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Project Title:  Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SR:Space Radiation
Start Date: 08/01/2004  
End Date: 12/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 06/05/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pisacane, Vincent L. Ph.D. / United States Naval Academy 
Address:  Aerospace Engineering Department 
Stop 11B 
Annapolis , MD 21402-1314 
Email: pisacane@usna.edu 
Phone: 410-293-6412  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: GOVERNMENT 
Organization Name: United States Naval Academy 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: PI retired October 2011 (Ed., 2/29/2012; information from NSBRI) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Cucinotta, Francis  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Rozenfeld, Anatoly  University of Wollongong 
Ziegler, James  United States Naval Academy 
Nelson, Martin  United States Naval Academy 
Zaider, Marco  Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute 
Dicello, John  United States Naval Academy 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SR:Space Radiation
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ARS:Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Acute05:What are the optimal SPE alert and dosimetry technologies for EVAs?
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Note: title changed per NSBRI info (12/08)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2008 per NSBRI (5/2008)

Task Description: A microdosimeter is perhaps the only active detector capable of directly determining the mean radiation quality of a mixed or unknown radiation field, and, therefore, the dose equivalent and effective dose from which the radiation risk can be assessed in real time. Objectives of this research project are to develop a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter suitable for an area sensor, a spacecraft or habitat, and as a personnel monitor, such as a spacesuit, and to verify its performance through radiation source and beam tests and comparison of experimental results with radiation transport codes. The original objectives were expanded to include a student-developed instrument for the MidSTAR-I spacecraft launched in March 2007.

The original aims of the project were to

1. Demonstrate that a small, compact, and portable flight qualifiable, solid-state microdosimeter can be developed to measure quantitative information on the dose and dose distribution of energy deposited in silicon cells of tissue size and by inference in tissue.

2. Analyze data from radiation beam experiments and compare with radiation transport codes to provide quantitative information on the radiation environment, potential risk, and the accuracy of the codes to correctly calculate energy deposition spectra.

3. With data from radiation beam experiments correlated with radiation transport codes, determine the effectiveness of selected materials to minimize the total risk from primary and secondary radiation.

The specific objectives of the MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) instrument are to

1. Make real-time measurements of the radiation environment to assess risk (dose equivalent).

2. Actively warn crew during onset of enhanced radiation events.

3. Allow crew to determine safe locations during enhanced radiation events.

4. Provide observations to validate and improve space radiation environment models.

5. Provide observations to validate and improve radiation transport theories for shield materials and different tissues types.

While not part of this proposal, a student design effort developed an early version of a MIDN instrument that was launched on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft in 2007 although only a short time was available for its design and development by the students.

We have satisfied most but not all of our aims and instrument development objectives.

We have successfully evolved two sets of instrumentation, a bench-top system to evaluate instrument components without regard for power or size and two prototype flight instruments. Each instrument consists essentially of a sensor, sensor electronics, amplifiers, analog-to-digital conversion, and a multichannel analyzer under computer or microprocessor control. We have tested these instruments at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Ions examined include: iron, oxygen, silicon, hydrogen, carbon, and titanium. We were able to achieve in our benchtop system with a 10 um thick sensor a dE/dx < 1keV/um in silicon that is equivalent to a lineal energy of approximately 0.4 keV/um in tissue. In our flight prototype instrument with a 10 um thick sensor, we were able to achieve a dE/dx ~ 3 keV/um in silicon that is equivalent to a lineal energy of ~ 1 keV/um in tissue. The anticipated flight system will require a power of approximately one watt and could be packaged into a volume of less than 12 x 8 x 4 cm and should have a dE/dx < 1keV/um in silicon that is equivalent to a lineal energy of approximately 0.4 keV/um in tissue. These are significant accomplishments that satisfy the primary objectives of the research and verify our original hypotheses that verify that silicon microdosimetery appears to be a viable alternative to assess a mixed and unknown time varying radiation field to estimate regulatory risk.

This is the final year of this National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) grant.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Microdosimetric techniques are perhaps the only experimental methods for actively determining the radiation quality of mixed or unknown radiation fields and their dose equivalent. Likewise, the compact nature of a solid-state microdosimeter along with its low voltage and low power consumption and remote telemetry makes such a device ideal for in-situ personnel monitors as well as area monitors. The radiation quality and the corresponding dose equivalent and/or effective doses form the basis of regulatory dose limits both in the U.S. and internationally as well as the basis for the evaluation of potential overexposures. Generally, in radiation fields with average quality factors greater than one, those radiation components with the highest quality may represent a component of the dose comparable to the dose uncertainty. For example, as the energy of x-ray therapy machines increases to accommodate intensity modulated radiotherapy and other new techniques, the contributions of secondary neutrons produced in the shielding materials to the whole-body exposure of the clinical personnel as well as the patients themselves increase. With a quality factor as high as 20, a one or two percent neutron component can contribute as much as 20 to 30 percent of the dose equivalent. Likewise, in radiation storage and clean-up, it is the dose equivalent or effective dose, not the physical absorbed dose, that determines the need and level of clean up, yet it is the physical dose that is usually measured because of the difficulty in measuring dose equivalent in the field by personnel who are not experts in microdosimetry. Finally, the detection of radiation emitted by nuclear materials that may be used in terrorist activities requires cheap, reliable, and rugged microdosimeters that can determine small changes in the radiation environment and issue reliable alerts in real time.

