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Project Title:  Dynamic Team Role Allocation in Long Duration, Exploration Missions: Identification of Roles, Triggers, and Measurement Tools--NNX16AB08G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 11/03/2015  
End Date: 11/02/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/06/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Driskell, James  Ph.D. Florida Maxima Corp. 
Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AB08G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AB08G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-102:We need to identify a set of quantifiable and validated measures, based on 5-12 key indicators of mission-relevant and identified spaceflight acceptable thresholds (or ranges) of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance of integrated NASA and commercial/private crews, during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(6) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 11/02/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/6/18)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/02/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/27/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: ED. NOTE (4/6/2016): Continuation of project (grant NNX14AM73G) with the same title and Principal Investigator, due to PI move in fall 2015 to Rice University from University of Central Florida.

Long duration exploration missions present a unique environment characterized by many stressors (e.g., social isolation, danger, confinement, interpersonal dynamics, periods of over/under stimulation), with little ability to escape. Research has found that within such environments interpersonal dynamics occupy a key role in effective functioning (Forsyth, 2010). While the last few years have witnessed an increase in research examining the composition requirements of high performance teams, little work has examined these issues in light of teams embedded in long duration, exploration missions. Therefore, we describe a program of work which addresses Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8 in NASA’s Human Research Roadmap. We seek to answer the following questions with regard to long duration, exploration missions: (1) what are the key social and team technical (task) roles which influence team function; (2) what are the behavioral and communicative markers which can be used to assess the degree to which key identified social and team technical roles are being fulfilled; (3) what contextual aspects serve to trigger a need for the dynamic shift of social roles; (4) what are the optimal combinations (i.e., profiles, algorithms) of social roles for the maintenance and regulation of team functions; (5) what are the markers that can be used to select for those most likely to fit social profiles and how do these profiles change across the duration of the mission (i.e., the team’s life cycle). In answering these questions we seek to provide a series of scientifically grounded and experimentally validated taxonomies, guidelines, and measurement tools for team selection/composition. In exploring these questions, we take a multi-pronged approach consisting of analysis of archival data (e.g., astronaut diaries, historical accounts of teams operating in isolated, confined environments (ICE), prior collected University of Central Florida astronaut interviews), scientific literatures on group dynamics, personality, team roles, stress, and diversity, interviews, and experimentation in NASA analogs.

Forsyth D. R. (2010). Group dynamics. J. D. Hague (Ed.). Belmont CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research contributes to a better understanding of the task and social roles needed for teams to effectively function, especially within the context of isolated, confined environments such as long duration spaceflight.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: While many insights were learned throughout this project some of the highlights include the following. First, a set of eleven team roles were identified that appear within the context of long-duration spaceflight. More specifically, five social roles were identified (team builder, entertainer, contribution seeker, attention seeker, and negativist). Of these five team roles three are functional (i.e., team builder, entertainer, contribution seeker) in that results illustrated that they tend to be positively related to team dynamics and outcomes such as teamwork, cohesion, and team effectiveness. Two of the social roles identified (i.e., attention seeker, negativist) appeared infrequently, but when they did appear they had a tendency to be dysfunctional in that they had a negative relationship with team dynamics. These latter two roles are ones that should be ‘selected’ out of crew composition. With respect to task roles, six roles were identified (coordinator, team player, information provider, problem solver, evaluator, task leader), all of which were generally positively related to effective team functioning (e.g., teamwork, cohesion, team effectiveness). While overlap did appear between the team roles which emerged and the larger literature on roles, uniqueness was also identified with respect to the team roles that emerged in the context of spaceflight. Most notably is the notion of an entertainer role, the emphasis on the importance of a nurturer aspect (subdimension - team builder role), which focuses more on some of the aspects of small-group living and personal self-care, and decreased evidence or appearance of team roles that might be traditionally thought of as dysfunctional (as identified through the broader literature on team roles).

Regarding the nature of team roles, evidence was found for the dynamic nature of team roles and the fact that within the context of spaceflight team roles are most often shared or distributed throughout the team. Results indicated not only a specific team role often shared amongst members of the crew, but correspondingly that crew members often engaged in multiple roles throughout the course of the mission. With respect to the dynamic nature, results also indicated the manner in which contextual factors may impact the appearance and functionality of task and social roles (as a set) as well as specific roles. Contextual factors that were found to differentially relate to the enactment of roles included temporal factors, workload variations, sleep deprivation, boredom, and isolation. Of note is emerging evidence for the increased importance of social roles as mission duration increases and the potential that failures in social roles may remain hidden and take longer to notice than task roles.

