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Project Title:  Neuro-Vestibular Examination During and After Spaceflight (Vestibular Health) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 12/01/2027  
Task Last Updated: 11/29/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Clement, Gilles  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dervay, Joseph  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Makishima, Tomoko  M.D., Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 
Wood, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: November 2021 report: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM-103:Effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on spatial orientation and motion sickness after G transitions. Performance impacts that effect critical mission tasks: G-transition motion sickness, diplopia, hand-eye coordination, autonomic dysfunction, vertigo (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/01/2027 per implementation phase extension, per L. Taylor/JSC (Ed., 7/29/2020)

Task Description: Adaptation to the absence of Earth's gravitational environment during spaceflight causes neurological disturbances that are either directly or indirectly mediated by the vestibular system. These disturbances include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, and cognitive impairment, as well as changes in head-eye coordination, vestibulo-ocular reflex, and interactions with support surfaces. After return to Earth, astronauts experience other vestibular-driven behavioral changes, including re-entry motion sickness, motion illusions, gaze-induced nystagmus, and balance and locomotion deficits.

Otolith-mediated reflex gain changes are striking shortly after g-transitions. However, animal studies have shown that structural modifications of the vestibular sensory apparatus may occur throughout an extended spaceflight exposure. To date, no long-duration flight studies have directly investigated potential changes in the vestibular organs of astronauts. As a part of the Complement of Integrated Protocols for Human Research (CIPHER), this study will address this gap by performing a systematic neuro-vestibular examination of crewmembers in orbit at regular intervals, as well as immediately after landing. Crewmembers from short-duration, six-month, and one-year missions will be recruited to investigate temporal changes, and to identify trends in adaptation to vestibular health and performance. In orbit, subjects will perform active movements and be exposed to various passive maneuvers executed by the operator. Observations and recordings of eye, head, and body movements, as well as subjective perception of motion and verbal reports, will be used for evaluating the presence of abnormal eye movements, dysmetria, motion sickness symptoms, and illusions of motion during head or body movements. Tests will be performed both early in the mission and once every one or two months thereafter. The post-flight examination will be performed on R+0 and several times thereafter.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The tests proposed in this study are well established and validated protocols that are able to detect acute or chronic vestibular syndromes. Repeated measurements during adaptation to g-transitions will provide insight into the vestibular compensation process. If the observed physiological changes in the crewmembers are more deleterious after the year-long International Space Station (ISS) expeditions than those documented after standard-duration ISS expeditions, then relevant countermeasures will be required to enable longer duration missions. Depending on the etiology of the vestibular disorders revealed by our tests, monitoring for long-term health outcomes and vestibular rehabilitation countermeasures can be tailored to the deficits observed.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: This past reporting period, the commercial binocular video eye tracking system (DX Falcon, Neurolign Technologies Inc, Toronto, CN) was the first new flight CIPHER hardware certified for ISS. A Science Verification Test of the flight hardware and procedures was performed in the Columbus mockup on June 30, 2021, as part of the certification process, and the inflight data management processing flow was confirmed. The inflight protocol has been further refined on this platform to sequence the operator and subject through the experiment protocol using recorded instructions and audio prompts. The preflight vestibular evaluation was also implemented on the rotatory test system (Dx Neurotologic Test Center, Neurolign Technologies Inc, Toronto, CN) in the Neuroscience Laboratory. Both vestibular evaluation (rotatory) and exam (goggles) protocols include skew deviation measures that will be shared with the Ocular Alignment investigation (Principal Investigator Mark Shelhamer). A Test Readiness Review was completed for the ground test system prior to the normative data collection.

An Informed Crew Briefing (ICB) was presented to the crews of SpaceX Crew-3 in December 2020 and SpaceX Crew-4 in April 2021. Informed Crew Briefing for Crew-5 was conducted during November and December 2021 for potentially the first CIPHER participant. The Falcon Goggles Operator Training program was developed to train inflight operators how to set up test sessions, complete a hardware checkout, and guide a subject through the experiment protocol using the Falcon Goggles hardware and software. Two crewmembers on SpaceX Crew-3 and one crewmember on SpaceX Crew-4 were trained as inflight operators. Initial functional checkout of this system is planned during the SpaceX Crew-3 mission by the first inflight operator.

