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Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 09/07/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2022 per A. Beitman/HFBP and NSSC information (Ed., 10/20/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2021 per NSSC (Ed., 4/1/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2021 per NSSC (Ed., 5/21/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2020 per NSSC (Ed., 10/10/19)

NOTE: End date shows 6/30/2019 in NSSC (Ed., 4/2/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/17/2019 per D. Arias/HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: While the primary objectives of this project are to be applied to astronaut crews in LDSE contexts, results from this research may also benefit teams on Earth in similar ICE (Isolated, Confined, and Extreme) conditions. Teams such as those sent to winter-overs in Antarctica or submarine crews that spend months underwater would be analogous environments in which the results of this research may prove useful. In a general sense, our findings could have implications for composing optimal teams that are not in ICE conditions, such as work teams at an organization, teams of students working on a project, teams of scientists, and squadrons of military personnel, to give but a few examples.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear.

In the past year, we continued to make progress on each of our three research aims (as identified in previous task book and annual reports): (1) to develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) to conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) to conduct an initial validation of the model we developed in LDSE analogs.

In addition to the above tasks, we have also worked to incorporate additional data into our models and analyses, in order to establish credibility and robustness of our results. This has included both the incorporation of new data from HERA (Campaign 6), as well as adjusting models originally developed using HERA to also incorporate data from NEK SIRIUS (Nezemnyy Eksperimental’nyy Kompleks / Scientific International Research In a Unique terrestrial Station) analog missions. These steps help ensure that our model is appropriate given the availability of new data.

Progress on Research Aim #1: Our first research aim is to develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts. Over the reporting period, we continued to make incremental developments and refinements on the agent-based model (ABM) we developed of social relationships within crews. We split our model into two parts: one part focusing on positive and negative relationships (task affect and hindrance) between crew members, and the other part focusing on claiming and granting leadership between crew members. Within each of the two parts, we implemented code to model the interaction between different types of ties: interactions between positive and negative relationships, and interactions between relationships claiming leadership and relationships granting leadership.

Progress on Research Aim #2: Our second research aim is to conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition. During the past reporting period, using the new model fit, we began conducting these virtual experiments using computational simulation. In these virtual experiments, we examine how different hypothetical team compositions (team member’s demographics, relationships, task schedules) would perform during LDSE according to our model. Using optimization methods, we have developed a way to select high-performance teams based out of a pool of different potential crew members.

Progress on Research Aim #3: Our third research aim is to conduct an initial validation of the model developed in LDSE analogs. This year, we analyzed results of the validation test of the model conducted in Campaign 5, and began compiling the results for presentation and publication. Our ABM was used to preemptively recommend “best” and “worst” pairings of crew members for the Rover and Phobos tasks in mission. Using surveys gathered over the course of each mission, we were able to evaluate the outcomes of using both “best” and “worst” pairings (the change in social relationships, their satisfaction with each pairing, viability). By performing new statistical analyses, we were able to demonstrate the viability of using our ABM to identify best pairings in advance of a future mission. These results will be presented at the upcoming International Astronautical Congress in October 2021.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, Lungeanu A, Bell ST, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "CREWS: A successful crew composition countermeasure validated in HERA." Presented at 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, DeChurch LA, Morton D, Bell S, Contractor NS. "A Network-Based Method to Recommend Optimal Team Compositions for Space Exploration." Presented at 36th Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), Virtual, April 14-17, 2021.

Abstracts. 36th Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), Virtual, April 14-17, 2021. , Apr-2021

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor N. "Pairing Teams for, and (Re)pairing Teams during Long-Duration Space Exploration." Understanding and Enabling Human Travel to the Moon and Mars. Panel discussion conducted at the 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Virtual, February 8-11, 2021.

2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Virtual, February 8-11, 2021. , Feb-2021

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, Gruest V, Gupta A, DeChurch LA, Bell S, Contractor NS. "Team Performance in Space Crews." Presented at 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021.