Results also began to speak to the notion of person-role fit within this context as is seen in the broader organizational literature on roles, but has rarely been examined with relation to informal team roles nor within the context of long duration spaceflight. In this vein, results suggest that personality may predispose a crew member to occupy particular roles and that there is systematic variance between personality and team role dimensions and frequency of role enactment. However, results from the operational interviews and data collected within the analog that illustrates differential relationships between personality and role enactment over time also speak to moderators on the person-role fit relationship. Research should further investigate those factors that may constrain a crew member’s ability to achieve person-role fit and the degree to which contextual factors may impact the impact of such mismatches. It is possible that mismatches could act as a stressor, chronic or acute stressor depending on the degree of mismatch and the duration.

Finally, two potential new measures were created, team role measure and TRIAD (Tracking Roles in and Across Domains). More specifically, based on all the evidence gathered throughout the project we created a refined team role taxonomy with a corresponding measure. The measure contains behavioral markers expected to be indicative of each role. As the measure was created towards the end of the project it still requires further validation. Additionally, leveraging older work on team roles, the TRIAD measure was created which produces a different view on team roles as it does not examine roles in terms of the types of team-directed behaviors that occur but in terms of a set of underlying dimensions that have been argued to cut across all roles in varying degrees. Future work should continue to map the dimensions within TRIAD against existing team role taxonomies as the intersection can provide future insight into those role shifts which, when required, would be expected to be easiest for crew members. For example, it is expected that crew members would be more likely to shift between two roles that are both high on sociability as compared to two roles that vary greatly on the degree of sociability required. The latter would be expected to be less likely and more stressful on the crew member, if required. As further developed, this tool could be utilized as the basis for a countermeasure to train crews regarding ease of transition between roles or the occupation of simultaneous roles.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Burke CS, Wiese CW, Campbell LNP. "Leveraging historiometry to better understand teams in context." Organizational Psychology Review. March 9, 2021. Online ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041386621996424 , Mar-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Bisbey TM, Traylor AM, Rosen MA. "Can teamwork promote safety in organizations?" Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior. 2020;7:283-313. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012119-045411 , Jan-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Paoletti J, Bisbey TM, Reyes DL, Wettergreen MA, Salas E. "A checklist to diagnose teamwork in engineering education." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2020;36(1B):365-77. , Jan-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Bisbey TM, Reyes DL, Traylor AM, Salas E. "Teams of psychologists helping teams: The evolution of the science of team training." Am Psychol. 2019 Apr;74(3):278-89. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000419 ; PMID: 30945891 , Apr-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Burke CS, Georganta E, Marlow S. "A bottom up perspective to understanding the dynamics of team roles in mission critical teams." Front Psychol. 2019 Jun 11;10:1322. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01322 ; PMID: 31244724; PMCID: PMC6579910 , Jun-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lacerenza CN, Marlow SL, Tannenbaum SI, Salas E. "Team development interventions: Evidence-based approaches for improving teamwork." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):517-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000295 ; PubMed PMID: 29792465 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Reyes DL, McDaniel SH. "The science of teamwork: Progress, reflections, and the road ahead." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):593-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000334 ; PubMed PMID: 29792470 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals O'Neill TA, Salas E. "Creating high performance teamwork in organizations." Hum Resour Manage Rev. 2018 Dec;28(4):325-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.09.001 , Dec-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell T, Salas E, Driskell JE. "Teams in extreme environments: Alterations in team development and teamwork." Hum Resour Manage Rev. 2018 Dec;28(4):434-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.002 , Dec-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Feitosa J, Salas E. "Today's virtual teams: Adapting lessons learned to the pandemic context." Organ Dyn. 2021 Jan-Mar;50(1):100777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2020.100777 ; PMID: 32836509; PMCID: PMC7311332 , Jan-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shuffler ML, Diazgranados D, Maynard MT, Salas E. "Developing, sustaining, and maximizing team effectiveness: An integrative, dynamic perspective of team development interventions." Acad Manag Ann. 2018 Jun;12(2):688-724. https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0045 ; PMID: 30931078; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6438631 , Jun-2018
Books/Book Chapters Landon LB, Slack KJ, Salas E. (eds.) "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Extreme Application." Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020. 339 p. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440854 , Oct-2020
Books/Book Chapters Croitoru N, Bisbey TM, Salas E. "Team training for long-duration space exploration: A look ahead at the coming challenges." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Extreme Application." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020. p. 81-99. Book: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440854 , Oct-2020
Books/Book Chapters Landon LB, Slack KJ, Salas E. (eds.) "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier." Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020. 331 p. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440878 , Oct-2020
Books/Book Chapters Paoletti J, Kilcullen MP, Salas E. "Teamwork in space exploration." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020. p. 195-216. Book: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429440878 , Oct-2020
Project Title:  Dynamic Team Role Allocation in Long Duration, Exploration Missions: Identification of Roles, Triggers, and Measurement Tools--NNX16AB08G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 11/03/2015  
End Date: 11/02/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/21/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Driskell, James  Ph.D. Florida Maxima Corp. 
Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: None
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AB08G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AB08G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-102:We need to identify a set of quantifiable and validated measures, based on 5-12 key indicators of mission-relevant and identified spaceflight acceptable thresholds (or ranges) of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance of integrated NASA and commercial/private crews, during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(6) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 11/02/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/6/18)

NOTE: End date changed to 11/02/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/27/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: ED. NOTE (4/6/2016): Continuation of project (grant NNX14AM73G) with the same title and Principal Investigator, due to PI move in fall 2015 to Rice University from University of Central Florida.

