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Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 06/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 09/17/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Tomilovskaya, Elena  Ph.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow 
Rosenberg, Marissa  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center JSC Neuroscience Laboratory 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
Wood, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center/Neuroscience Laboratory 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: September 2021 report: None. August 2020 report: Inessa Kozlovskaya.passed this past February and was replaced with Elena Tomilovskaya as the Russian Co-Principal Investigator (PI). Jacob Bloomberg retired in September 2019 and was replaced with Scott Wood as Co-Investigator. Michael Stenger moved to a new science management position within Human Research Program (HRP) and was replaced by Stuart Lee as the lead of the Specific Aim 3 compression garment evaluation.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2022 per HHC (Ed., 6/28/2022)

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (<2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data was acquired at several timepoints on landing day to characterize recovery to preflight baseline levels. Clearly measurable performance parameters such as the ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long-duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long-duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Vestibular and sensorimotor alterations represent one of the greatest clinical challenges impacting crew activities following G-transitions. In order to capture the initial decrements in performance, we successfully developed a portable set of measures and recording instrumentation that was compatible with relatively harsh environments. The fall risks on Earth associated with vestibular and sensorimotor impairment are underestimated largely due to the lack of testing available to the general population. The National Institutes of Health has been actively funding efforts to develop a Toolbox of field measures for the vestibular, vision, and motor sensory domains. We propose that the portable measures validated during our Field Tests will be beneficial for the broader characterization of how vestibular and sensorimotor deficits contribute to fall risks on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: During this reporting period, our Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) colleagues received permission to resume their portion of the Field Test (FT) to achieve the originally agreed upon subject count of 30. During this reporting period, IBMP collected data on the final three Russian subjects during 62S (October 2020 landing) and 63S (April 2021 landing). As previously reported, eighteen subjects (7 Russian, 11 USOS ) had completed the reduced FT (pilot) protocol between Expeditions 36 and 43 (September 2013 - June 2015 landings). The full protocol included 19 Russian and 11 USOS subjects between Expeditions 44 and 63 (September 2015 – April 2021). Of the full FT, two (1 Russian, 1 USOS) were one-year mission crewmembers and one (USOS) was on orbit for 9 mo. It is also important to note that 9 of the Russian FT subjects had previously participated in either the pilot (n=6) or full (n=3) protocols. In summary, the NASA and Russian teams collected data on a total of 39 different United States Orbital Segment (USOS) and Russian crewmembers in both the pilot and full Field Test, with 9 Russian crewmembers being tested twice (total of 48 subject assignments).

The special issue of the Russian journal Aerospace and Environmental Medicine honoring the Co-Principal Investigator of the FT, our long-time colleague Dr. Inessa Kozlovskaya, was published in December 2020. As previously reported, Reschke et al. summarized the FT methodology in this issue, which provided the basis for the sensorimotor portion of the Standard Measures to be conducted throughout the remainder of the International Space Station (ISS) program. As an example of the functional deficits observed, Reschke et al. (Aerosp Environ Med, 2020--see Bibliography section) presented results for the seat egress and walking task that involved turning 180 degrees and stepping over obstacles. This task referred to as the Walk and Turn with Obstacle was subsequently added to the Standard Measures protocol.

Another manuscript in preparation is focused on the time course of recovery using data from both the pilot and full FT protocols. Based on this combined data set, 100% of crewmembers experienced some level of motion sickness symptoms upon landing. However, the incidence and severity of motion sickness is dramatically reduced within the first 24 hr. Both pilot and full FT included sit-to-stand, prone-to-stand (also referred to as recovery from fall), and the tandem walk with eyes open and closed. The time course of recovery varied by task difficulty; however, performance improved across all tasks within the first 24 hrs.

One of the general findings of FT is that the multiple test sessions on landing day seem to enhance readaptation. An additional manuscript is in preparation to capture this finding by comparing the results of FT participants and controls not participating in FT on the required medical test using Computerized Dynamic Posturography. This test is typically performed immediately following return to Johnson Space Center (JSC) on all crewmembers. While there is a high degree of variability in both groups, the FT participants on average performed better on the posture tests following the direct return. This provides evidence that the sensorimotor recovery may be enhanced with incrementally increasing rehabilitation tasks similar to what was used in FT.