A ground-based study was performed from August 2021 to October 2021 to collect normative responses. Thirty-one subjects were tested in the laboratory using the same equipment and procedures as the crew inflight and ground protocols. Data analysis of this normative study is ongoing. The results of this control study will be presented at the Human Research Program (HRP) Investigators’ Workshop in February 2022.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Clément GR, Macaulay TR, De Dios Y, Wood SJ, Dervay JP, Makishima T, Reschke MF. "Neuro-vestibular examination during and after a year on the International Space Station." 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Virtual meeting, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Virtual meeting, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Project Title:  Neuro-Vestibular Examination During and After Spaceflight (Vestibular Health) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 12/01/2027  
Task Last Updated: 12/03/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Clement, Gilles  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dervay, Joseph  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Makishima, Tomoko  M.D., Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 
Wood, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: December 2020 report: Scott Wood has been added as a Co-Investigator
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM-103:Effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on spatial orientation and motion sickness after G transitions. Performance impacts that effect critical mission tasks: G-transition motion sickness, diplopia, hand-eye coordination, autonomic dysfunction, vertigo (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/01/2027 per implementation phase extension, per L. Taylor/JSC (Ed., 7/29/2020)

Task Description: Adaptation to the absence of Earth's gravitational environment during spaceflight causes neurological disturbances that are either directly or indirectly mediated by the vestibular system. These disturbances include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, cognitive impairment, as well as changes in head-eye coordination, vestibulo-ocular reflex, and interactions with support surfaces. After return to Earth, astronauts experience other vestibular-driven behavioral changes, including re-entry motion sickness, motion illusions, gaze-induced nystagmus, and balance and locomotion deficits.

Otolith-mediated reflex gain changes are striking shortly after g-transitions. However, animal studies have shown that structural modifications of the vestibular sensory apparatus may occur throughout an extended spaceflight exposure. To date, no long-duration flight studies have directly investigated potential changes in the vestibular organs of astronauts. As a part of the Complement of Integrated Protocols for Human Research (CIPHER), this study will address this gap by performing a systematic neuro-vestibular examination of crewmembers in orbit at regular intervals, as well as immediately after landing. Crewmembers from short-duration, six-month, and one-year missions will be recruited to investigate temporal changes, and to identify trends in adaptation to vestibular health and performance. In orbit, the subject will be exposed to various maneuvers executed by the operator. Observations and recordings of eye, head, and body movements, as well as the subjective perception of motion and verbal reports, will be used for evaluating the presence of abnormal eye movements, dysmetria, motion sickness symptoms, and illusions of motion during head or body movements. Tests will be performed both early in the mission and once every one or two months thereafter. The post-flight examination will be performed on R+0 and several times thereafter.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The tests proposed in this study are well established and validated protocols that are able to detect acute or chronic vestibular syndromes. Repeated measurements during adaptation to g-transitions will provide insight into the vestibular compensation process. If the observed physiological changes in the crewmembers are more deleterious after the year-long International Space Station (ISS) expeditions than those documented after standard-duration ISS expeditions, then relevant countermeasures will be required to enable longer duration missions. Depending on the etiology of the vestibular disorders revealed by our tests, monitoring for long-term health outcomes and vestibular rehabilitation countermeasures can be tailored to the deficits observed.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: This past reporting period, Vestibular Health was selected for flight as part of CIPHER's complement of studies (formerly referred to as the integrated One Year Mission project). A commercial binocular video eye tracker was selected for the data acquisition platform (Falcon DX goggles, Neurolign Technologies Inc, Toronto, CN) for both Space Station and ground testing. The inflight protocol was further refined on this platform and custom software changes were implemented to sequence the operator and subject through the experiment protocol using recorded instructions and audio prompts. This protocol includes skew deviation measures that will be shared with the Ocular Alignment investigation (Principal Investigator--PI Mark Shelhamer). A vestibular rotatory test system (I-Portal Neurotologic Test Center, Neuro Kinetics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA) was installed in the neuroscience laboratory to support the ground testing for this study.