Long duration exploration missions present a unique environment characterized by many stressors (e.g., social isolation, danger, confinement, interpersonal dynamics, periods of over/under stimulation), with little ability to escape. Research has found that within such environments interpersonal dynamics occupy a key role in effective functioning (Forsyth, 2010). While the last few years have witnessed an increase in research examining the composition requirements of high performance teams, little work has examined these issues in light of teams embedded in long duration, exploration missions. Therefore, we describe a program of work which addresses Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8 in NASA’s Human Research Roadmap. We seek to answer the following questions with regard to long duration, exploration missions: (1) what are the key social and team technical (task) roles which influence team function; (2) what are the behavioral and communicative markers which can be used to assess the degree to which key identified social and team technical roles are being fulfilled; (3) what contextual aspects serve to trigger a need for the dynamic shift of social roles; (4) what are the optimal combinations (i.e., profiles, algorithms) of social roles for the maintenance and regulation of team functions; (5) what are the markers that can be used to select for those most likely to fit social profiles and how do these profiles change across the duration of the mission (i.e., the team’s life cycle). In answering these questions we seek to provide a series of scientifically grounded and experimentally validated taxonomies, guidelines, and measurement tools for team selection/composition. In exploring these questions, we take a multi-pronged approach consisting of analysis of archival data (e.g., astronaut diaries, historical accounts of teams operating in isolated, confined environments (ICE), prior collected University of Central Florida astronaut interviews), scientific literatures on group dynamics, personality, team roles, stress, and diversity, interviews, and experimentation in NASA analogs.

Forsyth D. R. (2010). Group dynamics. J. D. Hague (ED.). Belmont CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research contributes to a better understanding of the task and social roles needed for teams to effectively function, especially within the context of isolated, confined environments such as long duration spaceflight.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: During this past reporting period, we have been working on several tasks including but not limited to: conducting interviews with NASA subject matter experts in long duration spaceflight, collecting data in the Human Exploration Research Analog, thematic analysis of interview data, refinement of a team role taxonomy and collection of related validation evidence, development of a series of behavioral markers of key team roles, analysis of archival documentation describing crew interaction during spaceflight missions with an eye towards team roles.

Interview Data. We have completed interviews with 15 NASA subject matter experts in long duration spaceflight. Those interviewed included astronauts, operational psychologists, flight engineers, and personnel that worked within mission control. Interviews were 30 minutes in length and focused on those team roles that were expected to be needed in long duration spaceflight, the role that personality plays in the enactment of informal team roles, and the contextual factors that may cause roles to shift over time. All of this was done with an eye towards those team roles needed as crews begin to move beyond low-Earth orbit. We are currently in the process of thematically analyzing the results of this data, but have already extracted several high level themes.

Analog Data Collection. At this point in the project’s life cycle, we have been involved in collecting data across three campaigns in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). Each campaign is comprised of four missions which range from 14-45 days depending on the campaign. Currently we have data from 9 crews for a total of 36 individuals. Within this environment our focus has been on team roles and their relationship to key team outcomes and how the manifestation and importance of specific team roles may differ across time and based on stressors embedded within long duration spaceflight (e.g., periods of high and low workload). We have begun to conduct analyses on a subset of this data as well as examining portions of the crew’s communication as another avenue through which to investigate the task and social roles which crew members engage in and the functionality of such roles.

Examination of Archival Data. We have also employed a systematic approach to examining sources that document crew interaction during spaceflight. In this vein, we have investigated biographies and autobiographies, blogs, and journals with an eye towards understanding the task and social roles that have been employed by crew members and, when possible, their relation to key team outcomes.