Abstracts. 2021 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Virtual, February 1-4, 2021. , Feb-2021

Books/Book Chapters Antone B, Lungeanu A, Bell S, DeChurch L, Contractor N. "Computational modeling of long-distance space exploration: A guide to predictive and prescriptive approaches to the dynamics of team composition." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier, vol. 1." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. CRC Press, 2021. p. 107-130. (eBook Published 9 October 2020.) Book doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440878 , Jan-2021
Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2021  
Task Last Updated: 05/21/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2021 per NSSC (Ed., 4/1/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2021 per NSSC (Ed., 5/21/2020)

NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2020 per NSSC (Ed., 10/10/19)

NOTE: End date shows 6/30/2019 in NSSC (Ed., 4/2/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/17/2019 per D. Arias/HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: While the primary objectives of this project are to be applied to astronaut crews in LDSE contexts, results from this research may also benefit teams on Earth in similar ICE (Isolated, Confined, and Extreme) conditions. Teams such as those sent to winter-overs in Antarctica or submarine crews that spend months underwater would be analogous environments in which the results of this research may prove useful. In a general sense, our findings could have implications for composing optimal teams that are not in ICE conditions, such as work teams at an organization, teams of students working on a project, teams of scientists, and squadrons of military personnel, to give but a few examples.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear.

In year 4, we have made significant progress on our three research aims: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics).

Research Aim #1: Our first research aim is to develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g.,individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts. During year four, we developed an approach to train and validate our model off of empirical data using genetic search algorithms and approximate bayesian computation. This allowed us to test our models based on the observational data collected from the HERA crews, as well as identify new parameters and effects that should be added into our model in order to improve performance. By looking. at the out of sample performance of our model, we were able to confirm which components did and did not result in successful predictions.

Research Aim #2: Our second research aim is to conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions and create a predictive model of team composition. We developed a framework for how to conduct these experiments going forward. In order to design meaningful experiments, we identified a way to explore the effects of possible interventions that would improve crew functioning and performance. We applied the model to examine “What If” scenarios about hypothetical new team compositions, to extrapolate about what would happen in such crews.

Research Aim #3: Our third research aim is to conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). To support this aim, we have been collecting data on trait constructs, sociometric constructs, and team dynamics measures, with many of these constructs and measures being collected over time. In Campaign 5, we began to use the model to implement countermeasures -- the pairing of crew members on different tasks (Rover and Phobos) -- our ABM was used to recommend pairing assignments for these tasks in advance of the start of each mission. We identified a “good” pairing and a “bad” pairing based on our predictions, and alternated between using these pairings on the task in-mission. Using new data collected through these missions, we were able to demonstrate that the “good” pairings identified based on our model helped to improve team functioning.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Burns T, Mikayla M, Bell ST, DeChurch L, Contractor N. "Crew gender composition for moon 2024." M. Marcinkowski & S. Bell (co-chairs). Moon 2024: Translating Research to Practice for Upcoming Artemis Lunar Exploration. Symposium to be presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2020 Virtual Conference, Austin, TX , June 16-30, 2020.

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2020 Virtual Conference, Austin, TX , June 16-30, 2020. Virtual online. , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, DeChurch L, Bell ST, Contractor N. "Repairing teams for the moon." In M. Marcinkowski & S. Bell (co-chairs). Moon 2024: Translating Research to Practice for Upcoming Artemis Lunar Exploration. Symposium to be presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2020 Virtual Conference, Austin, TX , June 16-30, 2020.

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2020 Virtual Conference, Austin, TX , June 16-30, 2020. Virtual online. , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, Lungeanu A, Bell ST, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space (Project Crews): Validation & Countermeasure Development." 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone B, Gruest V, DeChurch LA, Bell S, Contractor NS. "Team Performance in Long Duration Space Missions: SIRIUS ‘19." 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020.

Abstracts. 2020 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 27-30, 2020. , Jan-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Burns T, Bell S, DeChurch L, Contractor N. "Gender- and values-based faultlines as a predictor of crew relations." Space Life Sciences Symposium. 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Washington, DC, October 21-25, 2019.

