Menu

 

Task Book: Biological & Physical Sciences Division and Human Research Program
Advanced Search     

Project Title:  Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight-DSO 493 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/1999  
End Date: 08/01/2008  
Task Last Updated: 02/26/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pierson, Duane L Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Mail Code SK24 
Building 37, Room 1119A, 2101 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: duane.l.pierson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7166  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mehta, Satish  Ph.D. Enterprise Advisory Services Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. None 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 96-OLMSA-01 
Grant/Contract No.: None 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM05:What is the time course and etiology of immune changes? (MERGED with IM1, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS ; ISS

In flight development phase (data collection has begun)

Task Description: The reactivation of latent herpesviruses will increase health risks for crewmembers on ambitious long-duration NASA missions, such as those on the International Space Station and planetary exploration missions. Spaceflight conditions—stress and decreased cellular immunity—favor reactivation of herpesviruses. We previously reported that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in crewmembers was associated with spaceflight. The number of copies of EBV DNA from saliva samples taken during space shuttle flights was about 10-fold higher than before and after spaceflight. These studies, performed on short-term spaceflights (~12 days), also supplied evidence that EBV reactivation progresses as the duration of flight increases. We have also shown increased reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in astronauts during flight. These conditions may increase the risk that the virus will be transmitted to crewmembers that do not have antibodies to it and could develop an active CMV infection. Recent data from our laboratory have shown reactivation of varicella-zoster herpesvirus (VZV) in astronauts during short-term spaceflights. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox, or varicella) leads to latent infection in cranial nerves and dorsal root and autonomic ganglia, from which the virus can reactivate to produce shingles (zoster). VZV reactivation during spaceflight thus poses a significant health risk to crewmembers. VZV reactivation after orofacial surgery has been seen clinically as delayed facial palsy and detected in the laboratory as virus DNA in saliva or as an increased antibody response.

To determine the frequency of reactivation of latent viruses, latent virus shedding, and clinical disease after exposure to the physical, physiological, and psychological stressors associated with space flight

The proposed research addresses a potentially important medical risk to astronauts, and will clearly and directly benefit their health by providing scientific knowledge that can be used to define the risk and develop appropriate countermeasures. If we show that the viral (EBV or VZV) DNA that we find in astronauts’ saliva represents the shedding of infectious virus, we will have shown that during space flight, astronauts have a significant risk of contracting diseases caused by these viruses (VZV in particular), and of spreading the virus. If we show that increased viral reactivation is associated with changes in the circadian rhythm of astronauts’ salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and that those changes are associated with changes in crew members’ immune response, we will have provided evidence for a mechanism by which stress before and during space flight could increase virus reactivation. If we find that the likelihood of viral reactivation and the abundance of infectious virus increase on long-duration missions, we will have shown that the risk of crew members’ health and performance being affected by viral reactivation is an important consideration on long-duration missions.

See also https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/225.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Earth benefits: · Information gained from experiments performed on Space Shuttle missions will be essential for development of countermeasures for long-duration missions. · This molecular approach for monitoring viruses may be rapid and reliable tool for early detection of stress and diminished immunity. · This technology may provide clinically relevant data for management of patients suffering from chronic and acute stress. · Viral surveillance may lead to early intervention to minimize adverse health effects of acute/chronic stress.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Virus reactivation produces zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is found in vesicles of patients with zoster and varicella, but virus shed in the absence of disease has not been documented. VZV DNA was previously detected in saliva of astronauts during and after spaceflight, a uniquely stressful environment in which cell mediated immunity (CMI) is temporally dampened. The decline in CMI to VZV associated with zoster led to the hypothesis that infectious VZV would also be present in the saliva of astronauts subjected to stress of spaceflight. Herein, not only was the detection of salivary VZV DNA associated with spaceflight validated, but also infectious virus was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. This is the first demonstration of shed of infectious VZV in the absence of disease. J. Med. Virol. 80:1116-1122, 2008

Fifty-four patients with herpes zoster were treated with valacyclovir. On treatment days 1, 8, and 15, pain was scored and saliva examined for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA. VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started and later disappeared in 82%. There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain and between VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<.0005). VZV DNA was present in 1patient before rash and in 4 after pain resolved and was not present in any of 6 subjects with chronic pain or in 14 healthy subjects. Analysis of human saliva has potential usefulness in the diagnosis of neurological disease produced by VZV without rash. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197:654-7