While the initial ground testing for this study was delayed due to COVID-19 on-site restrictions, this study was approved as mission-critical work to begin the training and procedure development. Initial functional checkout of this system is planned during SpaceX Crew-3 by the first inflight operator. The initial Informed Crew Briefing (ICB) is planned for the fourth crew of NASA's Commercial Crew Program in 2021, with the initial CIPHER subject launching in 2022.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Clément G, Reschke MF, Dervay JP, Makishima T. "Neuro-vestibular examination during and following spaceflight (Vestibular Health)." Presented at the NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, Texas (USA), January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Project Title:  Neuro-Vestibular Examination During and After Spaceflight (Vestibular Health) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 12/01/2027  
Task Last Updated: 08/17/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Clement, Gilles  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dervay, Joseph  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Makishima, Tomoko  M.D., Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2020 report: Dr. Bloomberg retired in September 2019 and was removed from the investigator team. Dr. Tomoko Makishima is now a CoInvestigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM-103:Effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on spatial orientation and motion sickness after G transitions. Performance impacts that effect critical mission tasks: G-transition motion sickness, diplopia, hand-eye coordination, autonomic dysfunction, vertigo (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/01/2027 per implementation phase extension, per L. Taylor/JSC (Ed., 7/29/2020)

Task Description: Adaptation to the absence of Earth's gravitational environment during spaceflight causes neurological disturbances that are either directly or indirectly mediated by the vestibular system. These disturbances include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, cognitive impairment, as well as changes in head-eye coordination, vestibulo-ocular reflex, and interactions with support surfaces. After return to Earth, astronauts experience other vestibular-driven behavioral changes, including re-entry motion sickness, motion illusions, gaze-induced nystagmus, and balance and locomotion deficits.

Otolith-mediated reflex gain changes are striking shortly after g-transitions. However, animal studies have shown that structural modifications of the vestibular sensory apparatus may occur throughout an extended spaceflight exposure. To date, no flight studies have directly investigated potential changes in the vestibular organs of astronauts. An examination of vestibular function in crewmembers is therefore necessary for establishing Human Research Program's risk and gaps associated with the sensorimotor system, and in particular the sensorimotor gap (SM-26) “to determine if exposure to long-duration spaceflight leads to neural structural alterations and if this remodeling impacts cognitive and functional performance.” We therefore propose to perform a systematic neuro-vestibular examination of crewmembers in orbit at regular intervals, as well as immediately after landing.

In orbit, the subject will be exposed to various maneuvers executed by the operator. Observations and recordings of eye, head, and body movements, as well as subjective perception of motion and verbal reports, will be used for evaluating the presence of abnormal eye movements, dysmetria, motion sickness symptoms, and illusions of motion during head or body movements. The whole examination will last less than 30 minutes. Tests will be performed both early in the mission and once every one or two months thereafter. The post-flight examination will be performed on R+0 and R+9. Measurements will be the same as in-flight. The post-flight investigation will leverage on the results of the MedB posturography and sensorimotor standard measures also performed on R+0 and R+9. Preflight data collection will take place at L-90 using the same procedure/equipment as the post-flight examination.