70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Washington, DC, October 21-25, 2019. , Oct-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Larson L, Wojcik H, Gokhman I, DeChurch L, Bell S, Contractor N. "Team performance in space crews: Houston, we have a teamwork problem." Acta Astronautica. 2019 Aug;161:108-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.04.052 , Aug-2019
Books/Book Chapters Antone B, Lungeanu A, Bell S, DeChurch L, Contractor N. "Computational Modeling of Long-Distance Space Exploration: A Guide to Predictive and Prescriptive Approaches to the Dynamics of Team Composition." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs (Research at the Frontier, Vol. 1)." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs (Research at the Frontier, Vol. 1). eBook Published 9 October 2020. Book doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440878 , Oct-2020
Books/Book Chapters Antone B, Gupta A, Bell S, DeChurch L, Contractor N. "Testing Influence of Network Structure on Team Performance Using STERGM-Based Controls." in "Complex Networks and Their Applications VIII. COMPLEX NETWORKS 2019. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 882." Ed. H. Cherifi, S. Gaito, J. Mendes, E. Moro, L. Rocha. Cham: Springer, 2020. p. 1018-1030. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36683-4_81 , Jan-2020
Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/29/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date shows 6/30/2019 in NSSC (Ed., 4/2/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/17/2019 per D. Arias/HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: While the primary objectives of this project are to be applied to astronaut crews in LDSE contexts, results from this research may also benefit teams on Earth in similar ICE (Isolated, Confined, and Extreme) conditions. Teams such as those sent to winter-overs in Antarctica or submarine crews that spend months underwater would be analogous environments in which the results of this research may prove useful. In a general sense, our findings could have implications for composing optimal teams that are not in ICE conditions, such as work teams at an organization, teams of students working on a project, and squadrons of military personnel, to give but a few examples.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear.

This past year, we have made significant progress on our three research aims: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics).

Research Aim #1: Our first research aim is to develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts. This year we developed a functional version of the model based on theories of team composition, team functioning, and social networks. We used data from Campaign 3 to validate the model. We also developed a prototype of a decision aid dashboard (TEAMSTAR) that runs the ABM (agent-based model) in the background and could be used by NASA personnel to make informed decisions about crew composition.

Research Aim #2: Our second research aim is to conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition. This year we began testing the model for its fit with the positive-affect, negative-affect, information-sharing, and coordination networks.

Research Aim #3: Our third research aim is to conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). To support this aim, we have been collecting data on trait constructs, sociometric constructs, and team dynamics measures, with many of these constructs and measures being collected over time. As part of this effort, we developed and administered a team task batter to track team performance on multiple dimensions over time.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Gomez-Zara D, Larson LE, Jones BR, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Leadership and followership emergence in NASA space crews." Paper presented at the WebScience Summer School 2017, Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 1-8, 2017.

WebScience Summer School 2017, Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 1-8, 2017. , Jul-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Larson LE, Gomez-Zara D, Jones BR, DeChurch LA, Contractor N. "Social identity, social identification, and intergroup leadership." In: Brown, Tara (chair), Dynamics at the boundaries is what matters. Symposium presented at Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Annual Meeting, Saint Louis, MO, July 17-22, 2017.

Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Annual Meeting, Saint Louis, MO, July 17-22, 2017. , Jul-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bell ST, Barrick M, Zapata C, Ryann A, Schneider B. "New directions in personality research – Where do we go now?" In: K. Ostermeier & P. Sigdyal (Co-Chairs). Panel presented the 2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017.

2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017. , Aug-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Niler A, Gibson ZM, DeChurch, LA. "The social forces behind leadership network formation in multiteam systems." Paper presented at the 2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-14, 2017.

2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017. , Aug-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Larson LE, Jones BR, DeChurch LA. "Language, leadership, and identity construction in multiteam systems." Paper presented at 2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017.

2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017. , Aug-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Schecter A, Mell J. "The antecedents and implications of information sharing processes in multiteam systems." Paper presented at the 2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017.

2017 Academy of Management Conference, Atlanta, GA, August 10-13, 2017. , Aug-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Gokhman I, Larson L, DeChurch L, Bell S, Contractor N. "Tracking crew performance over time." Poster presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor N, DeChurch L, Antone W, Twyman M, Gibson Z, Sawant, A, Gado H, Bell S. "Teamstar: A tool for evaluating and mitigating space team risk." Poster presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Burns T, Antone W, Weiss J, Larson L, Bell S, DeChurch L. "Identity in isolation: How teams bond or break." Poster presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018..

