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Project Title:  A Multi-faceted Approach to Examine Team Adaptation & Resilience within Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/23/2017  
End Date: 03/22/2022  
Task Last Updated: 08/18/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mathieu, John  Ph.D. The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Maynard, Michael  Ph.D. Safer Healthcare Partners, LLC 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC18K0092 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC18K0092 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/22/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 3/9/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/12/2021 per L. Juliette/HRP (Ed., 2/19/2020)

NOTE: Change in period of performance and grant number per J. Garrett/JSC HRP (previous 10/1/2016-9/30/2019, grant NNX16AM17G)--Ed., 7/5/18

Task Description: The success of future long duration exploration missions (LDEM) is likely to be contingent on the crew’s ability to adjust in response to environment demands. There has been recent interest in team adaptation and resilience in the scientific community, but researchers have noted the need to clarify those constructs. We propose a program of research to: a) clarify and better understand these constructs, in particular with how they operate in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments and b) based on that enhanced understanding, develop and test targeted countermeasures designed to boost the adaptability and resilience of LDEM crews.

Work conducted by Maynard and colleagues (2015), supplemented by the team resilience work of Alliger et al. (2015) – all members of our research team – provides a “road map” for the proposed research. We plan to examine the impact of different environmental triggers on team adaptation, incorporating an event taxonomy and categorization schema with which to assess experiences and trigger events. This will allow us to index the types of challenges that LDEM crews will confront. We will test a series of related hypotheses using archival data we collected in prior research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) habitat.

We will then examine antecedents and outcomes of adaptation, gathering data in two analog environments. Finally, based on the theoretical and preliminary empirical work, we will develop a team countermeasure designed to promote constructive team adaptation and team resilience, and test those countermeasures in an analog environment.

References

Alliger, G.M., Cerasoli, C.P., Tannenbaum, S.I., & Vessey, W.B. (2015). Team resilience: How teams flourish under pressure. Organizational Dynamics, 44, 176-184.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., & Sommer, S. A. (2015). Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 652-677.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., Sommer, S. A., & Passos, A. M. (2015). Team Cohesion: A theoretical consideration of its reciprocal relationships within the team adaptation nomological network. In: E. Salas, Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, 83-111.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is a need for LDEM crews to adapt and sustain their resilience as a team. Researchers have traditionally examined adaptation and resilience from an individual perspective, but to ensure that Long Duration Exploration Mission (LDEM) crews are ready for the challenges they will face, there is a need to better understand how adaption and resilience operate at the team level. Doing so will allow for the development of validated countermeasures that can be deployed prior to and at appropriate times during a mission, increasing a LDEM crew’s ability to handle the stressors associated with ICE environments and enabling them to adjust when unexpected challenges emerge. It addresses the need to learn more about team adaptation and resilience, as well as the need to develop and test potential countermeasures.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: We have developed research protocols and measurement tools for conducting studies in two analog environments, the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) and NASA™ HERA environment, as well as for one field environment, Deep Sea Saturation Dive (SAT) teams. The contextualized surveys developed for each environment are designed to collect data about key adaptation factors, including for example trigger events, challenges encountered, adaptation responses, performance data as well as overall perceptions of the mission.

We analyzed weekly data from a HI-SEAS crew over an 8-month long mission. We also collected daily data from 20 SAT dive teams during their 28-day undersea missions that described 460 unique team and taskwork related challenges and related adjustments. We content analyzed the data and had 750 unique events for the response focus (e.g., individual, dyad, collective, full team in chamber, external team) and the response action (e.g., troubleshooting, changed roles/positions, discussed interpersonal relationships, sought/received assistance from others). We collected data in the HERA C5 mission and are conducting the same content analysis of the 445 responses for 313 events.

We drafted a countermeasure for use with SAT dive teams and a version of that countermeasure for use in HERA 6. We will implement these studies when HERA 6 begins in September 2021.