The use of prior methods is limited in part because of the complexity, sensitivity, and lack of reliability of the most commonly used instruments, gas proportional counters. The compact system that we have developed for space applications would likewise be applicable for these situations and measurements described in the previous paragraph.

We have established for the first time in a solid-state microdosimeter a lowered energy cutoff of dE/dx < 1 keV/um in silicon that is equivalent to a lineal energy cutoff of < 0.4 keV/um in tissue. Thus we have an instrument that can be used in space and terrestrially to directly assess regulatory risk.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: MIDN PROTOTYPE FLIGHT INSTRUMENT

1. Based on our experience with the MIDN development, we designed and developed an advanced version of the instrument.

2. A prototype was developed that although did not include all of the specifications was able to achieve with a 10 um thick sensor a dE/dx ~ 3 keV/um in silicon that is equivalent to a lineal energy of ~1 keV/um in tissue.

BENCHTOP DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

1. By designing and constructing a new Faraday cage that houses the sensor and preamplifier circuit, upgrading the signal transmission circuitry between the system and the data acquisition area, and designing a new data acquisition method, we were able to reduce the inherent noise level well below a keV/micron, allowing detection of the peak of the dose distributions for minimum ionizing protons, the most difficult particles to detect microdosimetrically.

2. In collaboration with the M. Sivertz and A. Rusek at BNL, we have developed a system that allows identification of incident particles, categorized them according to their mass-to-charge ratio and energy, and correlated them with individual events in the microdosimeter. Recall that our earlier work in this regard resulted in our identifying lighter ion contaminants in the beam and their contributions to the microdosimetric spectra, a fact that we subsequently learned was known to BNL personnel.

3. We measured the energy deposited in a microdosimeter with radiation beams of Carbon at 290 MeV/n and protons at 1 GeV/n, 600 MeV/n, 250 MeV/n, 100 MeV/n, and 50 MeV/n at the NSRL facility at the BNL and achieved a lower energy cutoff of < 1 keV/um in silicon equivalent to a lineal energy cutoff in tissue of < 0.3 keV/um.

ADVANCED SENSOR DEVELOPMENT

1. We now have prototypes of a new design of a solid-state microdosimeter with three dimension micron sized sensitive volumes, addressing some of the shortcomings identified earlier. This sensor was developed at the Centre for Medical Research Physics, and a new grant (Australian Research Council Discovery Project) was recently received by our collaborator to further support this project.

2. We have established collaborations with the EE (electrical engineering) departments at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) to explore the potential of developing alternative silicon sensors. These new sensors will be developed as part of our follow-on grant from the NSBRI.

3. With minimal support, JHU was able to supply us with two dies that have a variety of diodes for preliminary testing. A test fixture was developed to carry out tests, and measurements of alpha particles were successfully conducted.

RADIATION TRANSPORT CODES

1. We imported the radiation transport code GEANT4 and two corollary programs MULASSIS (multilayered shielding simulation software tool) and GEMAT. These Monte Carlo codes allow us to simulate the microdosimetry spectra in silicon devices.

2. We also have access to the MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) radiation transport code.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/24/2015) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lai NS, Lim WH, Ziebell AL, Reinhard MI, Rosenfeld AB, Dzurak AS. "Development and fabrication of cylindrical silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter arrays." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2009 Jun;56(3):1637-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2009.2015317 , Jun-2009
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Dicello JF. "Forty years of microdosimetry: Its successes, its failures, and its future." MMD/IPCT Conference 2008, Wollongong, Australia, April 7-10, 2008.

MMD/IPCT Conference, 2008, April 2008. , Apr-2008

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Ziebell AL, Lai NS, Lim WH, Reinhard MI, Prokopovich DA, Siegele R, Dzurak AS, Rosenfeld AB. "The next step in cylindrical silicon-on-insulator microdosimetry: Charge collection results." 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference, Dresden, Germany, October 19-25, 2008.

2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Proceedings, 2008, p. 1088-1092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774588 , Oct-2008

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Lai NS, Lim WH, Ziebell AL, Reinhard MI, Rosenfeld AB, Dzurak AS. "Development and fabrication of cylindrical silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter arrays." 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference, Dresden, Germany, October 19-25, 2008.