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone W, Lungeanu A, Gibson Z, DeChurch L, Bell S, Contractor N. "Team dynamics: Using simulation as a tool to develop theory." Poster presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Outland N, Brown SG, Colaneri T, Vasquez M, Weiss J, Wocjik H, Bell S. "The relationship between team composition and team effectiveness moderated by LDSE-relevant context features." Presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Bell ST, Brown SG, Colaneri A, Outland N. "Team composition and the ABCs of teamwork." American Psychologist. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):349-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000305 ; PubMed PMID: 29792453 , May-2018
Significant Media Coverage Winsborough D. "In first person: Suzanne Bell. Predicting team success in outer space (Interview of CoI Suzanne Bell by Dave Winsborough)." People + Strategy. 2018 Spring;41(2):62-4. http://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/HRPS/hrps_41_2_2018/index.php#/64 ; accessed 6/7/18., Mar-2018
Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 05/17/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/25/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Georgia Tech Research Corporation 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 5/17/2019 per D. Arias/HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: While the primary objectives of this project are to be applied to astronaut crews in LDSE contexts, results from this research may also benefit teams on Earth in similar ICE (Isolated, Confined, and Extreme) conditions. Teams such as those sent to winter-overs in Antarctica or submarine crews that spend months underwater would be analogous environments in which the results of this research may prove useful. In a general sense, our findings could have implications for composing optimal teams that are not in ICE conditions, such as work teams at an organization, teams of students working on a project, and squadrons of military personnel, to give but a few examples.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear.

In year 2 of a 3 year programmatic effort, we have made significant progress on our three research aims: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics).

Research Aim #1: Our first research aim is to develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts. This year we developed a first functional version of the model based on theories of team composition, team functioning, and social networks.

Research Aim #2: Our second research aim is to conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition. This year we began testing the model for its fit with the positive-affect, negative-affect, information-sharing, and coordination networks.

Research Aim #3: Our third research aim is to conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). To support this aim, we have been collecting data on trait constructs, sociometric constructs, and team dynamics measures, with many of these constructs and measures being collected over time. For the HERA mission, there were three main data collection phases: before simulation, during simulation, and at the end of simulation.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Schecter A, Sun Y, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "The semantic networks that underpin group interaction." 2016 Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Annual Meeting, Helsinki, Finland, July 14-16, 2016.

2016 Interdisciplinary Network for Group Research Annual Meeting, Helsinki, Finland, July 14-16, 2016. , Jul-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ng J, Antone B, Gibson Z, Bell S, DeChurch LA, Contractor N. "Crew recommender for effective work in space: CREWS." Presented at 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017.

32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Larson L, Gómez-Zará D, Jones BR, Contractor N, Johnson J. "Leadership Emergence in Space Multiteam Systems." Team, Training, and Performance Metrics. Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor NS, Gibson Z, Antone W, Ng J, DeChurch LA, Bell ST. "Composing effective space crews: Predicting crew camaraderie (CREWS)." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor NS, Gokhman IA, Larson LE, Bell ST, DeChurch LA. "Leadership networks in space crews." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor NS, Antone W, Gibson Z, Ng J, DeChurch LA, Bell ST. "Building extreme teams: Simulating team composition effects in isolated and confined environments." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

Poster presented at the NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Antone W, Contractor NS, Bell ST, DeChurch LA. "Faulty analysis: Analyzing the validity of different faultline measurement algorithms for long-duration space exploration." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Weiss JA, Outland NB, Bell ST, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Interpersonal compatibility in HERA 2016." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Outland NB, Bell ST, Contractor NS, DeChurch LA, Weiss JA. "Determinants of team viability over time: An ERGM analysis." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Brown SG, Vazquez M, Bell ST. "Virtual teams “in the wild” considering individual and contextual influences." Team Composition and Performance at Different Levels of Virtuality: A Meta-analysis. In N. Savage (Chair). Symposium presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017.

32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bell ST. "More than Just Average: Novel Approaches to Measurement in Teams." Panel discussion at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017.

32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Vessey WB, Bell ST. "Industrial and Organizational Psychologists and Space Related Research." Community of interest at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017.