The results from FT have been included in several briefings on deconditioned crewmembers this past year, including to the Commercial Crew Program, as well as the Orion and Human Landing System management teams. The FT data was also a critical part of the evidence base for the December 2020 Human System Risk Board (HSRB) review of the risk of altered sensorimotor/vestibular function impacting critical mission tasks (Sensorimotor Risk). During the upcoming year, the two manuscripts mentioned above will be submitted following the inclusion of the final subjects. In addition, a comprehensive manuscript including all of the FT tasks will be submitted with our Russian colleagues. This manuscript will also utilize the repeated tests (n=9) to examine the effect of previous flight experience.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rosenberg MJF, Kozlovskaya IB, Tomilovskaya ES, Kofman IS, Kitov V, Rukavishnikov I, Mercaldo N, Clément G, Wood SJ, Reschke MF. "Results of the Field Test and transitioning to Sensorimotor Standard Measures." 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Reschke MF, Kozlovskaya IB, Lysova N, Kitov V, Rukavishnikov I, Kofman IS, Tomilovskaya ES, Rosenberg MJ, Osetsky N, Fomina E, Grishin A, Wood SJ. "Joint Russian-USA Field Test: Implications for deconditioned crew following long duration spaceflight." Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2020;54(6):94-100. Russian. https://doi.org/10.21687/0233-528X-2020-54-6-94-100 , Dec-2020
Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 06/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 08/16/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Tomilovskaya, Elena  Ph.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow 
Rosenberg, Marissa  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center JSC Neuroscience Laboratory 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
Wood, Scott  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center/Neuroscience Laboratory 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: August 2020 report: Inessa Kozlovskaya.passed this past February and was replaced with Elena Tomilovskaya as the Russian Co-Principal Investigator (PI). Jacob Bloomberg retired in September 2019 and was replaced with Scott Wood as Co-Investigator. Michael Stenger moved to a new science management position within Human Research Program (HRP) and was replaced by Stuart Lee as the lead of the Specific Aim 3 compression garment evaluation.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2022 per HHC (Ed., 6/28/2022)

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data was acquired at several timepoints on landing day to characterize recovery to preflight baseline levels. Clearly measurable performance parameters such as the ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long-duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long-duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Vestibular and sensorimotor alterations represent one of the greatest clinical challenges impacting crew activities following G-transitions. In order to capture the initial decrements in performance, we successfully developed a portable set of measures and recording instrumentation that was compatible with relatively harsh environments. The fall risks on Earth associated with vestibular and sensorimotor impairment are underestimated largely due to the lack of testing available to the general population. The National Institutes of Health has been actively funding efforts to develop a Toolbox of field measures for the vestibular, vision, and motor sensory domains. We propose that the portable measures validated during our Field Tests will be beneficial for the broader characterization of how vestibular and sensorimotor deficits contribute to fall risks on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: Following the transition of landing site data collection to the Standard Measures project, the Field Test was extended to complete data collection and analysis with the Russian cosmonauts. During this reporting period, the final three Russian subjects completed the Field Test (FT) following the 58S, 59S, and 61S Soyuz landings. Together the NASA and Russian teams collected data on a total of 38 different United States Orbital Segment (USOS) and Russian crewmembers in both the pilot and full Field Test, with 7 Russian crewmembers being tested twice (total of 45 tests). Eighteen subjects (7 Russian, 11 USOS) completed the reduced FT (pilot) protocol and 27 subjects (16 Russian and 11 USOS) participated in the full FT. Of the full FT, two (1 Russian, 1 USOS) were one-year mission crewmembers and one (USOS) was on orbit for 9 mo.