2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, Proceedings, p. 1044-1049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774576 , Oct-2008

Project Title:  Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2007 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SR:Space Radiation
Start Date: 08/01/2004  
End Date: 12/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 11/08/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pisacane, Vincent L. Ph.D. / United States Naval Academy 
Address:  Aerospace Engineering Department 
Stop 11B 
Annapolis , MD 21402-1314 
Email: pisacane@usna.edu 
Phone: 410-293-6412  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: GOVERNMENT 
Organization Name: United States Naval Academy 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: PI retired October 2011 (Ed., 2/29/2012; information from NSBRI) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Cucinotta, Francis  NASA JSC 
Rozenfeld, Anatoly  University of Wollongong 
Ziegler, James  USNA 
Nelson, Martin  USNA 
Zaider, Marco  Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute 
Dicello, John  USNA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SR:Space Radiation
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ARS:Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Acute05:What are the optimal SPE alert and dosimetry technologies for EVAs?
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Note: title changed per NSBRI info (12/08)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2008 per NSBRI (5/2008)

Task Description: A microdosimeter is perhaps the only active detector capable of directly determining the mean radiation quality of a mixed or unknown radiation field, and, therefore, the dose equivalent and effective dose from which the radiation risk can be assessed in real time. Objectives of this research project are to develop a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter suitable for an area sensor, as a spacecraft or habitat, and as a personnel monitor, such as a spacesuit, and to verify its performance through radiation source and beam tests. The original objectives were expanded to include a student-developed instrument for the MidSTAR-I spacecraft launched in February 2006 although only a short time was available for its design and production by the students. The a priori third-year objectives of the research plan extracted from last year's submittal were:

1. Support the launch of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument. We caution that this experiment is a student built instrument and is consequently a high risk opportunity.

2. Support data acquisition and reduction of the MIDN-MidSTAR data.

3. Carry out additional radiation beam tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

4. Reconcile the radiation beam tests with digital simulations

During the year as experimental data was becoming available with the present system we added an additional task of identifying and initiating development of improved solid-state microdosimeter sensors. We have satisfied several but not all of our second year objectives. Recall that the MIDN-I instrument for the MidSTAR-I mission consisted of three sensor systems (one exterior to the spacecraft, the second internal to the spacecraft, and the third internal to the spacecraft in a polyethylene absorber) connected to a custom multi-channel analyzer with storage and command capability. The instrument was integrated into the spacecraft on an accelerated schedule as the spacecraft was behind schedule. We originally requested a voltage of +/-9V which late in the program were told that the spacecraft could not supply and agreed to +/-6V. During initial integration of the instrument we found that only +5V was available. The spacecraft power system was changed to also provide +/- 5V which was marginal for our instrument. Integration with the spacecraft communication system was successful and sample pulser data was retrieved prior to and subsequent to spacecraft vibration and thermal tests. However, the noise on the +/-5 V power lines had a significant ripple well outside of specifications that directly affected the MIDN lower energy cutoff. Because of the delays that had already occurred in designing and producing the spacecraft, the team decided to proceed with the described problems. We added filters to suppress this noise but they were only marginally effective. Introducing a battery powered interface to the spacecraft power system was not an option because of the late date at which we has access to the spacecraft for testing. As a result, we were forced to set our lower energy threshold significantly higher than originally planned and much above the performance level of the system itself.

The spacecraft was launched on 9 March 2007 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on an Atlas-V Centaur launch vehicle as part of a 6 military spacecraft mission. Midstar's orbit is an altitude of 492 km at an inclination of 46 degrees. MIDN has two modes of operation. The first mode is with the electronic pulser activated, to evaluate overall instrument performance. The second mode is with the pulser off so that observations can be made. The instrument with the pulser turned on is working as anticipated but the data collection mode has not obtained useful data due to the high energy cutoff.

Analysis subsequent to launch based upon the spectra measured at the Brookhaven facility and our transport codes indicates that given the anticipated low proton fluxes at the spacecraft altitude, the expectation of collecting data is remote. The instrument continues to operate and so far has accumulated 39 days of observations. On occasion in the pulser mode, the instrument does provide spurious data that we attribute to the magnitude of the minus voltage being less than 5 V. Improvements continue to be made to the bench-top engineering model used for developmental testing at the Naval Academy and at the NSRL facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Our runs at the NSRL in March 2007 were with carbon at 290 MeV/n and protons at 1 GeV/n. As a result of the improvement that we had made in our instrumentation, we reduced our low energy cutoff to < 1 keV/micron; a significant accomplishment. In addition, we compare favorably with that published data on tissue samples. We have prepared a presentation for the Navy and DoD Space Experiments Review Boards (SERB) proposing a MIDN-II instrument for a spacecraft or Space Station Mission that is planned to be presented in July and November 2007.

Our plan for next year is to:

1. Continue to support data collection of the MIDN-I instrument on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft.

2. Petition the NAVY and DOD SERB for a flight on the Space Station or a spacecraft of opportunity.

3. Evaluate the new potential microdosimeter sensors developed by the Electrical Engineering Department at Johns Hopkins.

