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Project Title:  Neurovestibular aspects of short-radius artificial gravity: Toward a comprehensive countermeasure Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2004  
End Date: 04/30/2008  
Task Last Updated: 08/27/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Young, Laurence R. Sc.D. / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Address:  Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
77 Massachusetts Avenue 
Cambridge , MA 02139-4301 
Email: lry@mit.edu 
Phone: 617-253-7759  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Deceased as of August 2021. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Natapoff, Alan  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Oman, Charles  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cohen, Bernard  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Dai, Mingjia  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
DiZio, Paul  Brandeis University 
Hecht, Heiko  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Jarchow, Thomas  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Newby, Nathaniel  Wyle Laboratories 
Mast, Fred  University of Lausanne 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM24:SM24: Determine if the individual capacity to produce adaptive change (rate and extent) in sensorimotor function to transitions in gravitational environments can be predicted with preflight tests of sensorimotor adaptability (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element/Risk/Gap edits per HRP Master Task List information dtd 3/14/2012 (Ed., 4/13/12)

NOTE: Received NCE to 4/30/2008 per K. Major/NSBRI (3/08)

Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), produced by centrifugal force on a rotating spacecraft or an on-board centrifuge, is a promising general countermeasure to the debilitating effects of weightlessness. However, high speed rotation above 180 deg/sec. is necessary to produce 1-g or more on a short radius (1.5-3m) centrifuge. Any astronaut head movement not parallel to the plane of rotation can induce strong cross-coupled stimulation resulting in spatial disorientation, motion sickness, postural disturbance and non-stabilizing compensatory eye movements. This project addresses the issues of adaptation to Coriolis forces and cross-coupled accelerations in accordance with the artificial gravity aim of the NSBRI’s Sensorimotor Adaptation Team. The goal is to develop efficient means of adapting astronauts safely to repeated transitions into and out of AG without excessive motion sickness. Another goal of this project is to understand the side-effects caused by cross-coupled stimulation that produce motion sickness and could interfere with cognitive and motor function.

Basic understanding of the roles played by vestibular and other sensors in adaptation to unusual environments, and the associated disorientation and motion sickness, will contribute to astronaut comfort and safety in flight and after landing.

Fundamental studies of the process of sensory-motor adaptation and practical means of controlling motions sickness and sway during rotation are combined in our Specific Aims. In the final year of this project we focused on the theme: Acquisition, Generalization and Retention of Adaptation. We have been able to demonstrate that, with sufficient training, most subjects can tolerate head movements while rotating at speeds up to 30 rpm. The adaptation process is achievable by incremental adjustment of either centrifuge speed, head turn angle or head turn speed. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of sleep in consolidating the adaptation.

In addition to the adaptation studies we have explored the effects of exercise on the centrifuge. Finally, we introduced a potentially valuable clinical method for increasing peripheral circulation in the feet during artificial gravity. We intend to continue investigation of this clinical application following termination of the current project. We also intend to explore the effect of gravity gradients in AG on the cardiovascular system through multi-segment dynamic models and experiments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Head movements in a moving or rotating environment, such as boats, airplanes, and automobiles often provoke symptoms of motion sickness or other discomfort. The ability to control susceptibility to motion sickness by controlling the central time constant of the vestibular system is a major advance and has broad application on Earth.

Understanding motor adaptation to Coriolis forces in an artificial gravity environment is relevant for understanding clinical deficits of whole body movement on earth, because normal body movements generate large inter-segmental Coriolis forces.

Our preliminary results showing an increase in ankle level arterial pressure give promise for the utilization of AG or other related techniques to increase peripheral circulation to the feet, and to help relieve the symptoms felt by diabetics and other patients.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: Aim 1: To test for the effects that are induced by the head turn during AG protocol 8 subjects have been tested as control group, not receiving adaptive stimulation. 24 subjects have been tested as normative group adapted to right head turns only. 24 subjects have been tested for the left/right head turn experiments. 24 subjects have been adapted to a 3-day incremental protocol. 24 subjects have been tested to determine the effect of angle by which the head is turned and centrifuge velocity. 7 subjects have completed the 6-month retest, looking for long term retention of adaptation. Various theses and papers are in preparation or completed.

Additionally, a controlled test of three adaptation sessions was conducted with a variation of the sleep period. We demonstrated the effectiveness of sleep in consolidating the previously acquired adaptation to head movements while rotating.