Lee et al. (Front Physiol, 2020--see Bibliography section) published the results of the portion of FT designed to demonstrate the ability of a lower body gradient compression garment (GCG) to protect against an excessive increase in heart rate and a decrease in blood pressure during standing after long-duration spaceflight. In this manuscript, they presented the results of the eleven USOS astronauts (9 M, 2 F) that completed the full FT protocol. The stand test protocol consisted of 2 min of prone rest followed by 3.5 min of standing. Subjects completed one familiarization session and two preflight data collection sessions in standard clothing. Three tests on landing day while wearing GCG were conducted 1-4 h (R+0A), ~12 h (R+0B), and ~28 h after landing (R+0C). All astronauts completed the stand test preflight. Three astronauts were unable to attempt the stand test at R+0A, and one of these was unable to start the test at R+0B. One astronaut was unable to complete 3.5 min of standing at R+0B (test ended at 3.3 min). A review of the individual's blood pressure data revealed no hypotension but the astronaut reported significant motion sickness. Of the astronauts who participated in testing on landing day, the heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to standing (stand-prone) were not different than preflight at any of the postflight sessions. Therefore, wearing the GCG after space flight prevented the tachycardia that normally occurs while standing after space flight without compression garments and protected against a decrease in blood pressure during a short stand test.

A special issue of the Russian journal Aerospace and Environmental Medicine (Aviakosmicheskaia i ekologicheskaia meditsina) is pending publication to honor the Co-PI of the FT, our long-time colleague Dr. Inessa Kozlovskaya, who passed away in February 2020. In this issue, Reschke et al. (see Bibliography section) summarize the FT methodology, which has provided the basis for the sensorimotor portion of the Standard Measures which will be conducted through the remainder of the International Space Station (ISS) program. As an example of the functional deficits observed, Reschke et al. (Aersop Environ Med, 2020) presented results for 38 FT subjects on the seat egress and walking task that involved turning 180 degrees and stepping over obstacles. Significant increases in the time-to-complete this task on landing day were observed. The differences were greatest for the first trial using the 5 cm obstacle (t(37)= 10.5, p<0.01) but were also highly significant for the 10 cm (t(37)= 8.0, p<0.01) and 15 cm obstacles (t(37)= 7.6, p<0.01). The greater difference for the 5 cm obstacle was likely due to the fact that this was the first trial. This task referred to as the Walk and Turn with Obstacle has recently been added to the Standard Measures protocol.

The completion of the data analysis and publications has been impacted by COVID-19 related delays in receiving the final set of Russian data. This transfer is expected during the upcoming fall (2020). A major focus of the analysis this past year has been on characterizing the time course of recovery of three measures that were included in both pilot and full FT protocols. We anticipate the draft manuscript describing these results to be submitted in the early portion of FY21.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Bloomberg JJ, Tomilovskaya ES, Peters BT, Rosenberg MJ, Clément G, Wood SJ, Kozlovskaya IB. "Countermeasures for vestibular and sensorimotor disturbances as NASA, Russia and other international space flight programs prepare for lengthy missions." 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Reschke MF, Kozlovskaya IB, Lysova N, Kitov V, Rukavishnikov I, Kofman IS, Tomilovskaya ES, Rosenberg MJ, Osetsky N, Fomina E, Grishin A, Wood SJ. "Joint Russian-USA Field Test: Implications for deconditioned crew following long duration spaceflight." Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2020; in press. , Oct-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lee SMC, Ribeiro LC, Laurie SS, Feiveson AH, Kitov VV, Kofman IS, Macias BR, Rosenberg M, Rukavishnikov IV, Tomilovskaya ES, Bloomberg JJ, Kozlovskaya IB, Reschke MF, Stenger MB. "Efficacy of gradient compression garments in the hours after long-duration spaceflight." Front Physiol. 2020 Jul 17;11:784. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00784 ; PMID: 32765292; PMCID: PMC7379894 , Jul-2020
Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 08/16/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Kozlovskya, Inessa  M.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data will be acquired beginning approximately 24 hr following landing and continue until full functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. It is recognized that the level of functional deficit will be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads and immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention for emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This task requires that functional measures of performance be made initially at the landing site of the Soyuz spacecraft. This requirement has resulted in the development of tasks and recording instrumentation that are compatible with relatively harsh environments. Our team has been successful in developing a set of instrumentation that makes measurement of the required tasks possible, ensuring that performance measurements can be accomplished accurately and in a timely fashion.