In addition, we have begun analyzing archival data we previously collected during the HERA 1 mission, commenced coding the data collected in the HI-SEAS and SAT dive team studies, and have developed promising countermeasures that will be used in the HERA C6 missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Books/Book Chapters Maynard MT, Kennedy DM, Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE, Levy JH. "Team adaptation and resilience: Where the literature currently stands and how it applies to long-duration isolated, confined, and extreme contexts." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020. p. 151-170. ISBN: 9781138339866. Book doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440878 , Oct-2020
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Maynard MT, Mathieu JE, Kennedy DM, Levy J, Beard R. "Environmental challenges and adaptivity in different LDSE analogs." 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Project Title:  A Multi-faceted Approach to Examine Team Adaptation & Resilience within Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/23/2017  
End Date: 03/22/2022  
Task Last Updated: 08/18/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mathieu, John  Ph.D. The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Maynard, Michael  Ph.D. Safer Healthcare Partners, LLC 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC18K0092 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC18K0092 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/22/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 3/9/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/12/2021 per L. Juliette/HRP (Ed., 2/19/2020)

NOTE: Change in period of performance and grant number per J. Garrett/JSC HRP (previous 10/1/2016-9/30/2019, grant NNX16AM17G)--Ed., 7/5/18

Task Description: The success of future long duration exploration missions (LDEM) is likely to be contingent on the crew’s ability to adjust in response to environment demands. There has been recent interest in team adaptation and resilience in the scientific community, but researchers have noted the need to clarify those constructs. We propose a program of research to: a) clarify and better understand these constructs, in particular with how they operate in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments and b) based on that enhanced understanding, develop and test targeted countermeasures designed to boost the adaptability and resilience of LDEM crews.

Work conducted by Maynard and colleagues (2015), supplemented by the team resilience work of Alliger et al. (in press) – all members of our research team – provides a “road map” for the proposed research. We plan to examine the impact of different environmental triggers on team adaptation, incorporating an event taxonomy and categorization schema with which to assess experiences and trigger events. This will allow us to index the types of challenges that LDEM crews will confront. We will test a series of related hypotheses using archival data we collected in prior research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) habitat.

We will then examine antecedents and outcomes of adaptation, gathering data in two analog environments. Finally, based on the theoretical and preliminary empirical work, we will develop a team countermeasure designed to promote constructive team adaptation and team resilience, and test those countermeasures in an analog environment.

References

Maynard, MT, Kennedy, DM, & Sommer, SA. (2015). Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 652-677.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., Sommer, S. A., & Passos, A. M. (2015). Team Cohesion: A theoretical consideration of its reciprocal relationships within the team adaptation nomological network. In: E. Salas, Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, 83-111.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is a need for LDEM crews to adapt and sustain their resilience as a team. Researchers have traditionally examined adaptation and resilience from an individual perspective, but to ensure that Long Duration Exploration Mission (LDEM) crews are ready for the challenges they will face, there is a need to better understand how adaption and resilience operate at the team level. Doing so will allow for the development of validated countermeasures that can be deployed prior to and at appropriate times during a mission, increasing a LDEM crew’s ability to handle the stressors associated with ICE environments and enabling them to adjust when unexpected challenges emerge. It addresses the need to learn more about team adaptation and resilience, as well as the need to develop and test potential countermeasures.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: We have developed research protocols and measurement tools for conducting studies in two analog environments, the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) and NASA™ HERA environment, as well as for one field environment, Deep Sea Saturation Dive (SAT) teams. The contextualized surveys developed for each environment are designed to collect data about key adaptation factors, including for example trigger events, challenges encountered, adaptation responses, performance data as well as overall perceptions of the mission.

We gathered weekly data from a HI-SEAS crew over an 8-month long mission. We also collected daily data from 13 SAT dive teams during their 28-day undersea missions that described 460 challenges and related adjustments. We collected data in the HERA C5 mission.

We drafted a countermeasure for use with SAT dive teams and a version of that countermeasure for use in HERA 6. We are currently on hold in implementing those studies due to COVID-19.

