, Gilliland K, Sipes W, Sullivan JP, Vincent A, Lockley SW. "The Use of the Phoenix Mars Lander Mission as an Operational Analog." 81st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Phoenix, AZ, May 9-13,2010.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2010 Mar;81(3):247. , Mar-2010

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Brainard GC, Barger LK, Soler RR, Hanifin JP. "The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight." Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016 Nov;22(6):535-44. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000329 ; PubMed PMID: 27607152 , Nov-2016
Significant Media Coverage Thompson A. "Living on Mars Time: Scientists Suffer Perpetual Jet Lag." Space.com, posted 29 July 2008. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/080729-st-mars-time.html , Jul-2008
Significant Media Coverage Schafer Horton R. "UA Mars scientists are time/fatigue guinea pigs." Tucson Citizen, July 12, 2008. http://tucsoncitizen.com/morgue/2008/07/12/90802-ua-mars-scientists-are-time-fatigue-guinea-pigs/ , Jul-2008
Significant Media Coverage Dalenberg A. "Living on Mars time." Arizona Daily Wildcat, July 19, 2008 and updated July 25, 2009. http://wildcat.arizona.edu/2.2257/living-on-mars-time-1.165518 , Jul-2008
Project Title:  Phoenix Scout Lander: Countermeasures testbed for spaceflight ground controllers Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Start Date: 12/17/2007  
End Date: 04/16/2010  
Task Last Updated: 12/15/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Barger, Laura  Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave, BLI438 
Boston , MA 02115-5817 
Email: lkbarger@hms.harvard.edu 
Phone: 530-753-2876  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sipes, Walter  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Brainard, George  Thomas Jefferson University 
Gilliland, Kirby  Oklahoma University 
Lockley, Steven  Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AD66A 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AD66A 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) BHP:Behavioral Health & Performance (archival in 2017)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
(2) Sleep04:Sleep4: How can individual astronauts’ vulnerabilities to sleep loss and circadian rhythm disruption best be determined? (Per IRP Rev E--Edited/Clarified; now Sleep Gap 4)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Project extended to April 2010, per PI (12/2009)

Task Description: The NASA/JSC Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research program element is proposing to collaborate with its National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) partner and the Space Medicine Behavioral Sciences group to develop countermeasures to treat fatigue, circadian misalignment, and sleep loss associated with the Phoenix Scout Lander mission. The proposed study provides an operational opportunity, in a Mars Time Analog, to apply these countermeasures and begin evaluating their acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy in a real-time, field setting. This study will evaluate countermeasures that may be used by ground personnel controlling current missions (Shuttle and International Space Station) as well as by those controlling future missions (Lunar and Mars) as there will continue to be rovers and unmanned space craft including orbiters, landers and rovers sent to Mars. The results of this work will benefit the current unmanned NASA robotic programs and ultimately human exploration missions to both the moon and Mars.

The proposed study will examine both Phoenix Mars Lander controllers who work on a Mars sol schedule and those who work on a traditional Earth sol schedule. Major outcome measures include sleep duration (objective evaluation via actigraphy), subjective alertness (collected via daily log) and performance (evaluated with the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and other embedded and/or unobtrusive performance measures). The results of this countermeasure evaluation will benefit other operational NASA missions,such as Constellation, and also take advantage of an operational analog environment to inform gaps in knowledge of the risks of cognitive problems due to fatigue and other aspects during spaceflight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

[Ed. note: added to Task Book in Dec 2009]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008