To ensure that data could be collected on both astronauts and cosmonauts immediately after landing the research has been divided into two investigative efforts: (1) a Pilot Field Test and (2) the full Field Test. The full Field Test will begin with the first U.S. International Space Station one year mission (42S).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: 08/15/2018 Task Progress for Field Test:

Pilot Studies: A total of 18 crewmembers (11 United States Orbital Segment [USOS] and 7 cosmonauts) from eight Expeditions completed the dataset for the Pilot Field Test (PFT) study, which consisted of performing three simple tasks as soon after landing as possible: Sit-to-Stand, Recovery from Fall, and Tandem Heel-to-Toe Walk. Tests were conducted either in the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site or at the Karaganda/Kustanai airport in Kazakhstan (KZ). After demonstrating successful data collections at the landing site, two additional PFT sessions were added to the R+0 postflight schedule: one at the refueling airport in Scotland and the other at the Johnson Space Center Astronaut Crew Quarters. Eight of the 11 USOS astronauts were tested at all three locations on landing day. Additionally, data were collected in the medical tent on all three returning crewmembers for two separate Expeditions, demonstrating that multiple crewmembers can be tested on the same mission at the Soyuz landing site.

Field Test:

The Field Test (FT), being a joint US/Russian study, has faced many logistical challenges. Therefore, a second US FT operator was dispatched to KZ and introduced to all of the stakeholders involved in crew return activities in KZ (in the medical tent) and Norway/Scotland (at the refueling airport), and was trained as a back-up operator to conduct these high profile tasks. Also, the US FT team continued to conduct demonstrations and training sessions for the assigned flight surgeons before each landing so they could assist in the field and other remote locations as needed. Single operator data collection for two USOS crewmembers was completed successfully for the first time in the field and at Prestwick, Scotland, UK.

To date, a total of 17 six-month crewmembers (7 USOS and 10 cosmonauts) have completed the FT. In addition, two One-Year mission crewmembers (one USOS and one cosmonaut) and one 9.5-month crewmember (USOS) have also completed the FT. The FT team continued to consistently demonstrate that it is possible to conduct the entire test (9 tasks) in the tent/airport in KZ and at the refueling station where time is greatly constrained, including: 1) Gaze Nystagmus, 2) Sit-to-Stand, 3) Recovery from Fall, 4) Dysmetria, 5) Eye/Hand Coordination, 6) Force Discrimination, 7) Seat Egress Obstacle, 8) Tandem Heel to Toe Walk, 9) Push Test, and 10) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA is not collected in KZ).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Fisher EA, Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Rosenberg MJ, Gadd NE, Kreutzberg GA, Ribeiro LC, Lee SMC, Bloomberg JJ, Kozlovskaya I, Tomilovskaya E. "Dysmetria: The effect of space flight on hand movements following long duration flights." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Kozlovskaya IB, Kofman IS, Tomilovskaya ES, Rosenberg JF, Bloomberg JJ, Stenger MB, Lee SMC, Laurie SS, Rukavishnikov IV, Fomina EV, Wood SJ, Mulavara AP, Feiveson AH, Fisher EA, Kitov VV, Lysova NYu, Clement G. "Applying results of the field test to risks associated with unassisted emergency egress." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rosenberg MJF, Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Fisher EA, Gadd NE, Lee SMC, Laurie SS, Stenger MB, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara A, Kozlovskaya I, Tomilovskaya. "Field test: Results of quiet stance following long duration spaceflight." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 11/02/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Kozlovskya, Inessa  M.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data will be acquired beginning approximately 24 hr following landing and continue until full functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. It is recognized that the level of functional deficit will be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads and immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention for emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This task requires that functional measures of performance be made initially at the landing site of the Soyuz spacecraft. This requirement has resulted in the development of tasks and recording instrumentation that are compatible with relatively harsh environments. Our team has been successful in developing a set of instrumentation that makes measurement of the required tasks possible, ensuring that performance measurements can be accomplished accurately and in a timely fashion.