In addition, we have begun analyzing archival data we previously collected during the HERA 1 mission, commenced coding the data collected in the HI-SEAS and SAT dive team studies, and have developed promising countermeasures that will be used in the HERA C6 missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Maynard MT, Mathieu JE, Kennedy DM, Levy J, Beard R. "Environmental challenges and adaptivity in different LDSE analogs." 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Meeting summary. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Maynard MT, Mathieu JE, Kennedy DM, Levy J. "Team Adaptation in Isolated Confined Extreme Conditions: An Event-Based Approach." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

Abstracts. 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Books/Book Chapters Maynard MT, Kennedy DM, Tannenbaum SI, Mathieu JE, Levy J. "Team adaptation and resilience: Where the literature currently stands and how it applies to long-duration isolated, confined, and extreme contexts." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier." Ed. L. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. CRC Press [in press as of August 2020]., Aug-2020
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI, Cerasoli CP, Alliger GM. "Environmental Events Influence on Crew Performance and Cohesion as Mediated by Resilience ." 34th Annual Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference, National Harbor, MD, April 4-6, 2019.

Paper from 34th Annual Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Conference, National Harbor, MD, April 4-6, 2019. , Apr-2019

Project Title:  A Multi-faceted Approach to Examine Team Adaptation & Resilience within Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/23/2017  
End Date: 03/12/2021  
Task Last Updated: 08/23/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mathieu, John  Ph.D. The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Maynard, Michael  Ph.D. Safer Healthcare Partners, LLC 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC18K0092 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC18K0092 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/12/2021 per L. Juliette/HRP (Ed., 2/19/2020)

NOTE: Change in period of performance and grant number per J. Garrett/JSC HRP (previous 10/1/2016-9/30/2019, grant NNX16AM17G)--Ed., 7/5/18

Task Description: The success of future long duration exploration missions (LDEM) is likely to be contingent on the crew’s ability to adjust in response to environment demands. There has been recent interest in team adaptation and resilience in the scientific community, but researchers have noted the need to clarify those constructs. We propose a program of research to: a) clarify and better understand these constructs, in particular with how they operate in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments and b) based on that enhanced understanding, develop and test targeted countermeasures designed to boost the adaptability and resilience of LDEM crews.

Work conducted by Maynard and colleagues (2015), supplemented by the team resilience work of Alliger et al. (in press) – all members of our research team – provides a “road map” for the proposed research. We plan to examine the impact of different environmental triggers on team adaptation, incorporating an event taxonomy and categorization schema with which to assess experiences and trigger events. This will allow us to index the types of challenges that LDEM crews will confront. We will test a series of related hypotheses using archival data we collected in prior research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) habitat.

We will then examine antecedents and outcomes of adaptation, gathering data in two analog environments. Finally, based on the theoretical and preliminary empirical work, we will develop a team countermeasure designed to promote constructive team adaptation and team resilience, and test those countermeasures in an analog environment.

References

Maynard, MT, Kennedy, DM, & Sommer, SA. (2015). Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 652-677.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., Sommer, S. A., & Passos, A. M. (2015). Team Cohesion: A theoretical consideration of its reciprocal relationships within the team adaptation nomological network. In: E. Salas, Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, 83-111.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is a need for LDEM crews to adapt and sustain their resilience as a team. Researchers have traditionally examined adaptation and resilience from an individual perspective, but to ensure that Long Duration Exploration Mission (LDEM) crews are ready for the challenges they will face, there is a need to better understand how adaption and resilience operate at the team level. Doing so will allow for the development of validated countermeasures that can be deployed prior to and at appropriate times during a mission, increasing a LDEM crew’s ability to handle the stressors associated with ICE environments and enabling them to adjust when unexpected challenges emerge. It addresses the need to learn more about team adaptation and resilience, as well as the need to develop and test potential countermeasures.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: We are using the research protocols and measurement tools we developed to conduct a study in NASA’s HERA environment, and a study in a field environment with Deep Sea Saturation Dive (SAT) teams. The contextualized surveys developed for each environment are designed to collect data about key adaptation factors, including trigger events, challenges encountered, adaptation responses, performance data, as well as overall perceptions of the mission.