4. Complete design a MIDN-II that is battery powered with characteristics such as the lower-energy threshold and amplifier gain that can be monitored and changed by remote command along with a total end-to-end calibration that includes a light-source that can be turned on or off to directly test the functionality of the entire instrument.

5. Carry out additional radiation beam tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory and reconcile data with the radiation transport code Geant-4.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: A low powered, low mass, relatively inexpensive solid-state microdosimeter has medical applications in radiation oncology and protection from terrorism incidents involving radiation.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2007 
Task Progress: MIDN-I on MidSTAR-I

1. The MIDN-I instrument was launched on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft.

2. Prior to launch and subsequent to vibration and thermal testing the instrument performed as anticipated but the low energy threshold had to be increased to reduce pile up due to noise much higher than we specified on the power lines from the spacecraft.

3. Filters added to reduce the noise were only partially effective.

4. Pulser data was consistent with pre-installation data and non-pulser data showed no counts.

5. In orbit the pulser, for the most part, has essentially reproduced the prelaunch observations but the non-pulser data has produced no observations.

6. We continue to collect observations and troubleshoot the performance of the instrument.

7. Ground based tests in which the ƒ{5 V supply has its magnitude reduced tend to reproduce many of the observed phenomenon.

8. Lessons learned: Need to insolate MIDN from the power supply by using batteries and utilize an LED in place of a pulser to obtain an end to end system test.

MIDN-II

1. Based on our experience with the MIDN-I development, we are designing an advanced version of the MIDN instrument called MIDN-II.

2. Requirements include: a. gain changed by remote command, b. lower-energy threshold changed by remote command, c. power supplied by dual sets of batteries with one charging while other provides power, d. exploring increased use of digital components to reduce low energy cutoff, e. use of a LED to excite the sensor to provide and end to end system test, and f. utilization of radiation hardened parts.

BENCHTOP DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

1. By redesigning the Faraday cage that houses the sensor and preamplifier circuit and changing the cabling, we were able to reduce the inherent noise level.

2. We measured the energy deposited in a microdosimeter with radiation beams of Carbon at 290 MeV/n and degraded protons initially at 1 GeV/n at the NSRL facility at the BNL and achieved a lower energy cutoff of < 1keV/micron.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/24/2015) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pisacane VL, Ziegler JF, Nelson ME, Caylor M, Flake D, Heyen L, Youngborg E, Rosenfeld AB, Cucinotta F, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "MIDN: a spacecraft microdosimeter mission." Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;120(1-4):421-6. PMID: 16785245 , Jun-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wroe AJ, Rosenfeld AB, Cornelius IM, Prokopovich D, Reinhard M, Schulte R, Bashkirov V. "Silicon microdosimetry in heterogeneous materials: simulation and experiment." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2006 Dec;53(6):3738-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2006.885797 , Dec-2006
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Cucinotta FA, Nikjoo H, Kim MY, Hu X, Dicello JF, Pisacane VL "Comparisons of integrated radiation transport models with microdosimetry data in spaceflight." Tenth Symposium of Neutron Dosimetry, Uppsala, Sweden, June 12-16, 2006.

Tenth Symposium of Neutron Dosimetry, June 2006. , Jun-2006

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Pisacane VL, Dicello JF. "Rugged, compact microdosimeters and the applicability of such measurements for assessing the risk of cancers from exposures to radiation." NIH Workshop, Moving Biosensors to Point-of-Care Cancer Diagnostics, Rockville, MD, June 2005.

NIH Workshop, Moving Biosensors to Point-of-Care Cancer Diagnostics, June 2005. , Jun-2005

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Pisacane VL, Nelson ME, Taddei PJ, Zhao Z, Ziegler JF, Dolecek QE, Acox P, Brown J, Garritsen T, Gaughan C, Cucinotta FA, Rosenfeld AB, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "Solid-state microdosimetric system for a satellite scheduled for launch in 2006." 14th Symposium on Microdosimetry, Venezia, Italy, November 2005.

14th Symposium on Microdosimetry, November 2005. , Nov-2005

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Pisacane VL, Ziegler JF, Nelson ME, Veade TN, Heyne JA, Dolecek QE, Rosenfeld AB, Cucinotta FA, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "The USNA MIDN microdosimeter instrument." 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, January 2005.

43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2005. , Jan-2005

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Pisacane VL, Dolecek QE, Maas F, Nelson ME, Taddei PJ, Zhao Z, Ziegler JF, Acox PC, Bender M, Brown J, Garritsen T, Gaughan C, Hough A, Kolb B, Langlois J, Ross J, Sheggeby M, Thomas D, Dicello JF, Cucinotta FA, Rosenfeld AB, Wroe A, Zaider M. "MicroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) on MidSTAR-I." International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, July 2006.