To ensure that data could be collected on both astronauts and cosmonauts immediately after landing the research has been divided into two investigative efforts: (1) a Pilot Field Test and (2) the full Field Test. The full Field Test will begin with the first U.S. International Space Station one year mission (42S).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: 9/13/17 Task Progress for Field Test:

Pilot Studies: A total of 18 crewmembers (11 United States Orbital Segment [USOS] and 7 cosmonauts) from eight Expeditions completed the dataset for the Pilot Field Test (PFT) study, which consisted of performing three simple tasks as soon after landing as possible: Sit-to-Stand, Recovery from Fall, and Tandem Heel-to-Toe Walk. Tests were conducted in either the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site, or at the Karaganda/Kustanai airport in Kazakhstan (KZ). After demonstrating successful data collections at the landing site, two additional PFT sessions were added to the R+0 postflight schedule: one at the refueling airport in Scotland and the other at the Johnson Space Center Astronaut Crew Quarters. Eight of the 11 USOS astronauts were tested at all three locations on landing day. Additionally, data were collected in the medical tent on all three returning crewmembers for two separate Expeditions, demonstrating that multiple crewmembers can be tested on the same mission at the Soyuz landing site.

Field Test: The Field Test (FT), being a joint US/Russian study, has been faced with many logistical challenges. Therefore, a second US FT operator was dispatched to KZ and introduced to all of the stakeholders involved in crew return activities in KZ (in the medical tent) and Norway (at the airport), and was trained as a back-up operator to conduct these high profile tasks. Also, the US FT team continued to conduct demonstrations and training sessions for the assigned flight surgeons before each landing so they could assist in the field and other remote locations as needed. Finally, single operator training and certification was completed for several laboratory members in preparation for supporting parallel data collections on 2 USOS crewmembers in the field and remote locations.

The team began investigating new motion capture methods so that “skeleton” videos of crew performance can be created for use in presentations and reports without compromising subject identity, including Microsoft Kinect and machine learning post-video analysis. The Kinect method can also serve as a backup when traditional video is occluded.

To date, a total of eleven 6-month crewmembers (four USOS and seven cosmonauts) have completed the FT. In addition, two One-Year mission crewmembers (one USOS and one cosmonaut) and one 9.5-month crewmember (USOS) have also completed the FT. The FT team has consistently demonstrated that it is possible to conduct the entire test (9 tasks) in the tent/airport in KZ and at the refueling station where time is greatly constrained, including: 1) Gaze Nystagmus, 2) Sit-to-Stand, 3) Recovery from Fall, 4) Dysmetria, 5) Eye/Hand Coordination, 6) Force Discrimination, 7) Seat Egress Obstacle, 8) Tandem Heel to Toe Walk, 9) Push Test, and 10) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA is not collected in KZ).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel R, Kofman I, Jeevarajan J, De Dios Y, Cohen HS, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP. "Using low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation to improve balance function." PLoS One. 2015 Aug 21;10(8):e0136335. eCollection 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136335 ; PubMed PMID: 26295807; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4546608 , Aug-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mulavara AP, Kofman IS, De Dios YE, Miller C, Peters BT, Goel R, Galvan-Garza R, Bloomberg JJ. "Using low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation to improve locomotor stability." Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Aug 24;9:117. eCollection 2015. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2015.00117 ; PubMed PMID: 26347619; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4547107 , Aug-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Reschke MF, Good EF, Clément GR. "Neurovestibular symptoms in astronauts immediately after Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions." OTO Open. 2017 Oct 23;1(4):2473974X17738767. https://doi.org/10.1177/2473974X17738767 , Oct-2017
Books/Book Chapters Harm DL, Reschke M, Wood SJ. "Spatial orientation and motion perception in microgravity." in "Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research. Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology." Ed. R.R. Hoffman, et al. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 912-929. http://www.academia.edu/25549853/Spatial_Orientation_and_Motion_Perception_in_Microgravity , Jan-2015
Books/Book Chapters Reschke MF, Clément G, Thorson SL, Harm DL, Mader TH, Dudley AM, Wood SJ, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP, Gibson CR, Williams DR. "Neurology." in "Space physiology and medicine: From evidence to practice." Ed. A. Nicogossian et al. New York: Springer, 2016. p. 245-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6652-3_9 , Oct-2016
Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 07/26/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Kozlovskya, Inessa  M.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data will be acquired beginning approximately 24 hr following landing and continue until full functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. It is recognized that the level of functional deficit will be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads and immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention for emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This task requires that functional measures of performance be made initially at the landing site of the Soyuz spacecraft. This requirement has resulted in the development of tasks and recording instrumentation that are compatible with relatively harsh environments. Our team has been successful in developing a set of instrumentation that makes measurement of the required tasks possible, ensuring that performance measurements can be accomplished accurately and in a timely fashion.