We collected daily data from an additional 7 SAT dive teams (for a total of 20 teams, with 54 divers from 3 organizations) during their 28-day undersea missions. We participated in the HERA C5 mission, gathering data from several crews and submitted our research for Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for the HERA C6 mission. We drafted a potential countermeasure that involves minimal obtrusiveness and received positive feedback from the diving SMEs (subject matter experts). We are working to gain approval for use of the countermeasure with the SAT dive organizations. We also plan to use a contextualized version of the countermeasure during HERA 6.

In addition, we are working on the correlational analyses of archival data we previously collected during the HERA 1 mission, and continuing to advance data coding process/schema for the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) and SAT dive team studies.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI, Alliger GM, Cerasoli CP. "Environmental Events Impact on Crew Performance and Cohesion as Mediated by Resilience." M. Griffin and B. Cham (Co-Chairs), Performing and Enduring in Extreme Work Environments Symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, National Harbor, Maryland, April 4-6, 2019.

Paper from Performing and Enduring in Extreme Work Environments Symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, National Harbor, Maryland, April 4-6, 2019. , Apr-2019

Project Title:  A Multi-faceted Approach to Examine Team Adaptation & Resilience within Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/23/2017  
End Date: 03/12/2020  
Task Last Updated: 08/22/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mathieu, John  Ph.D. The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Maynard, Michael  Ph.D. Safer Healthcare Partners, LLC 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: N/A
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC18K0092 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC18K0092 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Change in period of performance and grant number per J. Garrett/JSC HRP (previous 10/1/2016-9/30/2019, grant NNX16AM17G)--Ed., 7/5/18

Task Description: The success of future long duration exploration missions (LDEM) is likely to be contingent on the crew’s ability to adjust in response to environment demands. There has been recent interest in team adaptation and resilience in the scientific community, but researchers have noted the need to clarify those constructs. We propose a program of research to: a) clarify and better understand these constructs, in particular with how they operate in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments and b) based on that enhanced understanding, develop and test targeted countermeasures designed to boost the adaptability and resilience of LDEM crews.

Work conducted by Maynard and colleagues (2015), supplemented by the team resilience work of Alliger et al. (in press) – all members of our research team – provides a “road map” for the proposed research. We plan to examine the impact of different environmental triggers on team adaptation, incorporating an event taxonomy and categorization schema with which to assess experiences and trigger events. This will allow us to index the types of challenges that LDEM crews will confront. We will test a series of related hypotheses using archival data we collected in prior research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) habitat.

We will then examine antecedents and outcomes of adaptation, gathering data in two analog environments. Finally, based on the theoretical and preliminary empirical work, we will develop a team countermeasure designed to promote constructive team adaptation and team resilience, and test those countermeasures in an analog environment.

References

Maynard, MT, Kennedy, DM, & Sommer, SA. (2015). Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 652-677.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., Sommer, S. A., & Passos, A. M. (2015). Team Cohesion: A theoretical consideration of its reciprocal relationships within the team adaptation nomological network. In: E. Salas, Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, 83-111.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is a need for LDEM crews to adapt and sustain their resilience as a team. Researchers have traditionally examined adaptation and resilience from an individual perspective, but to ensure that Long Duration Exploration Mission (LDEM) crews are ready for the challenges they will face, there is a need to better understand how adaption and resilience operate at the team level. Doing so will allow for the development of validated countermeasures that can be deployed prior to and at appropriate times during a mission, increasing a LDEM crew’s ability to handle the stressors associated with ICE environments and enabling them to adjust when unexpected challenges emerge. It addresses the need to learn more about team adaptation and resilience, as well as the need to develop and test potential countermeasures.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: We have developed research protocols and measurement tools for conducting studies in two analog environments, the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) and NASA’s HERA environment, as well as for one field environment, Deep Sea Saturation Dive (SAT) teams. The contextualized surveys developed for each environment are designed to collect data about key adaptation factors including, for example, trigger events, challenges encountered, adaptation responses, performance data as well as overall perceptions of the mission.