This task addresses the need to understand the effects of spaceflight on human immunity. This task directly addresses the risks associated with infectious diseases since all of the latent viruses studied are infectious disease risks. VZV is a specific risk to the astronaut age group. In addition, the risks associated with decreased immunity during spaceflight has been hampered from the beginning in the technical difficulties that prevent inflight analyses. The viral reactivation task allows assessment of immune status (especially cell-mediated immunity) during the flight phase by collection of saliva during space flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/24/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Satyaprakash AK, Tremaine AM, Stelter AA, Creed R, Ravanfar P, Mendoza N, Mehta SK, Rady PL, Pierson DL, Tyring SK. "Viremia in acute Herpes zoster." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009 Jul 1;200(1):26-32. PubMed PMID: 19469706 , Jul-2009
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zhang Y, Rohde LH, Emami K, Hammond D, Casey R, Mehta SK, Jeevarajan AS, Pierson DL, Wu H. "Suppressed expression of non-DSB repair genes inhibits gamma-radiation-induced ctyogenic repair and cell cycle arrest." DNA Repair (Amst). 2008 Nov 1;7(11):1835-45. PMID: 18703169 , Nov-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Crucian BE, Stowe RP, Mehta SK, Yetman DL, Leal MJ, Quiriarte HD, Pierson DL, Sams CF. "Immune status, latent viral reactivation, and stress during long-duration head-down bed rest." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2009 May;80(5 Suppl):A37-44. PubMed PMID: 1947616 , May-2009
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cohrs RJ, Mehta SK, Schmid DS, Gilden DH, Pierson DL. "Asymptomatic reactivation and shed of infectious varicella zoster virus in astronauts." J Med Virol. 2008 Jun;80(6):1116-22. PMID: 18428120 , Jun-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Tyring SK, Gilden DH, Cohrs RJ, Leal MJ, Castro VA, Feiveson AH, Ott CM, Pierson DL. "Varicella-zoster virus in the saliva of patients with herpes zoster." J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 1;197(5):654-7. PMID: 18260763 , Mar-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Crucian B, Pierson DL, Sams C, Stowe RP. "Monitoring immune system function and reactivation of latent viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study." J Gravit Physiol. 2007 Jul;14(1):P21-5. PMID: 18372687 , Jul-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Stowe RP, Yetman DL, Storm WF, Sams CF, Pierson DL. "Neuroendocrine and immune responses to 16-day bed rest with realistic launch and landing G profiles." Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Feb;79(2):117-22. PMID: 18309909 , Feb-2008
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Pierson DL. "Reactivation of latent herpes viruses in cosmonauts during a Soyuz taxi mission." Microgravity - Science and Technology 2007 Sep;19(5-6):215-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02919485 , Sep-2007
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Laudenslager ML, Stowe RP, Crucian BE, Sams CF, Pierson DL. "Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions." Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Oct;41:210-7. Epub 2014 Jun 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2014.05.014 ; PubMed PMID: 24886968 , Oct-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Laudenslager ML, Stowe RP, Crucian BE, Feiveson AH, Sams CF, Pierson DL. "Latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the International Space Station." npj Microgravity. 2017 Apr 11;3(1):11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41526-017-0015-y , Apr-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Rooney BV, Crucian BE, Pierson DL, Laudenslager ML, Mehta SK. "Herpes virus reactivation in astronauts during spaceflight and its application on Earth." Front Microbiol. 2019 Feb 7;10:16. Review. eCollection 2019. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00016 ; PubMed PMID: 30792698; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6374706 , Feb-2019
Books/Book Chapters Pierson DL, Mehta SK, Stowe RP. "Reactivation of Latent Herpes Viruses in Astronauts." in "Psychoneuroimmunology. 4th edition." Ed. R. Ader. Amsterdam ; Boston : Elsevier/Academic Press, c2007. vol II, p. 851-868., Aug-2007
Books/Book Chapters Mehta SK, Pierson DL. "Artificial Gravity and the Immune System Function." in "Artificial gravity." Ed. G. Clement, A. Bukley. Hawthorne, Calif. : Microcosm Press ; New York : Springer, c2007., Sep-2007
Patents US patent application 61/087,045. US patent application # 61/087,045 was filed on August 7, 2008. Aug-2008 Pierson DL. "Methods for diagnosis of Varicella zoster virus infection."
Project Title:  Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight-DSO 493 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2005 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/1999  
End Date: 08/01/2008  
Task Last Updated: 11/23/2004 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pierson, Duane L Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Mail Code SK24 
Building 37, Room 1119A, 2101 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: duane.l.pierson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7166  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mehta, Satish K. Ph.D. Enterprise Advisory Services Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. None 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 96-OLMSA-01 
Grant/Contract No.: None 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM05:What is the time course and etiology of immune changes? (MERGED with IM1, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: In flight development phase (data collection has begun)