Finally, a test was conducted to assess the increase in the ratio of blood pressure at the ankle to that at heart level during artificial gravity. The results support a clinical spin-off of artificial gravity for the improvement of peripheral circulation.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/08/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mateus J, Young LR. "Effect of sleep on the adaptation to the cross-coupled stimulus." XXV Barany Society Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, March 31-April 3, 2008.

XXV Barany Society Meeting, March 2008. , Mar-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mateus J, Young L. "Effect of sleep on the adaptation to the cross-coupled stimulus." Aerospace Medical Association, 79th Annual Scientific Meeting, Boston, MA, May 12-15, 2008.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Mar;79(3):262. , Mar-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Young LR, Jarchow T, Elias P, Pouly J, Sheehan S, Mateus J. "Adapting to coriolis cross coupled head movements at centrifuge speeds up to 30 RPM1." XXV Barany Society Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, March 31-April 3, 2008.

XXV Barany Sociey Meeting, March 2008. , Mar-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Young LR, Jarchow T. "How to adapt to head movements during artificial gravity rotation." 16th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Beijing, May 20-24, 2007.

16th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, May 2007. , May-2007

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Young LR. "Short radius centrifugation is a practical space flight countermeasure." Aerospace Medical Association. 79th Annual Scientific Meeting, Boston, MA, May 12-15, 2008.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Mar;79(3):327-8. , Mar-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Edmonds JL, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Exercise in artificial gravity - implementation and validation of a stair-stepper on a short radius centrifuge." Bone Loss During Spaceflight Conference, Cleveland, OH, June 23-24, 2006.

Bone Loss During Spaceflight Conference, Abstract Book, June 2006. , Jun-2006

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Edmonds JL, Young L. "Fitness benefits of stair-stepping in an artificial gravity environment." Aerospace Medical Association, 79th Annual Scientific Meeting, Boston, MA, May 12-15, 2008.

Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Mar;79(3)295. , Mar-2008

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Grenon SM, Mateus J, Hsiang Y, Sidhu R, Young L, Gagnon J. "Use of artificial gravity to augment ankle-brachial indexes." 23rd Annual Meeting of the Western Vascular Society, Napa Valley, CA, September 13-16, 2008.

23rd Annual Meeting of the Western Vascular Society. September 2008. , Sep-2008

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Adenot S, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Adaptation of VOR to Coriolis stimulation." Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Apr;1039:88-96. PMID: 15826964 , Apr-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cheung CC, Hecht H, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Threshold-based vestibular adaptation to cross-coupled canal stimulation." J Vestib Res. 2007;17(4):171-81. PMID: 18525143 , Dec-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dai M, Raphan T, Cohen B. "Effects of baclofen on the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex." Exp Brain Res. 2006 May;171(2):262-71. PMID: 16341527 , May-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Edmonds JL, Jarchow T, Young LR. "A stair-stepper for exercising on a short-radius centrifuge." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 Feb;78(2):129-34. PMID: 17310884 , Feb-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Elias PZ, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Incremental adaptation to yaw head turns during 30 RPM centrifugation." Exp Brain Res. 2008 Aug;189(3):269-77. Epub 2008 May 22. PMID: 18496680 , Aug-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Elias PZ, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Modeling sensory conflict and motion sickness in artificial gravity." Acta Astronautica. 2008 Jan-Feb;62(2-3):224-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.05.002 , Jan-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Garrick-Bethell I, Jarchow T, Hecht H, Young LR. "Vestibular adaptation to centrifugation does not transfer across planes of head rotation." J Vestib Res. 2008;18(1):25-37. PMID: 18776596 , Jun-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Jarchow T, Young LR. "Adaptation to head movements during short radius centrifugation." Acta Astronautica. 2007 Nov;61(10):881-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.12.022 , Nov-2007
Awards Young LR. "Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, June 2006." Jun-2006
Awards Young LR. "Honorary Member of the Barany Society, June 2006." Jun-2006
Awards Young LR. "Inaugural Fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society, June 2005." Jun-2005
Dissertations and Theses Adenot S. "Artificial Gravity: Changing the intensity of coriolis." Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 2004. , Aug-2004
Dissertations and Theses Bruni S. "Artificial Gravity: Neurovestibular adaptation to incremental exposure to centrifugation." Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 2004. , Sep-2004
Dissertations and Theses Duda KR. "Squat exercise biomechanics during short-radius centrifugation." Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, February 2007. , Feb-2007
Dissertations and Theses Edmonds JL. "Exercise in artificial gravity." Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2005. , Jun-2005
Dissertations and Theses Edmonds JL. "Exercise protocols during short-radius centrifugation for artificial gravity." Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, June 2008. , Jun-2008
Dissertations and Theses Garrick-Bethell I. "Cross plane transfer of vestibular adaptation to human centrifugation." Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2004. , Jun-2004
Dissertations and Theses Matheus J. "The effect of sleep on the adaptation to the cross-coupled stimulus during artificial gravity." Master of Science Thesis, Massachusetts Insitute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, June 2008. , Jun-2008
Dissertations and Theses Pouly J. "A parametric study of vestibular stimulation during centrifugation." Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, February 2006. , Feb-2006
Dissertations and Theses Sheehan S. "The effect of head turn velocity on cross-coupled stimulation during centrifugation." Master of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, February 2007. , Feb-2007
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Jarchow T, Young L. "Neurovestibular adaptation to short radius centrifugation." 26th Annual Gravitational Physiology Meeting, Cologne, Germany, June 26-July 1, 2005.

Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 2005 Jul;12(1):P11-4. , Jul-2005

Project Title:  Neurovestibular aspects of short-radius artificial gravity: Toward a comprehensive countermeasure Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2006 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2004  
End Date: 04/30/2008  
Task Last Updated: 01/08/2007 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Young, Laurence R. Sc.D. / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Address:  Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
77 Massachusetts Avenue 
Cambridge , MA 02139-4301 
Email: lry@mit.edu 
Phone: 617-253-7759  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Deceased as of August 2021. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Natapoff, Alan  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Oman, Charles  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cohen, Bernard  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Dai, Mingjia  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
DiZio, Paul  Brandeis University 
Hecht, Heiko  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Mast, Fred  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Jarchow, Thomas  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Newby, Nathaniel  Wyle Laboratories 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 14 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM24:SM24: Determine if the individual capacity to produce adaptive change (rate and extent) in sensorimotor function to transitions in gravitational environments can be predicted with preflight tests of sensorimotor adaptability (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Received NCE to 4/30/2008 per K. Major/NSBRI (3/08)

Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), produced by centrifugal force on a rotating spacecraft or an on-board centrifuge, is a promising general countermeasure to the debilitating effects of weightlessness. However, high speed rotation above 180 deg/sec., is necessary to produce 1-g or more on a short radius (1.5-3m) centrifuge. Any astronaut head movement not parallel to the plane of rotation can induce strong cross-coupled spatial disorientation, motion sickness, postural disturbance and non-stabilizing compensatory eye movements. This project addresses the issues of adaptation to Coriolis forces and cross-coupled accelerations in accordance with the artificial gravity aim of the NSBRI’s Neurovestibular Adaptation Team. The goal is to develop efficient means of adapting astronauts safely to repeated transitions into and out of AG without excessive motion sickness. Another goal of this project is to understand the side-effects caused by cross-coupled stimulation that produce motion sickness and could interfere with cognitive and motor function. Basic understanding of the roles played by vestibular and other sensors in adaptation to unusual environments, and the associated disorientation and motion sickness, will contribute to astronaut comfort and safety in flight and after landing. Fundamental studies of the process of sensory-motor adaptation and practical means of controlling motions sickness and sway during rotation are combined in our 5 Specific Aims. 1) Acquisition, Generalization and Retention of Adaptation (MIT). 2) Cognitive Influences on Adaptation, and Effects of AG on Human Performance (JSC and MIT). 3) Spatial Orientation as Influenced by AG (MIT and Brandeis). 4) Adaptation of Postural Sway during AG (Brandeis). 5) Effectiveness of Baclofen in Controlling Motion Sickness by Shortening the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Time Constant(MSSM). Human rotators spinning about an earth vertical axis provide the stimuli for each investigation: a rotating bed at MIT, an on-axis chair at Mt. Sinai, a 3m radius rotating room at Brandeis, and a 1.5m centrifuge at JSC. Measurements are made of compensatory eye movements, dynamic visual acuity, reading comprehension, illusory body motions, subjective motion sickness and postural sway.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Head movements in a moving or rotating environment, such as boats, airplanes, and automobiles often provoke symptoms of motion sickness or other discomfort. The ability to control susceptibility to motion sickness by controlling the central time constant of the vestibular system is a major advance and has broad application on Earth.