SAE/ICES Paper 2006-01-2146, Warrendale, PA : SAE International, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-2146 , Jul-2006

Project Title:  Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2006 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SR:Space Radiation
Start Date: 08/01/2004  
End Date: 07/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 01/08/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pisacane, Vincent L. Ph.D. / United States Naval Academy 
Address:  Aerospace Engineering Department 
Stop 11B 
Annapolis , MD 21402-1314 
Email: pisacane@usna.edu 
Phone: 410-293-6412  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: GOVERNMENT 
Organization Name: United States Naval Academy 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: PI retired October 2011 (Ed., 2/29/2012; information from NSBRI) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Cucinotta, Francis  NASA JSC 
Rozenfeld, Anatoly  University of Wollongong 
Ziegler, James  USNA 
Nelson, Martin  USNA 
Zaider, Marco  Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute 
Dicello, John  USNA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: 11 
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 20 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SR:Space Radiation
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ARS:Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Acute05:What are the optimal SPE alert and dosimetry technologies for EVAs?
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Note: title changed per NSBRI info (12/08)

Task Description: A microdosimeter is perhaps the only active detector capable of directly determining the radiation quality of a mixed or unknown radiation field, and, therefore, the dose equivalent and effective dose from which the radiation risk can be assessed in real time. The objectives of this research project are to develop a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter suitable for spaceflight and verify its performance through radiation source and beam tests. The original objectives were expanded to include development of an instrument for the MidSTAR-I spacecraft to be launched in October 2006. This flight will provide evaluation of a preliminary student built version of the instrument in the space environment. The a priori second-year objectives of the research plan were:

1. Complete qualification of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument through vibration and thermal vacuum testing and integrate it into the MidSTAR spacecraft supporting efforts at the launch site, Cape Canaveral.

2. Continue development of the engineering and bench-top models to explore reductions in noise, power, and mass and increase sensitivity.

3. Develop the first version of the MIDN instrument to be used for beam tests in year 2.

4. Carry out preliminary testing at the Naval Academy with radiation sources and simulated pulses and carry out two trips to Brookhaven National Laboratory for additional beam tests.

5. Finalize implementation of the GEANT4 and MCNPX radiation transport codes and use the codes to help interpret the radiation test data.

We have satisfied our second year objectives.

The MIDN-MidSTAR instrument has been completed. Electrical tests, alpha source calibration tests have been carried out, the instrument has been vibration testes at the Naval Research Laboratory, and preliminary integration tests with the spacecraft are ongoing governed by the spacecraft development schedule. Integration with the spacecraft communication system was successful and sample pulser data was retrieved. The bench-top engineering model has been improved and used to carry out alpha calibration tests of the sensors at the Naval academy and in March at Brookhaven National Laboratory where we were assigned 24 hours of beam time of Fe. The bench-top system was also used in June for 32 hours of beam timeat Brookhaven of Fe, Ti, O, and protons. Because of schedule considerations and beam intensities of the Fe beam, we were did not test the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument at Brookhaven. Instead we carried out calibration tests with radioactive sources at the Academy and used the identical MIDN-MidSTAR sensor electronics during the beam tests at Brookhaven to assure its performance. The GEANT4 and MCNPX codes are operational and have been used to help interpret the experimental data. The space radiation transport code HZETRN was updated to more accurately represent the energy and charge spectra data measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) for the last two solar cycles. The description of the energy and isotopic spectra of target fragment produced locally in a small detectors such as MIDN by high-energy protons and neutrons was improved using the quantum multiple scattering model of fragmentation (QMSFRG). QMSFRG has been extended to include a 190-isotopic grid and to add the contributions of nuclear coalescence for the production of 2-H, 3-H, 3-He, and 4-He fragments in nucleon and heavy ion induced reactions.

In addition we were selected for potential of a flight on the Space Station by the Department of Defense Space experiments Review Board. In addition, we may have a flight opportunity on another small satellite that the Academy may build.

Our plan for next year is to:

1. Support the launch of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument. We caution that this experiment is a student built instrument and is consequently a high risk opportunity.

2. Support data acquisition and reduction of the MIDN-MidSTAR data.

3. Carry out additional radiation beam tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

4. Reconcile the radiation beam tests with digital simulations.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Experimental microdosimetric techniques are perhaps the only experimental methods for actively determining the radiation quality of mixed or unknown radiation fields and their dose equivalent. The radiation quality and the corresponding dose equivalent and/or effective doses form the basis of regulatory dose limits both in the U.S. and internationally as well as the basis for the evaluation of potential overexposures. Generally, in radiation fields with average quality factors greater than one, those radiation components with the highest quality may represent a component of the dose comparable to the dose uncertainty. For example, as the energy of x-ray therapy machines increases to accommodate intensity modulated radiotherapy and other new techniques, the contributions of secondary neutrons produced in the shielding materials to the whole-body exposure of the clinical personnel as well as the patients themselves increase. With a quality factor as high as twenty, a one or two percent neutron component can contribute as much as twenty to thirty percent of the dose equivalent. Likewise, in radiation storage and clean-up, it is the dose equivalent or effective dose, not the physical absorbed dose, that determines the need and level of clean up, yet it is the physical dose that is usually measured because of the difficulty in measuring dose equivalent in the field by personnel who are not experts in microdosimetry. Finally, the detection of radiation emitted by nuclear materials that may be used in terrorist activities requires cheap, reliable, and rugged microdosimeters that can determine small changes in the radiation environment and issue reliable alerts in real time.