Task Description: The reactivation of latent herpesviruses will increase health risks for crewmembers on ambitious long-duration NASA missions, such as those on the International Space Station and planetary exploration missions. Spaceflight conditions—stress and decreased cellular immunity—favor reactivation of herpesviruses. We previously reported that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in crewmembers was associated with spaceflight. The number of copies of EBV DNA from saliva samples taken during space shuttle flights was about 10-fold higher than before and after spaceflight. These studies, performed on short-term spaceflights (~12 days), also supplied evidence that EBV reactivation progresses as the duration of flight increases. We have also shown increased reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in astronauts during flight. These conditions may increase the risk that the virus will be transmitted to crewmembers that do not have antibodies to it and could develop an active CMV infection. Recent data from our laboratory have shown reactivation of varicella-zoster herpesvirus (VZV) in astronauts during short-term spaceflights. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox, or varicella) leads to latent infection in cranial nerves and dorsal root and autonomic ganglia, from which the virus can reactivate to produce shingles (zoster). VZV reactivation during spaceflight thus poses a significant health risk to crewmembers. VZV reactivation after orofacial surgery has been seen clinically as delayed facial palsy and detected in the laboratory as virus DNA in saliva or as an increased antibody response. To determine the frequency of reactivation of latent viruses, latent virus shedding, and clinical disease after exposure to the physical, physiological, and psychological stressors associated with space flight The proposed research addresses a potentially important medical risk to astronauts, and will clearly and directly benefit their health by providing scientific knowledge that can be used to define the risk and develop appropriate countermeasures. If we show that the viral (EBV or VZV) DNA that we find in astronauts’ saliva represents the shedding of infectious virus, we will have shown that during space flight, astronauts have a significant risk of contracting diseases caused by these viruses (VZV in particular), and of spreading the virus. If we show that increased viral reactivation is associated with changes in the circadian rhythm of astronauts’ salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and that those changes are associated with changes in crew members’ immune response, we will have provided evidence for a mechanism by which stress before and during space flight could increase virus reactivation. If we find that the likelihood of viral reactivation and the abundance of infectious virus increase on long-duration missions, we will have shown that the risk of crew members’ health and performance being affected by viral reactivation is an important consideration on long-duration missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Earth benefits: · Information gained from experiments performed on Space Shuttle missions will be essential for development of countermeasures for long-duration missions. · This molecular approach for monitoring viruses may be rapid and reliable tool for early detection of stress and diminished immunity. · This technology may provide clinically relevant data for management of patients suffering from chronic and acute stress. · Viral surveillance may lead to early intervention to minimize adverse health effects of acute/chronic stress.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2005 
Task Progress: Two studies were completed in the year 2003-2004:

1. EBV flight experiment: Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight (Journal of Brain Behavior and Immunology, Inpress 2004) ABSTRACT Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417, significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n = 5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

2. VZV flight experiment: Stress-Induced Sub-clinical Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts (Journal of Medical Virology, 2004) ABSTRACT Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in human ganglia after primary infection. VZV reactivation occurs primarily in elderly individuals, organ transplant recipients, and patients with cancer and AIDS, correlating with a specific decline in cell-mediated immunity to the virus. VZV can also reactivate after surgical stress. The unexpected occurrence of thoracic zoster two days before space flight in a 47-year-old healthy astronaut from a pool of 81 physically-fit astronauts prompted our search for VZV reactivation during times of stress to determine whether VZV can also reactivate after non-surgical stress. We examined total DNA extracted from 312 saliva samples of 8 astronauts before, during and after space flight for VZV DNA by polymerase chain reaction: 112 samples were obtained 234 to 265 days before flight, 84 samples on days 2 through 13 of space flight, and 116 samples on days 1 through 15 after flight. Before space flight, only one of the 112 saliva samples from a single astronaut was positive for VZV DNA. In contrast, during and after space flight, 61 of 200 (30%) saliva samples were positive in all 8 astronauts. No VZV DNA was detected in any of 88 saliva samples from 10 healthy control subjects. These results indicate that VZV can reactivate subclinically in healthy individuals after non-surgical stress.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/24/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pierson DL, Stowe RP, Phillips TM, Lugg DJ, Mehta SK. "Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight." Brain Behav Immun. 2005 May;19(3):235-42. PMID: 15797312 , May-2005
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mehta SK, Cohrs RJ, Forghani B, Zerbe G, Gilden DH, Pierson DL. "Stress-induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts." J Med Virol. 2004 Jan;72(1):174-9. PMID: 14635028 , Jan-2004
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ling PD, Lednicky JA, Keitel WA, Poston DG, White ZS, Peng R, Liu Z, Mehta SK, Pierson DL, Rooney CM, Vilchez RA, Smith EO, Butel JS. "The dynamics of herpesvirus and polyomavirus reactivation and shedding in healthy adults: a 14-month longitudinal study." J Infect Dis. 2003 May 15;187(10):1571-80. Epub 2003 Apr 30. PMID: 12721937 , Jan-2004
Presentation Mehta, S.K.; Smith, T.D., Lugg D.J.; Phillips, T.M.; Ott, C.M.; Donovan, K.M.; Klemes, P.; Pierson , D.L. "Reactivation of Latent Herpes Viruses in Antarctica. " Aerospace Medical Association 75th Annual Scientific Meeting May 2-6, 2004, Anchorage, Alaska.