Understanding motor adaptation to Coriolis forces in an artificial gravity environment is relevant for understanding clinical deficits of complex whole body movement on earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2006 
Task Progress: Aim 1: To test for the effects that are induced by the protocol 8 subjects have been tested as a control group, not receiving adaptive stimulation. 24 subjects have been tested as a normative group adapted to right head turns only. 24 subjects have been tested for the left/right head turn experiments. 24 subjects have been adapted to a 3-day incremental protocol. 24 subjects have been tested for effect of angle by which the head is turned and centrifuge velocity. 7 subjects have completed the 6-month retest, looking for long term retention of adaptation. Various thesis and papers are completed.

Aim 2: 24 subjects have been successfully tested, data analysis almost finished, paper in preparation

Aim 3: Preliminary testing of the SVV-device (subjective visual vertical) took place in November, and a first series of experiments in December 2005. At present we have run 10 subjects and have partially analyzed their data.

Aim 4: The Year 1 sub-aim, which was to compare effects of rotation on quiet stance or voluntary postural oscillations during 10 rpm rotation in the center of a rotating room, was completed. Rotation initially increased sway during both tasks. Over 20 quiet stance trials, sway magnitude did not return to baseline, but in voluntary rocking trials the trajectory of body sway returned to baseline Catch trials showed that adaptation to rocking transferred to quiet stance but there was no transfer in the reverse direction. We have also conducted the experiment for our Year 2-3 sub-aim, which was to expose naïve subjects simultaneously to the vestibular and motor perturbations of posture during rotation or expose them sequentially to vestibular then motor perturbations. The data are being analyzed, and it appears motor adaptation occurs at the same rate in both conditions.

Aim 5: The efficacy of 10, 20 and 30 mg baclofen on reduction of vestibular time constant and the coupling gain to velocity storage was tested. 6 subjects were tested and the results were published. Ongoing experiments test for the effect of 20 mg baclofen on resistance to motion sickness. Seven supine subjects performed head roll movements while spinning at 138º/s were tested with and without baclofen treatment. Preliminary data indicates that subjects made considerable more head movements with baclofen.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/08/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dai M, Raphan T, Cohen B. "Effects of baclofen on the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex." Exp Brain Res. 2006 May;171(2):262-71. Epub 2005 Dec 8. PMID: 16341527 , May-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Edmonds, J L , T Jarchow, and L R Young. "Implementation and validation of a stair-stepper on a short radius centrifuge." Aviation, space, and environmental medicine . Submitted for Publication. , Jan-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Elias, P Z, T Jarchow, and L R Young. "Modeling Sensory Conflict and Motion Sickness in Artificial Gravity." Acta Astronautica . Submitted for Publication. , Jan-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Adenot S, Jarchow T, Young LR. "Adaptation of VOR to Coriolis stimulation." Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Apr;1039:88-96. PMID: 15826964 , Apr-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Bakshi, A, P Di Zio, and Lackner, J R . "Goal oriented rocking in a rotating environment." Experimental Brain Research . Submitted for Publication. , Jan-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Jarchow, T and L Young. "Parameters determining neurovestibular daptation to short-radius artificial gravity." Acta Astronautica . Submitted for Publication. , Jan-2006
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Kurtzer I, DiZio PA, Lackner JR. "Adaptation to a novel multi-force environment." Exp Brain Res. 2005 Jul;164(1):120-32. Epub 2005 Apr 16. PMID: 15834711 , Jul-2005
Awards "Laurence R. Young, Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE)." Jan-2006
Awards "Laurence R. Young, Inaugural Fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society." Jan-2006
Awards "Laurence R. Young, Roberto Rocca Grantee (MIT- Politecnico di Milano)." Jan-2006
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Jarchow T, Young L. "Neurovestibular adaptation to short radius centrifugation." 26th Annual Gravitational Physiology Meeting, Cologne, Germany, June 26-July 1, 2005.

Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 2005 Jul;12(1):P11-4. , Jul-2005

Project Title:  Neurovestibular aspects of short-radius artificial gravity: Toward a comprehensive countermeasure Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2005 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2004  
End Date: 03/31/2007  
Task Last Updated: 06/22/2005 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Young, Laurence R. Sc.D. / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Address:  Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
77 Massachusetts Avenue 
Cambridge , MA 02139-4301 
Email: lry@mit.edu 
Phone: 617-253-7759  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Deceased as of August 2021. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Natapoff, Alan  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Oman, Charles  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cohen, Bernard  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
Dai, Mingjia  Mount Sinai School of Medicine 
DiZio, Paul  Brandeis University 
Hecht, Heiko  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Mast, Fred  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Jarchow, Thomas  Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Newby, Nathaniel  Wyle Laboratories 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: 0
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM24:SM24: Determine if the individual capacity to produce adaptive change (rate and extent) in sensorimotor function to transitions in gravitational environments can be predicted with preflight tests of sensorimotor adaptability (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), produced by centrifugal force on a rotating spacecraft or an on-board centrifuge, is a promising general countermeasure to the debilitating effects of weightlessness. However, high speed rotation above 180 deg/sec., is necessary to produce 1-g or more on a short radius (1.5-3m) centrifuge. Any astronaut head movement not parallel to the plane of rotation can induce strong cross-coupled spatial disorientation, motion sickness, postural disturbance and non-stabilizing compensatory eye movements. This project addresses the issues of adaptation to Coriolis forces and cross-coupled accelerations in accordance with the artificial gravity aim of the NSBRI’s Neurovestibular Adaptation Team. The goal of this project is to understand the side-effects caused by cross-coupled stimulation that produce motion sickness and could interfere with cognitive and motor function. A further goal is to develop efficient means of adapting astronauts safely to repeated transitions into and out of AG without excessive motion sickness. Basic understanding of the roles played by vestibular and other sensors in adaptation to unusual environments, and the associated disorientation and motion sickness, will contribute to astronaut comfort and safety in all phases of flight. Fundamental studies of the process of sensory-motor adaptation and practical means of controlling motions sickness and sway during rotation are combined in our 5 Specific Aims. 1) Acquisition, Generalization and Retention of Adaptation (MIT). 2) Cognitive Influences on Adaptation, and Effects of AG on Human Performance (JSC and MIT). 3) Spatial Orientation as Influenced by AG (MIT and Brandeis). 4) Adaptation of Postural Sway during AG (Brandeis). 5) Effectiveness of Baclofen in Controlling Motion Sickness by Shortening the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Time Constant. Human rotators spinning about an earth vertical axis provide the stimuli for each investigation: a rotating bed at MIT, an on-axis chair at Mt. Sinai, a 3m radius rotating room at Brandeis, and a 1.5m centrifuge at JSC. Measurements are made of compensatory eye movements, dynamic visual acuity, reading comprehension, illusory body motions, subjective motion sickness and postural sway.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Head movements in a moving or rotating environment, such as boats, airplanes, and automobiles often provoke symptoms of motion sickness or other discomfort. The ability to control susceptibility to motion sickness by controlling the central time constant of the vestibular system is a major advance and has broad application on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2005 
Task Progress: Specific Aim 1: Acquisition, Generalization and Context-Specificity of Adaptation 46 subjects were tested for transfer of pitch head turn adaptation to yaw head turn adaptation. Performing additional yaw head turns within a protocol that adapts subjects to pitch head turns does not interfere with the pitch adaptation. 15 subjects participated in a incremental 5-day protocol. All of the subjects were less motion sick. 21 subjects were tested on the effect that the amount head turn has: A head turn about an angle of 30 deg is less provocative and less intense than a head turn about 60 deg or 90 deg. The adaptive effects induced by our newly standardized protocol (MIT & JSC) were tested with a control group of six subjects. A pilot test series with six subjects for the 6-month study was started. We adapted six subjects to left yaw head turns and re-tested them doing right head turns. A preliminary analysis indicates a limited transfer of adaptation from left to right. Six subjects were adapted to right yaw head turns 37 cm off-center. The data analysis is still in progress. Also six subjects were adapted to radial movements while rotating. No effect on adaptation for head turns in the right quadrant was found. The hardware alterations that allow us to spin at 30 rpm were finished in December 2004. Safety checks and testing 30 rpm protocols are planned for February 2005, and we expect experiments spinning at 30 rpm starting in March 2005. Specific Aim 2: AG and Cognition: Effects of Cross-Coupled Stimulation (CCS) on Performance and Influence of Cognition on Adaptation to AG Planning and preparation of experiments has finished (December 2004.) Experiments will begin in February or March 2005. Specific Aim 3: Does Cross-Coupled Stimulation (CCS) Interfere with Spatial Orientation? Preliminary testing of the SVV-device took place in November, and a first series of experiments in December 2005. At present we have run 10 subjects and have partially analyzed their data. Specific Aim 4: Adaptation of whole-body movements: experiments in a slow rotation room Ten subjects have been tested in three different sessions apiece, in balanced order, at least two weeks apart. Each session involved 5 pre-, 20 per- and 10 post-rotation (10 rpm) trials, 20 s per trial. The results of these experiments promise to yield guidelines for prescribing whole-body exercises to which astronauts can adapt quickly, to avoid risks of falling of incurring injury due to lateral joint stress and unwanted transfer to other tasks. Specific Aim 5: Reduction of the Vestibular Time Constant as a Countermeasure against Motion Sickness. Six subjects were on seven days for 1 hour tested after they had been treated with placebo and 10, 20, and 30mg baclofen. The analysis for VOR time constants is almost done for all tested subjects and we are still analyzing the data of the VOR gain and the velocity storage coupling gain.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/08/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Dissertations and Theses Bruni, S. "Artificial Gravity: Neurovestibular Adaptation to Incremental Exposure to Centrifugation. Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY" 1-172 , Sep-2004