We gathered weekly data from a HI-SEAS crew over an 8-month long mission. We also collected daily data from 13 SAT dive teams during their 28-day undersea missions. We have received IRB (Institutional Review Board) approval to participate in the HERA C5 mission in early 2019.

In addition, we have begun analyzing archival data we previously collected during the HERA 1 mission, commenced coding the data collected in the HI-SEAS and SAT dive team studies, and started initial work on identifying promising countermeasures.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Maynard MT, Mathieu JE, Tannenbaum SI. "Adapting to uncertainty: An examination of teams in extreme environments." Presented at the 78th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL, August 10-14, 2018.

78th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL, August 10-14, 2018. , Aug-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Tannenbaum SI, Maynard MT, Mathieu JE, Bedwell WL. "Challenges, team adaptation, and resilience in extreme environments." Poster presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lacerenza CN, Marlow SL, Tannenbaum SI, Salas E. "Team development interventions: Evidence-based approaches for improving teamwork." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):517-31. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000295 ; PubMed PMID: 29792465 , May-2018
Project Title:  A Multi-faceted Approach to Examine Team Adaptation & Resilience within Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 10/23/2017  
End Date: 03/12/2020  
Task Last Updated: 12/14/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Tannenbaum, Scott  Ph.D. / The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Address:  727 Waldens Pond Road 
 
Albany , NY 12203-6006 
Email: scott.tannenbaum@groupoe.com 
Phone: 518-456-7738  
Congressional District: 20 
Web:  
Organization Type: INDUSTRY 
Organization Name: The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Mathieu, John  Ph.D. The Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Inc. 
Maynard, Michael  Ph.D. Safer Healthcare Partners, LLC 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC18K0092 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC18K0092 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Change in period of performance and grant number per J. Garrett/JSC HRP (previous 10/1/2016-9/30/2019, grant NNX16AM17G)--Ed., 7/5/18

Task Description: The success of future long duration exploration missions (LDEM) is likely to be contingent on the crew’s ability to adjust in response to environment demands. There has been recent interest in team adaptation and resilience in the scientific community, but researchers have noted the need to clarify those constructs. We propose a program of research to: a) clarify and better understand these constructs, in particular with how they operate in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments and b) based on that enhanced understanding, develop and test targeted countermeasures designed to boost the adaptability and resilience of LDEM crews.

Work conducted by Maynard and colleagues (2015), supplemented by the team resilience work of Alliger et al. (in press) – all members of our research team – provides a “road map” for the proposed research. We will first examine the impact of different environmental triggers on team adaptation, incorporating an event taxonomy and categorization schema with which to assess experiences and trigger events. This will allow us to index the types of challenges that LDEM crews will confront. We will test a series of related hypotheses using archival data we collected in prior research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) habitat.

We will then examine antecedents and outcomes of adaptation, gathering data in two analog environments. Finally, based on the theoretical and preliminary empirical work, we will develop team countermeasures designed to promote constructive team adaptation and team resilience, and during Years 2 and 3, test those countermeasures in analog environments.

One of our test environments will be a field setting that involves teams that work in ICE conditions in the oil and gas industry. The second test environment will be a NASA analog, such as NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) or HERA, which will provide the opportunity to test the usability of the countermeasures.

References

Maynard, MT, Kennedy, DM, & Sommer, SA. (2015). Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 652-677.

Maynard, M. T., Kennedy, D. M., Sommer, S. A., & Passos, A. M. (2015). Team Cohesion: A theoretical consideration of its reciprocal relationships within the team adaptation nomological network. In E. Salas, Research on Managing Groups and Teams, 17, 83-111.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: New project for FY2018.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/19/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018