The use of prior methods is limited in part because of the complexity, sensitivity, and lack of reliability of the most commonly used instruments, gas proportional counters. The compact system that we have developed for space applications would likewise be applicable for the situations and measurements described in the previous paragraph.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2006 
Task Progress: Accomplishments in year two of the project include:

1. MIDN-MidSTAR.

a. Fabrication of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument was completed.

b. Electrical testing was completed.

c. Calibration testing using an alpha source was completed.

d. Vibration testing of instrument at the Naval Research Laboratory was completed.

e. Initial integration of the instrument with the spacecraft communication system was initiated and will be carried out over the summer.

f. The spacecraft was able to turn the instrument on, initiate the built-in pulser, instruct the instrument to collect and store data, and then transmit the data to the spacecraft memory which was recovered and compared exactly with what was expected. These intial tests demonstrated that the spacecraft power system had a major problem, now being addressed through a redesign.

g. Continued testing will restart when the spacecraft power system is redesigned and the spacecraft flight harness completed.

h. MIDN requires 1.1 Watt of power.

2. The bench-top system was completed and issues of variations in noise from chip to chip were successfully addressed. Calibration of the sensors with the bench-top system established the calibration and dynamic range of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument.

3. Two proposals were written to solicit radiation beam time at the Brookhaven NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Awarded were 24 hours in the Spring 2006, 32 hours Summer 2006, and 32 hours Fall 2006; the total amount of time requested in the proposal.

4. The bench-top system was used in the radiation beam tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory that included Spring and Summer campaigns:

24 hours of Iron at 1 GeV/nucleon; 8 hours of Iron at 0.6 GeV/nucleon; 8 hours of Oxygen at 1 GeV/nucleon; 8 hours of Titanium at 1 GeV/nucleon; 8 hours of protons at 1 GeV/nucleon

4. Radiation Transport Codes.

Calculations were made using Geant4 and SRIM to compare the experimental data with the simulations. The Academy has been designated a beta site for the MCNPX radiation transport code. The space radiation transport code HZETRN was updated to accurately represent the energy and charge spectra data measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) for the last two solar cycles. The description of the energy and isotopic spectra of target fragment produced locally in a small detectors such as MIDN by high-energy protons and neutrons was improved using the quantum multiple scattering model of fragmentation (QMSFRG).

5. The Navy and DoD Space Experiments Review Boards have each approved a version of the microdosimeter for a potential flight on the International Space Station for a shielding experiment. Funding must be secured.

6. Preliminary discussions have been held for inclusion of the MIDN instrument in a spacecraft called ParkinsonSat which the Academy may build. Again funds must be secured.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/24/2015) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wroe AJ, Cornelius IM, Rosenfeld AB, Pisacane VL, Ziegler JF, Nelson ME, Cucinotta F, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "Microdosimetry simulations of solar protons within a spacecraft." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2005 Dec;52(6, Pt 1):2591-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2005.860706 , Dec-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pisacane VL, Ziegler JF, Nelson ME, Caylor M, Flake D, Heyen L, Youngborg E, Rosenfeld AB, Cucinotta F, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "MIDN: a spacecraft microdosimeter mission." Radiat Prot Dosimetry, in press, Mar 2006. , Mar-2006
Awards "Fulbright Fellowship and IEEE NSREC (Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects) Phelps Award for PhD students." Jan-2006
Awards Pisacane V, MIDN project group. "Visit by Dr M. Griffin, NASA Administrator, to review MIDN project, March 2006." Mar-2006
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Reinhard MI, Cornelius I, Prokopovich DA, Wroe A, Rosenfeld AB, Pisacane V, Ziegler JF, Nelson ME, Cucinotta F, Zaider M, Dicello JF. "Response of a SOI Microdosimeter to a 238 PuBe Neutron Source." 2005 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE (NSS/MIC), Puerto Rico, October 23 – 29, 2005.