Dissertations and Theses Garrick-Bethell, I. "Cross plane transfer of vestibular adaptation to human centrifugation. “ Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY" 1-161 , Jun-2004
Presentation Dai, M.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B. "Using baclofen as a countermeasure against motion sickness. " Sep-2004
Presentation Di Zio, P. "Aim 4, Rationale and proposed work. " Sep-2004
Presentation Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hecht, H.; Jarchow, T.; Young, L. R. "Aim 1: Generalization. " Sep-2004
Presentation Jarchow, T. "Adaptation to head movements during short radius centrifugation. " Sep-2004
Presentation Jarchow, T., Young, L. R. "Adaptation to head movements during short radius centrifugation. " Oct-2004
Presentation Mast, F.; Newby, N. "Cognitive Influences and Artificial Gravity (Part I, Introduction). " Sep-2004
Presentation Newby, N.; Mast, F. "Cognitive Influences and Artificial Gravity (Part II, Project Presentation). " Sep-2004
Presentation Young, L. R. "Artifical Gravity " Oct-2005
Presentation Young, L. R. "Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity. " Sep-2004
Presentation Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Jarchow, T.; Natapoff, A.; Hecht , H.; Cohen, B.; Dai, M.; Di Zio, P.; Mast, M.; Newby, N. "Neurovestibular Aspects of Short-radius Artificial Gravity: Toward a Comprehensive Countermeasure. " Oct-2005
Project Title:  Neurovestibular aspects of short-radius artificial gravity: Toward a comprehensive countermeasure Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2004 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2004  
End Date: 03/31/2007  
Task Last Updated: 03/30/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Young, Laurence R. Sc.D. / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Address:  Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
77 Massachusetts Avenue 
Cambridge , MA 02139-4301 
Email: lry@mit.edu 
Phone: 617-253-7759  
Congressional District:
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Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Deceased as of August 2021. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hecht, Heiko  Universität Mainz & MIT 
Oman, Charles   Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MVL 
Cohen, Bernard  Mount Sinai Medical Center 
Dai, Mingjia   Mount Sinai Medical Center 
DiZio, Paul  Brandeis University 
Jarchow, Thomas  Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MVL 
Natapoff, Alan  Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MVL 
Mast, Fred  Universität Zürich 
Newby, Nathaniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Responsible Center: NSBRI 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2003 Biomedical Research & Countermeasures 03-OBPR-04 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NA00406 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
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Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM24:SM24: Determine if the individual capacity to produce adaptive change (rate and extent) in sensorimotor function to transitions in gravitational environments can be predicted with preflight tests of sensorimotor adaptability (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), produced by centrifugal force on a rotating spacecraft or an on-board centrifuge, is a promising general countermeasure to the debilitating effects of weightlessness. However, high-speed rotation above 180 deg/sec is necessary to produce 1-g or more on a short radius (1.5-3m) centrifuge. Any astronaut head movement not parallel to the plane of rotation can induce strong cross-coupled spatial disorientation, motion sickness, postural disturbance and non-stabilizing compensatory eye movements. This project addresses the issues of adaptation to Coriolis forces and cross-coupled accelerations in accordance with the artificial gravity aim of the NSBRI’s Neurovestibular Adaptation Team. The goal of this project is to understand the side effects caused by cross-coupled stimulation that produce motion sickness and could interfere with cognitive and motor function. A further goal is to develop efficient means of adapting astronauts safely to repeated transitions into and out of AG without excessive motion sickness. Basic understanding of the roles played by vestibular and other sensors in adaptation to unusual environments, and the associated disorientation and motion sickness, will contribute to astronaut comfort and safety in all phases of flight. Fundamental studies of the process of sensory-motor adaptation and practical means of controlling motion sickness and sway during rotation are combined in our 5 Specific Aims. 1) Acquisition, Generalization and Retention of Adaptation (MIT). 2) Cognitive Influences on Adaptation, and Effects of AG on Human Performance (JSC and MIT). 3) Spatial Orientation as Influenced by AG (MIT and Brandeis). 4) Adaptation of Postural Sway during AG (Brandeis). 5) Effectiveness of Baclofen in Controlling Motion Sickness by Shortening the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Time Constant. Human rotators spinning about an earth vertical axis provide the stimuli for each investigation: a rotating bed at MIT, an on-axis chair at Mt. Sinai, a 3m radius rotating room at Brandeis, and a 1.5m centrifuge at JSC. Measurements are made of compensatory eye movements, dynamic visual acuity, reading comprehension, illusory body motions, subjective motion sickness and postural sway. Cross-coupled canal stimulation and the Coriolis-stimuli on the otoliths during head turns in a rotating environments produce motion sickness and could interfere with cognitive and motor function. The goal of this project is gain an understanding of these side effects that allow us to develop efficient means of adapting astronauts to rotating environments and to allow repeated transitions into and out of AG without excessive motion sickness. Basic understanding of the roles played by vestibular and other sensors in adaptation to unusual environments, and the associated disorientation and motion sickness, will contribute to astronaut comfort and safety in all phases of flight. Spatial disorientation and related spatial illusions are a serious challenge for the astronaut in microgravity, during re-entry, and in the following weeks after return from space (see, e.g. Oman et al., 1986; Mittelstaedt and Glasauer; 1993, Lackner; 1993; Merfeld, 1996; Kornilova, 1997; Young, 2000). Finally, we recognize disorientation and postural disturbances as serious safety problems especially for astronauts returning from long missions, with or without AG. Our studies focus on the vestibular and non-vestibular contributions to orientation and posture in unusual, rotating force fields. They are crucial to the safety issues of emergency egress as well as the effectiveness of EVA on a mission using AG.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Head movements in a moving or rotating environment, such as in boats, airplanes, and automobiles are often provocative. The ability to control susceptibility to motion sickness by controlling the central time constant of the vestibular system is a major advance and has broad application on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2004 
Task Progress: Specific Aim 1: Acquisition, Generalization and Context-Specificity of Adaptation The cross-coupled canal stimulus and the Coriolis-stimuli on the otoliths during head turns in a rotating environment are determined by several parameters:

Velocity of the centrifuge (Wc)

Velocity of the head turn (Wh)

Amount of the head turn (Th)

Direction of the head turn (Dh)

Position of head relative to axis of rotation (Rh)

Axis of the head turns (yaw, pitch, or roll).

Within a session the level of motion sickness experienced by the subject increases with the number of head turns (n) that are made in the rotating environment while the VOR time-constant, the VOR amount, tumbling intensity, and other sensations decrease. With an increasing number of sessions all symptoms and all measures decrease.

Experiments conducted in 2004:

A) Even though the symptoms of pitch head turns are substantially larger, subjects adapt to pitch head turns as well as to yaw head turns. Performing additional yaw head turns within a protocol that adapts subjects to pitch head turns does not interfere with the pitch adaptation. (46 subjects, September 2003 to May 2004)

B) Incrementing centrifuge velocity (1.5 rpm to 23 rpm) over 5 days leads to adaptation with far less symptoms and therefore the subjects are less likely to dropout due to excessive motion sickness. (15 subjects, June 2004 to September 2004)

C) Cross-coupled stimulation is largely affected by the amount by which the head is turned. A head turn about an angle of 30deg is less provocative and less experienced as less intense as a head turn about an angle of 60deg or 90deg. (21 subjects, April 2004 to September 2004)

D) The effects induced by our standard protocol (MIT & JSC) were tested with six subjects between August 2004 to October 2004.

E) We ran an explorative test series with six subjects for the 6-month study in November and December 2004 re-testing is planed for May 2005 and June 2005.

