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Project Title:  Time Course of Spaceflight-Induced Adaptations in Bone Morphology, Bone Strength and Muscle Quality Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 02/17/2019  
End Date: 06/16/2022  
Task Last Updated: 04/30/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bouxsein, Mary  Ph.D. / Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Address:  Department of Orthopedic Surgery 
330 Brookline Ave, RN115 
Boston , MA 02215-5400 
Email: mbouxsei@bidmc.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-667-4594  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sibonga, Jean  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC19K0567 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Stenger, Michael  
Center Contact: 281-483-1311 
michael.b.stenger@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC19K0567 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bone Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev M)
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(2) M24:Characterize the time course of changes in muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and function during long duration space flight (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo02:What is the incidence & prevalence of early onset osteoporosis or fragility fractures due to exposure to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 6/16/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/21/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 6/16/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/24/20)

Task Description: The rate and extent of musculoskeletal changes during long-duration spaceflight remain uncertain. In particular, a critical question is whether bone mass and bone strength declines continue at the same rate as seen during the first 6 months of spaceflight or whether the body will adapt to its new environment, and bone loss will slow or stop during longer duration exposure to microgravity. To address this key gap in knowledge, we propose to conduct 3D computed tomography (CT) scans prior to launch and after landing in astronauts participating in the One-Year Mission Project. Using CT-based finite element analysis (CT-FEA), prior work using older imaging technology in 16 astronauts found average declines in femoral and vertebral bone strength of 1.1 to 2.6% per month during 4 to 6 month International Space Station (ISS) missions, though some astronauts experienced much higher losses. The declines in estimated bone strength exceeded the declines in bone mass as assessed by 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Moreover, the declines in strength were not predicted by the DXA-based bone mass measures, indicating the need to use 3D CT measures to accurately assess bone changes. Thus, we propose to employ state-of-the-art CT imaging to assess spaceflight-induced changes in cortical and trabecular bone density and morphology, along with changes in femoral and vertebral bone strength from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CT-FEA. In addition, to assess the risk of fracture, in secondary analyses, we will compare the bone strength values to the estimated loads applied to the skeleton during flight and on the ground using validated, subject-specific multibody musculoskeletal models. Finally, we will assess changes in muscle quality via pre- and post-flight analysis of fatty infiltration of the trunk and lower extremity musculature from the same CT scans. In addition, we will perform in vivo, non-invasive electrical impedance myography pre- and post-flight to supplement function assessments of muscle being conducted as part of the standard measures in the integrated One-Year Mission Project. In addition, to understand astronaut variability in adaptation to spaceflight, we will relate the muscle, bone structure, and bone strength measurements to pre- and post-flight serum indices of bone and muscle metabolism, as well as dietary patterns and physical activity logs while on station. Altogether, by examining bone and muscle changes following 2, 6, and 12 months of spaceflight, this work should provide critical and novel information regarding the temporal pattern of musculoskeletal changes during spaceflight, including their impact on maintenance of human health and performance and will inform the design of future long-duration deep space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Improved understanding of the time course of musculoskeletal changes in spaceflight will provide new insights for how to prevent and treat disuse-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: During this initial phase, we have developed our study protocol, submitted and received approval for human subjects research through the Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board (IRB). In addition, we have been working with other investigators in the CIPHER (Complement of Integrated Protocols for Human Exploration Research) project to coordinate data collection and data sharing to make the experiment as efficient as possible, thereby minimizing astronaut burden as much as possible while retaining the optimal scientific return.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/14/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2021
Project Title:  Time Course of Spaceflight-Induced Adaptations in Bone Morphology, Bone Strength and Muscle Quality Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 02/17/2019  
End Date: 06/16/2021  
Task Last Updated: 08/12/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bouxsein, Mary  Ph.D. / Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Address:  Department of Orthopedic Surgery 
330 Brookline Ave, RN115 
Boston , MA 02215-5400 
Email: mbouxsei@bidmc.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-667-4594  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sibonga, Jean  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC19K0567 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC19K0567 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bone Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev M)
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(2) M24:Characterize the time course of changes in muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and function during long duration space flight (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo02:What is the incidence & prevalence of early onset osteoporosis or fragility fractures due to exposure to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 6/16/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/24/20)