32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017. , Apr-2017

Awards Bell S. (Suzanne Bell) "Scientist of the Month, Association for Women in Science, Chicago, May 2016.." May-2016
Awards Bell S. (Suzanne Bell) "Named as one of 2016’s Top 10 Chicago Women in Science by Make it Better Magazine, January 2017." Jan-2017
Significant Media Coverage Bell ST. "Teamwork in and out of this world. Keynote address at the 103rd undergraduate commencement for Olivet Nazarene University. Bourbonnais, IL, May 2017." Olivet Nazarente University website, May 2017. ( https://portal.stretchinternet.com/olivetadmin/portal.htm?eventId=274749&streamType=video ; minute 11). With additional press coverage in the Chicago Tribune, the Patch, The Daily Journal etc. , May-2017
Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 07/14/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Georgia Tech Research Corporation 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: While the primary objectives of this project are to be applied to astronaut crews in LDSE contexts, results from this research may also benefit teams on Earth in similar ICE (Isolated, Confined, and Extreme) conditions. Teams such as those sent to winter-overs in Antarctica or submarine crews that spend months underwater would be analogous environments in which the results of this research may prove useful. In a general sense, our findings could have implications for composing optimal teams that are not in ICE conditions, such as work teams at an organization, teams of students working on a project, and squadrons of military personnel, to give but a few examples.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: In the first year of the CREWS project we developed a refined conceptual framework focused on teaming episodes in which we link team member attributes to the development of affective, behavioral, and cognitive ties. We made substantial progress in collecting the evidence that will provide the empirical basis for the Agent Based Model (ABM) including: data collection in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and research labs at Georgia Tech and Northwestern University, and the creation of an extensive database of the team composition literature based on a meta-analytic review. We have also created the initial architecture of the ABM that we will continue to refine as we analyze data from the broad scale data collection efforts.

In order to effectively address our research questions and ultimately build a predictive model of team composition, we first developed a refined conceptual model. This model incorporates the dynamic nature of LDSE, accounts for how individual differences may affect team functioning over an extended length, and allows for the important role of relational ties between team members (e.g., failures in social integration such as subgrouping and isolation) in mission success.

Our conceptual model focuses on the recursive developmental trajectory of a teaming episode and the emergence of teaming capital. We define a teaming episode as a period of interaction between two or more members in which there is collaboration towards a common goal. Examples of teaming episodes include working to repair a broken robot, preparing for an EVA (extravehicular activity), and even social activities, such as gathering around the table for lunch. We are specifically concerned with how relational ties develop overtime in these teaming episodes; examples include positive affective ties, negative affective ties, informational ties, and behavioral ties. The positive and negative affective ties will help to determine to what extent a team is socially integrated or if there are subgrouping or isolation risks for a particular composition. Informational and behavioral ties will help to determine if teams are establishing effective processes to be successful in LDSE missions. Together the team member attributes and relations form the crew’s teaming capital. Teaming capital is the team member knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) and relational (e.g., positive and negative) ties between team members from which team members can draw for effective functioning and performance.

The first six months of our grant included extensive preparation for data collection in the 2016 HERA campaign (Campaign 3). We completed data collection on mission 1 (C3M1) and are currently collecting data on the second mission of the 2016 HERA campaign (C3M2). During the HERA campaigns we administered two unique and proprietary measures, in the form of games in order to test team performance. The first game, Project Red Design, asked HERA participants to collaborate with students at Georgia Tech to build a well on Mars. The second game, Project Red Relay, had the same group of participants attempt to route messages to each other in the most efficient way possible. Relationships established in Project Red Design would help complete the tasks in Project Red Relay.

In addition to collecting data in HERA, we are conducting a meta-analysis of the extant team composition literature coded for fidelity and contextual moderators related to LDSE. We are using this meta-analysis to help identify key composition variables and configuration of variables that affect team processes, emergent states, and performance. Along with HERA data, the meta-analytic effects will help to guide the rules of the ABM. During the first year, we made substantial progress on the meta-analysis and have completed extensive literature searches, coded 12,648 dependent effect sizes from 517 sources, and prepared the data sets for analysis.

Our initial ABM was focused on how crew members (e.g., agents) operate within the teaming episodes model, specifically the extent to which individual difference predict the relational ties that develop between team members. The relational ties form patterns between crew members that, in conjunction with the individual differences, contribute to the effectiveness of teaming episodes. A LDSE mission is depicted as a series of teaming episodes. A mission can be “played out”; success across teaming episodes defines effective team composition.