2005 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. volume 1, p. 68-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2005.1596209 , Oct-2005

Project Title:  Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2005 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SR:Space Radiation
Start Date: 08/01/2004  
End Date: 07/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 10/25/2005 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pisacane, Vincent L. Ph.D. / United States Naval Academy 
Address:  Aerospace Engineering Department 
Stop 11B 
Annapolis , MD 21402-1314 
Email: pisacane@usna.edu 
Phone: 410-293-6412  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: GOVERNMENT 
Organization Name: United States Naval Academy 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: PI retired October 2011 (Ed., 2/29/2012; information from NSBRI) 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Cucinotta, Francis  NASA JSC 
Dicello, John  Johns Hopkins Cancer Center" 
Rozenfeld, Anatoly  University of Wollongong 
Ziegler, James  USNA 
Nelson, Martin  USNA 
Zaider, Marco  Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SR:Space Radiation
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ARS:Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Acute05:What are the optimal SPE alert and dosimetry technologies for EVAs?
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Note: title changed per NSBRI info (12/08)

Task Description: A microdosimeter is perhaps the only active detector capable of directly determining the radiation quality of a mixed or unknown radiation field, and, therefore, the dose equivalent and effective dose from which the radiation risk can be assessed in real time. The objectives of this research project are to develop a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter suitable for spaceflight and verify its performance through radiation source and beam tests. The original objectives were expanded to include development of an instrument for the MidSTAR-I spacecraft to be launched in September 2006. This flight will provide evaluation of a preliminary version of the instrument in the space environment. The first-year objectives of the research plan were: (1) prepare computer models of the space environment and radiation transport codes for use in year 2, (2) develop a bench-top set of equipment matched to the sensor, (3) with the bench-top system carry-out preliminary tests with simulated pulses and limited radiation sources, and (4) develop the engineering model of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument and begin integration of the flight instrument. We are ahead of our objectives for the first year. We now have operational computer models that simulate the near-earth environment and two radiation transport code, GEANT4 and MCNP. As a consequence, the USNA has agreed to be a beta site for the Los Alamos MCNPX version which includes improvements to the algorithms for parallel processing computing. We have made preliminary assessments of the natural radiation environment for the MidSTAR orbit and the effect of the housing on the energy levels and count rates expected during the mission. We have developed a bench-top instrument which includes state-of-the-art laboratory equipment without regard to power and mass that is used for benchmarking the development of the microdosimeter system. We have preliminarily explored the sensor response to assess noise, sensitivity, resolution, linearity, and dynamic range as well as collected data with alpha particles, neutrons, protons, and simulated pulses. We have completed an engineering model with space qualifiable electronics for the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument. The engineering model has gone through several iterations to converge to a final design. Based on the engineering model, a three sensor instrument has been designed for the MIDN-MidSTAR mission. There will be one sensor near the exterior of the spacecraft, one inside, and one encased in polyethylene. The flight boards and parts have been delivered and assembly of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument is in progress. Integration and initial testing should be completed in approximately one month. This will be followed by vibration and thermal vacuum tests and integration into the spacecraft over the next year. Our schedule is consistent with the spacecraft schedule. We planned originally to use the bench–top instrumentation for radiation beam tests well into the second year before developing the flight qualifiable system. However, because of the success of the engineering model, a MIDN instrument suitable for radiation beam tests will be developed in the early part of the second year. Thus we will be able to compare the performance of the bench-top systems with the flight qualifiable instrument. Our plan for next year is to: 1. Complete qualification of the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument through vibration and thermal vacuum testing and integrate it into the MidSTAR spacecraft supporting efforts at the launch site, Cape Canaveral. 2.Continue development of the engineering and bench-top models to explore reductions in noise, power, and mass and increase sensitivity. 3.Develop the first version of the MIDN instrument to be used for beam tests in year 2. 4. Carry out preliminary testing at the Naval Academy with radiation sources and simulated pulses and carry out two trips to Brookhaven National Laboratory for additional beam tests. 5.Finalize implementation of the GEANT4 and MCNPX radiation transport codes and use the codes to help interpret the radiation test data.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Experimental microdosimetric techniques are perhaps the only experimental methods for actively determining the radiation quality of mixed or unknown radiation fields and their dose equivalent. The radiation quality and the corresponding dose equivalent and/or effective doses form the basis of regulatory dose limits both in the U.S. and internationally as well as the basis for the evaluation of potential overexposures. Generally, in radiation fields with average quality factors greater than one, those radiation components with the highest quality may represent a component of the dose comparable to the dose uncertainty. For example, as the energy of x-ray therapy machines increases to accommodate intensity modulated radiotherapy and other new techniques, the contributions of secondary neutrons produced in the shielding materials to the whole-body exposure of the clinical personnel as well as the patients themselves increase. With a quality factor as high as twenty, a one or two percent neutron component can contribute as much as twenty to thirty percent of the dose equivalent. Likewise, in radiation storage and clean-up, it is the dose equivalent or effective dose, not the physical absorbed dose, that determines the need and level of clean up, yet it is the physical dose that is usually measured because of the difficulty in measuring dose equivalent in the field by personnel who are not experts in microdosimetry. Finally, the detection of radiation emitted by nuclear materials that may be used in terrorist activities requires cheap, reliable, and rugged microdosimeters that can determine small changes in the radiation environment and issue reliable alerts in real time. The use of prior methods is limited in part because of the complexity, sensitivity, and lack of reliability of the most commonly used instruments, gas proportional counters. The compact system that we have developed for space applications would likewise be applicable for the situations and measurements described in the previous paragraph.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2005 
Task Progress: There has been significant progress over this first year of the project. Accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of the radiation environment for the MidSTAR-I orbit using the SPENVIS suite 2. Determination of the species and flux that the MIDN-MidSTAR should observe using shielding curves and preliminary CRÈME simulations 3. Installation of the MCNP transport code and acceptance of the USNA as a beta site for the MCNPX code 4. Installation of the GEANT4 code on a standalone and multiprocessor computers 5. Initial design of the MIDN and MIDN-MidSTAR instruments 6. Completed integration of the bench-top system, and it has been used in benchmarking important parameters for the space qualifiable design 7. Iterative development of a single channel breadboard instrument to confirm the design of the flight qualifiable microdosimeter system 8. Procurement of the flight parts, printed circuit boards, and housings for the MIDN-MidSTAR instrument and flight parts and printed circuit boards for the MIDN instrument 9. Initial testing of the MIDN bench-mark system using alphas, neutrons, protons, and simulated pulses.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/24/2015) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Presentation Dicello, J. F. and Pisacane, V. L. "Rugged, compact microdosimeters and the applicability of such measurements for assessing the risk of cancers from exposures to radiation" N/A