To ensure that data could be collected on both astronauts and cosmonauts immediately after landing the research has been divided into two investigative efforts: (1) a Pilot Field Test and (2) the full Field Test. The full Field Test will begin with the first U.S. International Space Station one year mission (42S).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: 6/6/16 Task Progress for Field Test:

Pilot Studies: A total of 18 crewmembers (11 United States Orbital Segment [USOS] and 7 cosmonauts) from eight Expeditions completed the dataset for the Pilot Field Test (PFT) study, which consisted of performing three simple tasks as soon after landing as possible: Sit-to-Stand, Recovery from Fall, and Tandem Heel-to-Toe Walk. Tests were conducted in either the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site, or at the Karaganda/Kustanai airport in Kazakhstan (KZ). After demonstrating successful data collections at the landing site, two additional PFT sessions were added to the R+0 postflight schedule: one at the refueling airport in Scotland and the other at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astronaut Crew Quarters. Eight of the 11 USOS astronauts were tested at all three locations on landing day. Additionally, data were collected in the medical tent on all three returning crewmembers for two separate Expeditions, demonstrating that multiple crewmembers can be tested on the same mission at the Soyuz landing site.

Field Test: The Field Test (FT), being a joint US/Russian study, has been faced with many challenges. Newly implemented NASA Information Technology (IT) security regulations caused significant delays in the shipment of the FT hardware to the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, Russia. To prevent loss of data, preflight data were collected on two cosmonauts during their trips to JSC. After considerable effort to comply with IT regulations, the decision was made to obtain temporary IT waivers that would permit the use of NASA computers to collect the postflight data for one cosmonaut only, then bring the NASA computers back and have the Russians purchase the needed computers. All postflight testing was successfully completed on the first cosmonaut, after which, JSC FT personnel helped the Russian FT team purchase compatible computers and set them up at the GCTC in time to support the preflight data collections for the next cosmonaut.

Because the crewmembers are wearing either the gradient compression garment (GCG) or the Kentavr on landing day, there was a concern that these garments might affect crewmember performance on tasks requiring locomotion and balance control. Therefore, a case study was conducted and concluded that neither garment impacts crewmember performance.

To date, a total of three crewmembers (one United States Orbital Segment [USOS] and two cosmonauts) have completed the FT. In addition, two One-Year mission crewmembers (one USOS and one cosmonaut) have also completed the FT. The FT team demonstrated that it was possible to conduct the entire test (9 tasks) in the tent/airport in KZ and at the refueling station where time is greatly constrained, including: 1) Gaze Nystagmus, 2) Sit-to-Stand, 3) Recovery from Fall, 4) Dysmetria, 5) Eye/Hand Coordination, 6) Force Discrimination, 7) Seat Egress Obstacle, 8) Tandem Heel to Toe Walk, 9) Push Test, and 10) Dynamic Visual Acuity.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Kozlovskaya IB. "Sensorimotor results from a Joint NASA and Russian Pilot Field Test." Presented at the 29th Barany Society Meeting 2016, Seoul, Korea, June 5-8, 2016.