We are using the information that is being collected through multiple sources (see above) as a way to contextualize a team role taxonomy that will be applicable for use in measure development and countermeasure development within the context of long duration, distance exploration missions – an isolated, confined environment.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell T, Driskell JE, Burke S, Salas E. "Team roles: A review and integration." Small Group Research. 2017 Aug;48(4):482-511. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496417711529 , Aug-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Marlow SL, Lacerenza CN, Salas E. "Communication in virtual teams: A conceptual framework and research agenda." Human Resource Management Review. 2017 Dec;27(4):575-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.12.005 , Dec-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hughes AM, Gregory ME, Joseph DL, Sonesh SC, Marlow SL, Lacerenza CN, Benishek LE, King HB, Salas E. "Saving lives: A meta-analysis of team training in healthcare." J Appl Psychol. 2016 Sep;101(9):1266-304.Epub 2016 Jun 16. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000120 ; PubMed PMID: 27599089 , Sep-2016
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Reyes DL, Woods AL. "The assessment of team performance: Observations and needs." in "Innovative assessment of collaboration." Ed. A.A. Von Davier, M. Zhu, P.C. Kyllonen. New York: Springer Verlag, p. 21-36, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33261-1_2 , Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Woods A, Dinh J, Salas E. "How do I learn what to do? How the science of training supports learning." in "An introduction to work and organizational psychology: A European perspective. 3rd edition." Ed. N. Chimel, F. Fraccaroli, M. Sverke. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, p. 335-353, 2017. ISBN-13: 978-1119168027 , Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Dinh JV, Salas E. "Factors that influence teamwork." in "The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Processes." Ed. E. Salas, R. Rico, J. Passmore. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017. p. 15-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118909997.ch2 , Mar-2017
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Vessey WB, Landon LB, editors. "Team dynamics over time." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, L.B. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 2017. 352 p. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-0856201618 , Aug-2017
Project Title:  Dynamic Team Role Allocation in Long Duration, Exploration Missions: Identification of Roles, Triggers, and Measurement Tools--NNX16AB08G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 11/03/2015  
End Date: 11/02/2017  
Task Last Updated: 04/06/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. / Rice University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
6100 Main Street MS25 
Houston , TX 77005 
Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu 
Phone: 713-348-3917  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Rice University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Driskell, James  Ph.D. Florida Maxima Corp. 
Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AB08G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AB08G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed-101:We need to identify, quantify, and validate the key selection factors for astronaut cognitive and behavioral strengths (e.g., resiliency) and operationally-relevant performance threats for increasingly Earth independent, long-duration, autonomous, and/or long-distance exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) BMed-108:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards simultaneously, we need to identify and characterize the potential additive, antagonistic, or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors (e.g., space radiation, altered gravity, isolation, altered immune, altered sleep) on crew health and/or CNS/ cognitive functioning to develop threshold limits and validate countermeasures for any identified adverse crew health and/or operationally-relevant performance outcomes (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-102:We need to identify a set of quantifiable and validated measures, based on 5-12 key indicators of mission-relevant and identified spaceflight acceptable thresholds (or ranges) of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance of integrated NASA and commercial/private crews, during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(6) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: ED. NOTE (4/6/2016): Continuation of project (grant NNX14AM73G) with the same title and Principal Investigator, due to PI move in fall 2015 to Rice University from University of Central Florida.

Long duration exploration missions present a unique environment characterized by many stressors (e.g., social isolation, danger, confinement, interpersonal dynamics, periods of over/under stimulation), with little ability to escape. Research has found that within such environments interpersonal dynamics occupy a key role in effective functioning (Forsyth, 2010). While the last few years have witnessed an increase in research examining the composition requirements of high performance teams, little work has examined these issues in light of teams embedded in long duration, exploration missions. Therefore, we describe a program of work which addresses Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8 in NASA’s Human Research Roadmap. We seek to answer the following questions with regard to long duration, exploration missions: (1) what are the key social and team technical (task) roles which influence team function; (2) what are the behavioral and communicative markers which can be used to assess the degree to which key identified social and team technical roles are being fulfilled; (3) what contextual aspects serve to trigger a need for the dynamic shift of social roles; (4) what are the optimal combinations (i.e., profiles, algorithms) of social roles for the maintenance and regulation of team functions; (5) what are the markers that can be used to select for those most likely to fit social profiles and how do these profiles change across the duration of the mission (i.e., the team’s life cycle). In answering these questions we seek to provide a series of scientifically grounded and experimentally validated taxonomies, guidelines, and measurement tools for team selection/composition. In exploring these questions, we take a multi-pronged approach consisting of analysis of archival data (e.g., astronaut diaries, historical accounts of teams operating in isolated, confined environments (ICE), prior collected University of Central Florida astronaut interviews), scientific literatures on group dynamics, personality, team roles, stress, and diversity, interviews, and experimentation in NASA analogs.

Forsyth D. R. (2010). Group dynamics. J. D. Hague (ED.). Belmont CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016. Continuation of project with the same title and Principal Investigator, grant NNX14AM73G, due to PI move in fall 2015 to Rice University from University of Central Florida.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/10/2021) 

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 None in FY 2016