Feb-2005

Presentation Pisacane, V. L., Nelson, M. E., Ziegler, J. F., Dolecek, Q., Veade, T. N., Heyne, J. A., Cucinotta, F. A., Rosenfeld, A. B., Zaider, M., Dicello, J. F. "MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) system scheduled for launch in 2006" N/A

May-2005

Presentation V. L. Pisacane, J. F. Ziegler, M. E. Nelson, T. N. Veade, J. A. Heyne, Q. E. Dolecek, A. B. Rosenfeld, F. A. Cucinotta, J. F. Dicello "The USNA MIDN MIcrodosimeter Instrument" N/A

Jan-2005

Presentation Wroe, A., Rosenfeld, A. B., Cornelius, I. M., Pisacane, V. L., Ziegler, J. F., Nelson, M. E., Cucinotta, F. A., Zaider, M., Dicello, J. F. "Microdosimetry simulations of solar protons within a spacecraft" N/A

Jun-2005

Project Title:  Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2004 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP SR:Space Radiation
Start Date: 08/01/2004  
End Date: 07/31/2008  
Task Last Updated: 03/31/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pisacane, Vincent L. Ph.D. / United States Naval Academy 
Address:  Aerospace Engineering Department 
Stop 11B 
Annapolis , MD 21402-1314 
Email: pisacane@usna.edu 
Phone: 410-293-6412  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: GOVERNMENT 
Organization Name: United States Naval Academy 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: PI retired October 2011 (Ed., 2/29/2012; information from NSBRI) 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-TD00407 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) SR:Space Radiation
Human Research Program Risks: (1) ARS:Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Acute05:What are the optimal SPE alert and dosimetry technologies for EVAs?
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Note: title changed per NSBRI info (12/08)

Task Description: Objective of this project is to develop a rugged, portable, low power, lightweight, solid-state radiation instrument MIDN (MIcroDosimeter iNstrument) to measure probability or frequency distributions of energy deposited in real time in cell-size structures from charged and neutral primary and secondary radiations. Assessment of the space radiation environment addresses the development of a countermeasure of the highest priority for space exploration. Determination of the magnitude of the average radiation quality, Qave, is necessary to calculate the dose equivalent, which is assumed to be proportional to risk and upon which regulatory limits in space are based. Microdosimetry spectra are the most accepted data for calculating Qave. Consequently, the observations are more reliable as a monitor of human cell damage than other macroscopic detectors that measure fluence. Hypotheses: (1) A small, compact, and portable, flight qualifiable, solid-state microdosimeter can be developed to measure quantitative information on the dose and dose distribution of energy deposited in silicon cells of tissue size and by inference in tissue. (2) Analysis of MIDN data from radiation beam experiments and comparison with radiation transport codes can provide quantitative information on the radiation environment, potential risk, and the accuracy of the codes to correctly calculate energy-deposition spectra. (3) MIDN data from radiation beam experiments correlated with radiation transport codes can determine the effectiveness of selected materials to minimize the total risk from primary and secondary radiation. MIDN countermeasure capabilities are to: (1) Make real-time measurement of radiation environment to assess and reduce risk (dose equivalent). (2) Actively warn crew during onset of enhanced radiation. (3) Allow crew to determine safe locations during enhanced radiation. (4) Provide observations to validate and improve models for the space radiation environment, the effectiveness of shielding materials, and use with a human phantom could provide microdosimetric information for different organs or tissue types (for example bone versus muscle). A preliminary laboratory breadboard, partially funded by NASA, has demonstrated feasibility. Selection of this project for funding will increase the CRL of the instrument from 5 to 7.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2004 
Task Progress: New project for FY2004; no progress report this period.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/24/2015) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2004