Crewmembers from short-duration, six-month, and one-year missions are requested to investigate temporal changes, and to identify trends in adaptation to vestibular health and performance. The question is whether the vestibular organs and/or the central vestibular system undergo some structural changes during long exposure to microgravity, which would be responsible for vestibular disorders when transitioning to a new gravitational environment.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The tests proposed in this study are well established and validated protocols that are able to detect acute or chronic vestibular syndromes. Repeated measurements during adaptation to g-transitions will provide insight into the vestibular compensation process. If the observed physiological changes in the crewmembers are more deleterious after the year-long International Space Station (ISS) expeditions than those documented after standard-duration ISS expeditions, then relevant countermeasures will be required to enable longer duration missions. Depending on the etiology of the vestibular disorders revealed by our tests, monitoring for long-term health outcomes and vestibular rehabilitation countermeasures can be tailored to the deficits observed.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: During the reporting period of 2019, progress was primarily focused on definition phase activities. The experiment was granted Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. The draft Experiment Document was generated as the Research and Operations Element (ROI) proceeded with feasibility assessments and integrated one-year mission (i1YM) complement integration. The investigation team participated in a series of Investigator Working Group audio conferences in which each investigator team presented their background, experimental aims, and methodology. Through these activities it was determined that the Ocular Alignment (Principal Investigator-PI Mark Shelhamer) could be integrated with Vestibular Health with the inclusion of a binocular video goggle instead of the proposed Fresnel lens. A market survey was conducted to identify potential eye tracking solutions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2020
Project Title:  Neuro-Vestibular Examination During and After Spaceflight (Vestibular Health) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 01/30/2019  
End Date: 05/30/2020  
Task Last Updated: 04/19/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bloomberg, Jacob  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Clement, Gilles  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Dervay, Joseph  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) SM-103:Effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on spatial orientation and motion sickness after G transitions. Performance impacts that effect critical mission tasks: G-transition motion sickness, diplopia, hand-eye coordination, autonomic dysfunction, vertigo (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Adaptation to the absence of Earth's gravitational environment during spaceflight causes neurological disturbances that are either directly or indirectly mediated by the vestibular system. These disturbances include space motion sickness, spatial disorientation, cognitive impairment, as well as changes in head-eye coordination, vestibulo-ocular reflex, and strategies for postural control and locomotion. After return to Earth, astronauts experience other vestibular-driven behavioral changes, including reentry motion sickness, motion illusions, gaze-induced nystagmus, poor balance, and potentiation of postural muscle reflexes.

It seems that the otolith-mediated reflexes gain adapts rapidly over time during flight and after landing. However, animal studies have shown that structural modifications of the vestibular sensory apparatus appear for long flight exposure. To date, no flight studies have directly investigated potential changes in the vestibular organs of astronauts. An examination of vestibular function in crewmembers is therefore necessary for establishing Human Research Program's risk and gaps associated with the sensorimotor system, and in particular gap Sensorimotor (SM) 26 "Determine if exposure to long-duration spaceflight leads to neural structural alterations and if this remodeling impacts cognitive and functional performance." We therefore propose to perform a systematic neuro-vestibular examination of crewmembers in orbit at regular intervals, as well as immediately after landing.

In orbit, the subject will be exposed to various maneuvers executed by the operator. Observations and recordings of eye, head, and body movements, as well as subjective perception of motion and verbal reports, will be used for evaluating the presence of abnormal eye movements, dysmetria, motion sickness symptoms, and illusions of motion during head or body movements. The whole examination will last less than 30 minutes. Tests will be performed both early in the mission and once every one or two months thereafter. The post-flight examination will be performed on R+0 and R+9. Measurements will be the same as in-flight. The operator will be a trained otologist. The post-flight investigation will leverage on the results of the posturography and sensorimotor standard measures also performed on R+0 and R+9. Preflight data collection will take place at L-90 using the same procedure/equipment as the post-flight examination.

Crewmembers from short-duration, six-month, and one-year missions are requested to investigate temporal changes, and to identify trends in adaptation to vestibular health and performance. The question is whether the vestibular organs and/or the central vestibular system undergo some structural changes during long exposure to microgravity, which would be responsible for vestibular disorders when transitioning to a new gravitational environment.

The tests proposed in this study are well established and validated protocols that are able to detect head-motion oscillospia and predict acute or chronic vestibular syndromes. If the observed physiological changes in the crewmembers are more deleterious after the year-long International Space Station (ISS) expeditions than those documented after standard-duration ISS expeditions, then relevant countermeasures will be required to enable longer duration missions. Depending on the etiology of the vestibular disorders revealed by our tests, countermeasures to these problems will be proposed based on vestibular rehabilitation therapy currently used in patients with vestibular disorders, such as habituation, gaze stabilization, and/or balance training exercises.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: New project for FY2019.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2019