29th Barany Society Meeting 2016, Seoul, Korea, June 5-8, 2016. , Jun-2016

Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 10/28/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Kozlovskya, Inessa  M.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data will be acquired beginning approximately 24 hr following landing and continue until full functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. It is recognized that the level of functional deficit will be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads and immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention for emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall, or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This task requires that functional measures of performance be made initially at the landing site of the Soyuz spacecraft. This requirement has resulted in the development of tasks and recording instrumentation that are compatible with relatively harsh environments. Our team has been successful in developing a set of instrumentation that makes measurement of the required tasks possible, ensuring that performance measurements can be accomplished accurately and in a timely fashion.

To ensure that data could be collected on both astronauts and cosmonauts immediately after landing the research has been divided into two investigative efforts: (1) a Pilot Field Test and (2) the full Field Test. The full Field Test will begin with the first U.S. International Space Station (ISS) one year mission (42S).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: Pilot Studies: A total of 10 crewmembers (6 United States On-orbit Segment [USOS] and 4 cosmonauts) from four Expeditions have completed the Pilot Field Test (PFT) study, which consists of performing three simple tasks as soon after landing as possible: Sit-to-Stand, Recovery from Fall, and Tandem Heel to Toe Walk. Tests were conducted in either the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site, or at the Karaganda/Kustanai airport in Kazakhstan. After demonstrating successful data collections at the landing site, two additional PFT sessions were added to the R+0 postflight schedule: one at the refueling airport in Scotland and the other at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astronaut Crew Quarters. Three of the six USOS astronauts have been tested at all three locations on landing day. Additionally, data were collected on all three returning crewmembers for two separate Expeditions, demonstrating that multiple subjects can be tested on the same mission.

Four USOS crewmembers and three cosmonauts have consented to participate in the PFT for future Expeditions.

Field Test: The JSC Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the Field Test protocol on December 5, 2013. Shortly after JSC IRB approval, the Field Test obtained international approvals from the Human Research Multilateral Review Board, JAXA (Japanese Exploration Space Agency), and ESA (European Space Agency). A Test Readiness Review was conducted and approved without actions on July 31, 2014.

The first Field Test data collection/familiarization session was completed in August. Because this crewmember is participating in both the FT and Functional Task Test (FTT) experiments, which have many overlapping tasks, great effort was put into developing an integrated FTT/FT protocol to save crew time. This integrated protocol was tested end-to-end with multiple dry runs conducted to improve efficiency and optimize test flow. The integrated FTT/FT protocol will be implemented for each test session that the FTT and FT experiments have in common: L-180, L-90, L-60, R+1, R+6, and R+30.

The Field Test (FT), being a joint US/Russian study, has been faced with many challenges. While developing hardware, software, and protocols, FT operators were also required to travel to support the PFT, to support multiple trips to Russia to attend Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration meetings, and to meet with our Russian investigators to finalize the hardware, protocol, and testing schedule for the FT. Once the hardware was finalized, multiple sets of hardware were purchased to support testing at the three locations on landing day and to support the testing in Russia.

Because the crewmembers will be wearing either the gradient compression garment (GCG) or the Kentavr on landing day, a case study was initiated to investigate whether or not the GCG and Kentavr affect crewmember performance on tasks requiring locomotion and balance control.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC. "Understanding the effects of long-duration space flight on astronaut functional task performance. " American Astronautical Society - ISS Research and Development Conference, Chicago, IL, June 17-19, 2014.

American Astronautical Society - ISS Research and Development Conference, Chicago, IL, June 17-19, 2014. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140005022.pdf ; accessed 10/30/14. , Jun-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Ballard KL, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Body unloading associated with space flight and bed-rest impacts functional performance." Presented at the 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3172.pdf , Feb-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Brady RA, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wickwire PJ, Wood SJ. "Functional task performance in astronauts and bed rest subjects. " Presented at the 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Cerisano JM, Fisher EA, Tomilovskaya EV, Kozlovskaya IB, Bloomberg JJ. "Postural responses following space flight and ground based analogs." Presented at the XIVth Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, Russia, October 28-30, 2013.