May-2004

Presentation Mehta, S.K.; Laudenslager, M.L.; Robinson-Whelen, S.; Stowe, R.P.;Cohrs, R.J.; Ott, C.M.; Pierson, D.L. "Latent Herpes Virus Reactivation in Aquanauts" Conference on Space Habitation Research and Technology Development 01-07-04

Jan-2004

Presentation Pierson, D.L.and   Mehta, S.K. "Stress-Induced Subclinical Reactivation of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) in Astronauts " Bioastronautics Investigators Workshop, Galveston, TX

Jan-2003

Presentation Mehta S.K.; Cohrs R.J.; Lugg D.J.and Pierson D.L. "Herpesvirus Reactivation Associated with Spaceflight " 14th IAA Humans In Space Symposium - Living in Space: Scientific, Medical and Cultural Implications. The Banff Centre in Banff, Alberta, Canada

May-2003

Project Title:  Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight-DSO 493 Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2004 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 12/01/1997  
End Date: 12/01/2004  
Task Last Updated: 03/31/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Pierson, Duane L Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Mail Code SK24 
Building 37, Room 1119A, 2101 NASA Parkway 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: duane.l.pierson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7166  
Congressional District: 22 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. None 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 96-OLMSA-01 
Grant/Contract No.: None 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Immune:Risk of Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) IM01:We do not know to what extent spaceflight alters various aspects of human immunity during spaceflight missions up to 6 months (IRP Rev E)
(2) IM02:It is necessary to define a flight standard related to spaceflight-associated immune system dysregulation (IRP Rev E)
(3) IM05:What is the time course and etiology of immune changes? (MERGED with IM1, per IRP Rev E)
Task Description: The reactivation of latent herpesviruses will increase health risks for crewmembers on ambitious long-duration NASA missions, such as those on the International Space Station and planetary exploration missions. Spaceflight conditions—stress and decreased cellular immunity—favor reactivation of herpesviruses. We previously reported that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in crewmembers was associated with spaceflight. The number of copies of EBV DNA from saliva samples taken during space shuttle flights was about 10-fold higher than before and after spaceflight. These studies, performed on short-term spaceflights (~12 days), also supplied evidence that EBV reactivation progresses as the duration of flight increases. We have also shown increased reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in astronauts during flight. These conditions may increase the risk that the virus will be transmitted to crewmembers that do not have antibodies to it and could develop an active CMV infection. Recent data from our laboratory have shown reactivation of varicella-zoster herpesvirus (VZV) in astronauts during short-term spaceflights. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox, or varicella) leads to latent infection in cranial nerves and dorsal root and autonomic ganglia, from which the virus can reactivate to produce shingles (zoster). VZV reactivation during spaceflight thus poses a significant health risk to crewmembers. VZV reactivation after orofacial surgery has been seen clinically as delayed facial palsy and detected in the laboratory as virus DNA in saliva or as an increased antibody response.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Earth benefits: · Information gained from experiments performed on Space Shuttle missions will be essential for development of countermeasures for long-duration missions. · This molecular approach for monitoring viruses may be rapid and reliable tool for early detection of stress and diminished immunity. · This technology may provide clinically relevant data for management of patients suffering from chronic and acute stress. · Viral surveillance may lead to early intervention to minimize adverse health effects of acute/chronic stress.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2004 
Task Progress: No progress report this period.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/24/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2004