We continued to develop this ABM to focus on the effective team composition of HERA participants, using information from the HERA playbook to indicate the tasks the crew is engaged in, as well as the directed and valued links between them. This model will continue to be developed as we include HERA data and effects from the meta-analysis. We will also add interactive relations, both between crew member (e.g., agent; referred to as turtles in the ABM program used) attributes and between crew member attributes and contextual features (e.g., task switching).

Data collection for HERA 2016 and the analyses for the meta-analysis are still underway, but we did uncover some preliminary results by conducting simulations with the ABM. Moving forward, we will conduct analyses on HERA, complete our analyses for the meta-analysis, expand the empirical basis of the ABM (e.g., text mine oral histories), and refine our ABM. Our more refined agent-based model will include how team member attributes interact with one another as well as how team member attributes interact with the context.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Jones BR, Larson LE, DeChurch LA. "We and they: Pronouns & individuals’ psychological representations of groups." The many “I”s of a team: Person-centric perspectives on teamwork--Symposium accepted at the 31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016. , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Bell ST, Contractor NS, Fiore SM, Kozlowsk, SWJ, Salas E, Tannenbaum SI. "Organizing that’s out of this world!" Ignite and Panel Discussion at the 31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016. , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Contractor NS, Bell S, DeChurch LA, Brown S, Hernandez I, Forbush E, Jones BR. "CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space." Poster presented at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Significant Media Coverage Morris A. "Press Release titled, 'Students Use NetLogo to Plan Mars Mission, Model New Societies.' " Northwestern University McCormick School of Engineering News, June 17, 2015., Jun-2015
Significant Media Coverage Bell ST. (interview of Suzanne Bell) "Interview titled 'Putting together a team to travel to Mars.' " Interview on Morning Shift, Chicago Public Radio NPR, September 29, 2015., Sep-2015
Significant Media Coverage Arruza E. (Interview of Suzanne Bell) "Interview titled 'Mission Impossible? 'The Martian' Aims for Realism in Outer Space.' " WTTW Television Chicago broadcast, October 5, 2015. http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2015/10/05/mission-impossible-martian-aims-realism-outer-space , Oct-2015
Significant Media Coverage Bell ST. "Keynote address titled 'Teamwork in and out of this world.' " Keynote address at the 103rd undergraduate commencement for Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, IL, May 7, 2016. , May-2016
Significant Media Coverage Mathews KC. "Cover story about Suzanne Bell, titled 'Psychologist helps NASA build teams for mission to Mars.' " Association for Women in Science May Scientist of the Month Web Article, May 2016., May-2016
Project Title:  CREWS: Crew Recommender for Effective Work in Space Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/11/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Industrial Engineering & Management Sciences 
2145 Sheridan Rd, TECH C210 
Evanston , IL 60208-0834 
Email: ncontractor@gmail.com 
Phone: 217-390-6270  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. DePaul University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Georgia Tech Research Corporation 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM32G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM32G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Team composition, the configuration of member attributes and their relationships, is a critical enabling feature of fostering effective teamwork and likely to play an important role in the effectiveness of future long-duration space exploration (LDSE). Limited research on team composition in environments analogous to LDSE exists, and currently how team composition can be used to optimize crew functioning and performance is unclear. Our research aims to: (1) identify the effects of team composition on team functioning in LDSE and the critical factors of team composition driving this effect, (2) identify particular patterns of this effect with different team compositions, (3) identify methods for composing teams for LDSE, (4) develop a predictive team composition model for use in composing teams and identify potential issues with already composed teams, and (5) provide recommendations for composing teams for LDSE. To address these critical aims, we propose a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (1) develop an agent-based model of team composition for LDSE based on empirical data linking key model inputs (e.g., individual difference variables, network relational factors, task characteristics) to team functioning (e.g., social integration, team processes, team cohesion, team conflict) in LDSE-relevant contexts; (2) conduct virtual experiments using characteristics and relationships identified in Phase I to identify the team functioning patterns that arise under different member compositions, and create a predictive model of team composition; and (3) conduct an initial validation of the model developed in Phase 2 in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analogue environments using specific manipulations of key factors (e.g., compositions; situational characteristics). Research products critical to closing Team Gap 8 will be developed including a predictive model of team composition in LDSE, evidence in support of the model, and a mockup of a proposed interface to assist in the staffing and management of LDSE crew and mission teams.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

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 None in FY 2015