XIVth Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, Russia, October 28-30, 2013. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140001489.pdf ; accessed 10/30/14. , Oct-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kozlovskaya, I, Tomilovskaya E, Rukavishnikov I, Kitov V, Reschke M, Kofman I. "Determination of functional capabilities, the level of physical performance and the state of main physiological body systems in the first hours after the accomplishment of long-term space flight (“Field Test”)." Presented at the 6th International Congress of Medicine in Space and Extreme Environments (ICMS), Berlin, Germany, September 16-19, 2014.

6th International Congress of Medicine in Space and Extreme Environments (ICMS), Berlin, Germany, September 16-19, 2014. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140009931.pdf ; accessed 10/30/14. , Sep-2014

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Kolev OI, Reschke MF. "Internally versus externally mediated triggers in the acquisition of visual targets in the horizontal plane." Behavioral Brain Research. 2014 Jun 1;266:131-6. Epub 2014 Mar 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.003 ; PubMed PMID: 24613978 , Jun-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Reschke MF, Cohen HS, Cerisano JM, Clayton JA, Cromwell R, Danielson RW, Hwang EY, Tingen C, Allen JR, Tomko DL. "Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: neurosensory systems." The Journal of Women’s Health. 2014 Nov;23(11):959-62. Review. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2014.4908 ; PubMed PMID: 25401941 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4236059 (Ed. note: originally reported in August 2014 as "in press as of August 2014.") , Nov-2014
Books/Book Chapters Reschke MF, Wood SJ, Harm DL, Bloomberg JJ, Paloski WH, Schlegel TT, Clement GR. "Chapter 4.9. Neurovestibular/Sensorimotor System." in "Biomedical Results of the Space Shuttle Program." Ed. D. Risin, P. Stepaniak. Houston, Texas : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, [2013]. p. 171-214. NASA/SP-2013-607. ISBN: 9780615866130., Aug-2013
Project Title:  Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field Test) Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/22/2013  
End Date: 10/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 11/08/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Reschke, Millard F Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 NASA Pkwy # ONE, SK272 
Neuroscience Laboratories 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: millard.f.reschke@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7210  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Kozlovskya, Inessa  M.D. Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Cardiovascular:Risk of Cardiovascular Adaptations Contributing to Adverse Mission Performance and Health Outcomes (IRP Rev M)
(2) Sensorimotor:Risk of Altered Sensorimotor/Vestibular Function Impacting Critical Mission Tasks (Revised as of IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) CVD-101:To determine whether long-duration weightlessness induces cardiovascular structural and functional changes and/or oxidative stress & damage (OSaD)/inflammation, that can contribute to development of disease (IRP Rev L)
(3) SM-101:Characterize the effects of short and long-duration weightlessness, with and without deep-space radiation, on postural control and locomotion (gross motor control) after g transitions. Critical mission tasks: Ability to stand upright without falling, ability to walk safely without tripping or stumbling, ability to quickly egress from a vehicle, etc. (IRP Rev L)
(4) SM-104:Evaluate how weightlessness-induced changes in sensorimotor/vestibular function relate to and/or interact with changes in other brain functions (sleep, cognition, attention) (IRP Rev M)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS Postflight studies

Task Description: The Field Test (FT) proposal represents a joint effort between the Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Institute of Biomedical Problems Sensorimotor Laboratory and Cardiovascular Laboratory, Moscow, Russia. The primary goal of this proposal is to determine functional performance in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (< 2 hr) with one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements with an evaluation of NASA’s new compression garment with the Russian traditional Kentavr garment. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, post-flight data will be acquired beginning approximately 24hr following landing and continue until full functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. It is recognized that the level of functional deficit will be most profound during the acquisition of gravity loads and immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention for emergency operations will be greatest. Clearly measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiological data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and variability among crewmembers. Overall, these early functional and related physiological measurements will allow for the establishment of a sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery time constant that has not been previously captured in over 50 years of space flight.

Specific Aims:

1. Quantify functional performance from measurements on long duration crewmembers taken as close in time to landing as possible.

2. Develop a recovery timeline of functional performance on long duration crewmembers.

3. Determine the efficacy of U.S. and Russian compression garments as countermeasures for alleviating orthostatic intolerance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2014.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/02/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014