Task Description: The rate and extent of musculoskeletal changes during long-duration spaceflight remain uncertain. In particular, a critical question is whether bone mass and bone strength declines continue at the same rate as seen during the first 6 months of spaceflight or whether the body will adapt to its new environment, and bone loss will slow or stop during longer duration exposure to microgravity. To address this key gap in knowledge, we propose to conduct 3D computed tomography (CT) scans prior to launch and after landing in astronauts participating in the One-Year Mission Project. Using CT-based finite element analysis (CT-FEA), prior work using older imaging technology in 16 astronauts found average declines in femoral and vertebral bone strength of 1.1 to 2.6% per month during 4 to 6 month International Space Station (ISS) missions, though some astronauts experienced much higher losses. The declines in estimated bone strength exceeded the declines in bone mass as assessed by 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Moreover, the declines in strength were not predicted by the DXA-based bone mass measures, indicating the need to use 3D CT measures to accurately assess bone changes. Thus, we propose to employ state-of-the-art CT imaging to assess spaceflight-induced changes in cortical and trabecular bone density and morphology, along with changes in femoral and vertebral bone strength from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CT-FEA. In addition, to assess the risk of fracture, in secondary analyses, we will compare the bone strength values to the estimated loads applied to the skeleton during flight and on the ground using validated, subject-specific multibody musculoskeletal models. Finally, we will assess changes in muscle quality via pre- and post-flight analysis of fatty infiltration of the trunk and lower extremity musculature from the same CT scans. In addition, we will perform in vivo, non-invasive electrical impedance myography pre- and post-flight to supplement function assessments of muscle being conducted as part of the standard measures in the integrated One-Year Mission Project. In addition, to understand astronaut variability in adaptation to spaceflight, we will relate the muscle, bone structure, and bone strength measurements to pre- and post-flight serum indices of bone and muscle metabolism, as well as dietary patterns and physical activity logs while on station. Altogether, by examining bone and muscle changes following 2, 6, and 12 months of spaceflight, this work should provide critical and novel information regarding the temporal pattern of musculoskeletal changes during spaceflight, including their impact on maintenance of human health and performance and will inform the design of future long-duration deep space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Improved understanding of the time course of musculoskeletal changes in spaceflight will provide new insights for how to prevent and treat disuse-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: During the first funding period we have worked with collaborators at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and with other investigators in the Integrated One Year Mission study to refine our study design and develop skeletal health questionnaires. We have received JSC-Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for our protocol, and have submitted the continuing review. We attended the kick-off meeting for the One Year Mission study, held at JSC.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/14/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2020
Project Title:  Time Course of Spaceflight-Induced Adaptations in Bone Morphology, Bone Strength and Muscle Quality Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 02/17/2019  
End Date: 06/16/2020  
Task Last Updated: 04/26/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bouxsein, Mary  Ph.D. / Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Address:  Department of Orthopedic Surgery 
330 Brookline Ave, RN115 
Boston , MA 02215-5400 
Email: mbouxsei@bidmc.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-667-4594  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sibonga, Jean  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC19K0567 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2017-2018 HERO 80JSC017N0001-BPBA Topics in Biological, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations to Spaceflight. Appendix C 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC19K0567 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bone Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev M)
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(2) M24:Characterize the time course of changes in muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and function during long duration space flight (IRP Rev F)
(3) Osteo02:What is the incidence & prevalence of early onset osteoporosis or fragility fractures due to exposure to spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) Osteo04:We do not know the contribution of each risk factor on bone loss and recovery of bone strength, and which factors are the best targets for countermeasure application (IRP Rev E)
(5) Osteo06:How do skeletal changes due to spaceflight modify the terrestrial risk of osteoporotic fractures? (IRP Rev D)
Task Description: The rate and extent of musculoskeletal changes during long-duration spaceflight remain uncertain. In particular, a critical question is whether bone mass and bone strength declines continue at the same rate as seen during the first 6 months of spaceflight or whether the body will adapt to its new environment, and bone loss will slow or stop during longer duration exposure to microgravity. To address this key gap in knowledge, we propose to conduct 3D computed tomography (CT) scans prior to launch and after landing in astronauts participating in the One-Year Mission Project. Using CT-based finite element analysis (CT-FEA), prior work using older imaging technology in 16 astronauts found average declines in femoral and vertebral bone strength of 1.1 to 2.6% per month during 4 to 6 month International Space Station (ISS) missions, though some astronauts experienced much higher losses. The declines in estimated bone strength exceeded the declines in bone mass as assessed by 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Moreover, the declines in strength were not predicted by the DXA-based bone mass measures, indicating the need to use 3D CT measures to accurately assess bone changes. Thus, we propose to employ state-of-the-art CT imaging to assess spaceflight-induced changes in cortical and trabecular bone density and morphology, along with changes in femoral and vertebral bone strength from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CT-FEA. In addition, to assess the risk of fracture, in secondary analyses, we will compare the bone strength values to the estimated loads applied to the skeleton during flight and on the ground using validated, subject-specific multibody musculoskeletal models. Finally, we will assess changes in muscle quality via pre- and post-flight analysis of fatty infiltration of the trunk and lower extremity musculature from the same CT scans. In addition, we will perform in vivo, non-invasive electrical impedance myography pre- and post-flight to supplement function assessments of muscle being conducted as part of the standard measures in the integrated One-Year Mission Project. In addition, to understand astronaut variability in adaptation to spaceflight, we will relate the muscle, bone structure, and bone strength measurements to pre- and post-flight serum indices of bone and muscle metabolism, as well as dietary patterns and physical activity logs while on station. Altogether, by examining bone and muscle changes following 2, 6, and 12 months of spaceflight, this work should provide critical and novel information regarding the temporal pattern of musculoskeletal changes during spaceflight, including their impact on maintenance of human health and performance and will inform the design of future long-duration deep space missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: New project for FY2019.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 10/14/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2019