F) Between September 2004 and December 2004 six subjects were adapted to left yaw head turns (15x to LED and 15xto NU) and tested for right head turns. A preliminary analysis indicates a limited transfer of adaptation from left to right. Several subjects indicated that following the 30 adaptive left head turns, the first 1-2 right head turns were significantly more provocative. At the moment we hypothesize that the initial response to a right head turn -- after being adapted to left head turns -- is high, but decays more rapidly than without the adaptation.

G) Between September 2004 and December 2004 six subjects were adapted to right yaw head turns off-center. A first data analysis indicates that the off-center adaptation leads to slightly different responses than an on-center adaptation: The transfer of adaptation might be "disturbed" because the GIF and the gravity gradient are different in those two positions.

H) Between September 2004 and December 2004 six subjects were adapted to radial movements. No effect on yaw head turns in the right quadrant was found.

I) The construction work needed that allows us to spin at 30rpm was finished in December 2004. Safety checks and testing 30rpm protocols are planed for February 2005, and we expect experiments spinning at 30rpm starting in March 2005.

J) The direction of the HT is a significant and persistent effect in all our protocols involving yaw HT: A HT to NUP leads to larger responses then a HT to RED.

Specific Aim 2: AG and Cognition: Effects of Cross-Coupled Stimulation (CCS) on Performance and Influence of Cognition on Adaptation to AG

Planning and preparation of experiments has finished, start of experiments in February March time frame of 2005.

Specific Aim 3: Does Cross-Coupled Stimulation (CCS) Interfere with Spatial Orientation?

We started first tests of the SVV-device in November and a first series of experiments in December. By now we have run 10 subjects testing for the best type of protocol to be used and their data has been preliminary analyzed.

Specific Aim 4: Adaptation of whole-body movements: experiments in a slow rotation room

Specific Aim 5: Reduction of the Vestibular Time Constant as a Countermeasure against Motion Sickness.

In six subjects the VOR was tested after they have been treated with placebo and 10, 20, and 30mg baclofen. Each subject has been tested seven times in four hours, in total each subject was tested 28 times. To avoid adaptation and effects from the previous test, the test session were about 1 week apart. The test consisted of 2-perrotatory and 2-postrotatory VOR measurements. The analysis for VOR time constants is almost done for all tested subjects and we are still analyzing the data of the VOR gain and the velocity storage coupling gain.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/08/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Adenot, S.; Jarchow, T.; Young, L.R. "Adaptation of VOR to Coriolis Stimulation." Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1039: 1–9 (2005). , Mar-2005
Dissertations and Theses Adenot, S. "Artificial Gravity: Changing the Intensity of Coriolis." Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

Aug-2004

Dissertations and Theses Bruni, S. "Artificial Gravity: Neurovestibular Adaptation to Incremental Exposure to Centrifugation." Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

Sep-2004

Dissertations and Theses Garrick-Bethell, I. "Cross plane transfer of vestibular adaptation to human centrifugation." Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

Jun-2004

Presentation Young, L.R. "Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Jarchow, T. "Adaptation to head movements during short radius centrifugation." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Garrick-Bethell, I.; Hecht, H.; Jarchow, T.; Young, L.R. "Aim 1: Generalization." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Dai, M.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B. "Using baclofen as a countermeasure against motion sickness." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation DiZio, P. "Aim 4 (Brandeis), Rationale and proposed work." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Mast, F.; Newby, N. "Cognitive Influences and Artificial Gravity (Part I, Introduction)." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Newby, N.; Mast, F. "Cognitive Influences and Artificial Gravity (Part II, Project Presentation)." Neurovestibular Aspects of Artificial Gravity - Team Meeting held at the MIT in Cambridge, September 20th, 2004.

Sep-2004

Presentation Jarchow, T., Young, L.R. "Adaptation to head movements during short radius centrifugation." 55th Annual International Astronautical Congress in Vancouver, 4. - 8. October 2004.

Oct-2004

Presentation Young, L.R. "Artifical Gravity" Bioastronautics Investigators' Workshop. January 10-12, 2005, Galveston, Texas.

Jan-2005

Presentation Young, L.R.; Oman, C.M.; Jarchow, T.; Natapoff, A.; Hecht ,H.; Cohen, B.; Dai, M.; DiZio, P.; Mast, M.; Newby, N. "Neurovestibular Aspects of Short-radius Artificial Gravity: Toward a Comprehensive Countermeasure. " Poster presented at the Bioastronautics Investigators' Workshop, January 10-12, 2005, Galveston, Texas.

Jan-2005