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Project Title:  Facilitating the Synergistic Side of Cultural Diversity in LDSE: Identification of Challenges and Development of Cultural Training Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/22/2016  
End Date: 08/21/2022  
Task Last Updated: 07/16/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Institute for Simulation and Training 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sburke@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-1326  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: July 2017 report: No key personnel changes. June 2018 report: No key personnel changes
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP96G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP96G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 8/21/2022 per NSSC information (Ed., 10/8/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 8/21/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/27/20)

Task Description: Culture has been a factor for space exploration since the mid 1970s when the U.S. first partnered with Russia. Work has indicated that culturally-based differences in values, beliefs, and preferences for cognition and action can have an impact on interdependent action (Stahl et al., 2010). Cultural diversity can pose challenges for a number of transition, action, and interpersonal processes and emergent states in teams. However, almost all of this work has been conducted outside the context of spaceflight. The little work that has been conducted within spaceflight has begun to suggest that the impact of culture on teams may be different in long-duration space exploration (LDSE--see Suedfeld et al., 2013). This drives the question as to whether cultural diversity within spaceflight crews has the same impact on team performance as that reported within the wider literature on cross-cultural teams and what can be done to create synergy. We leverage prior work on cultural diversity and teams in mission critical environments and archival data on team interaction in ICE (isolated, confined environments) and pair this with experimentation in ground analog studies to better understand the critical challenges created by cultural diversity in LDSE and use this information to create and test cultural training tools that can be used pre- and in-flight. Specifically, we take a multi-pronged approach to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surround culture and team performance in LDSE, (2) from a compositional standpoint is there an ‘ideal’ team profile in terms of cultural orientations to facilitate team performance and adaptability in LDSE, (3) what types of cultural training can be developed for use pre-flight and in-flight, and (4) what tools can be developed to facilitate practitioners in maximizing the potential synergy in culturally diverse teams operating in LDSE (e.g., pillars, guidelines, practices, tips).

Stahl, G.K., Makela, K., Zander, L., & Maznevski, M.L. (2010a ). A look at the bright side of multicultural team diversity. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 (4), 439 - 447.

Stahl, G. K., Maznevski, M. L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010b). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta - analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of International Business Studies , 41 (4), 690 - 709.

Suedfeld, P., Wilk, K. E., & Cassel, L. (2013). Flying with strangers: postmission reflections of multinational space crews (pp. 185-209). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Within this project, we seek to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surrounding culture and team performance in long duration spaceflight, (2) is there a team cultural profile that facilitates team performance and adaptation in long duration spaceflight, and (3) what tools can be developed to facilitate synergy/mitigate decrements in teamwork and team performance within culturally diverse teams operating in the context of spaceflight.

The proposed project will impact numerous areas. First, this research will address current theoretical gaps surrounding the critical challenge of cultural diversity in long duration spaceflight (both on the ground and in orbit). This information is then used to build a series of complementary, modular training tools to facilitate the crew’s ability to turn cultural diversity into a synergistic force. The existent literature on cross-cultural training does little to focus on cultural diversity in crews operating in isolated, confined environments. Additionally, the focus of most cross-cultural training programs is to prepare expatriates to go abroad; therefore, teaching cross-cultural competence with regard to teamwork skills is rarely seen. In building our training we seek to validate the effectiveness of such programs within analog environments using sound scientific methods and training evaluation techniques. Finally, as an important part of training development is the assessment of the skills gained during training we will also deliver a set of assessment tools that can be used to diagnose cross-cultural competence levels with regard to team interaction.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: Efforts within the current reporting period have primarily focused on three areas: 1) initial analysis of data from the 4-month Scientific International Research In a Unique terrestrial Station (SIRIUS) mission in the Nezemnyy Eksperimental’nyy Kompleks (NEK), (2) analysis of a subset of interview transcripts obtained from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Oral History Project, (3) preparation for upcoming 8-month SIRIUS mission. While insights were gained through the analysis of the transcripts pulled from the JSC Oral History, here we focus most prominently on the initial insights gained with respect to the data coming out of the 4-month SIRIUS mission. However, note that the data presented herein is preliminary and action on any results should be viewed with caution due to the low sample size (1 crew, 6 individuals). Remaining missions will serve to provide greater confidence in initial results and allow us to move towards team level analyses. Results also need to be viewed in light of the fact that results from both quantitative and qualitative data suggest that in terms of cultural diversity the SIRIUS 4-month crew was on the low to moderate end of the spectrum for those cultural values that were assessed.

Some of the differences noted by the crew were differences in language fluency, boundaries, and leadership style. Difference in language fluency were a big focus and some crew highlighted that this could lead to misunderstandings and not ‘getting’ everything that was said, including humor. Differences in boundaries were also noted and primarily dealt with how much to ‘share,’ notations of the crew as family, and that variability in how much personal information was appropriate to share may make bonding more difficult for some. A final factor that will be highlighted was the leadership style within the crew. The style was very hierarchical which some felt may have been driven by culture, but some felt it was also driven by the tremendous ‘expertise’ and ‘recognition’ of the commander. Crew members reported that while cultural differences existed, they did not pose challenges to task accomplishment within the 4-month mission. While this finding is similar to previous findings with missions around the same length (Burke & Feitosa, 2015), crew composition issues related to gender and nationality were also cited as a contributing factor to team dynamics within the crew. Moreover, a general openness to learn within the crew and an awareness that cultures are different was also seen as contributing to positive team dynamics.

Despite the low to moderate cultural diversity within the crew, quantitative results begin to suggest how cultural values may impact crew member perceptions of team dynamics, emergent states, and performance. With regards to team dynamics, several cultural values were found to significantly impact perceptions of teamwork. Specifically, crew members who possessed any of the following were found to report lower perceptions of teamwork: higher levels of power distance, higher comfort with uncertainty, long-term orientation, and values indicative of an indirect communication style. While there were some differential impacts of the above cultural values when examined at the teamwork subscale level (i.e., communication, cohesion, conflict, attitudes) those will not be discussed here as in most cases they align with the teamwork composite. While the degree to which an individual held values indicative of collectivism or masculinity was generally not seen to be related to perceptions of teamwork at the composite level, some impact at the subscale level was seen. Specifically, as collectivism increased perceptions of team cohesion decreased.

In most cases, the above values also led to lower perceptions of positive emergent states (e.g., cohesion, attitudes, trust, identity) and higher perceptions of negative emergent states (e.g., faultline development, conflict). The exception to this was that long-term orientation was not significantly related to identity, faultline development, or conflict. Furthermore, indirectness was not related to cohesion, identity, or faultline development. In terms of the impact on perceptions of team effectiveness, results indicated that higher levels of power distance, more comfort with uncertainty, more collectivistic values, masculinity, or a long-term orientation all caused individuals to perceive lower levels of team effectiveness.

Not surprisingly the degree of cultural intelligence also impacted perceptions of team dynamics, emergent states, and performance. Results suggest that as cultural intelligence increases so do perceptions of teamwork (and its subscales – attitudes, communication, cohesion, and decreases in reported conflict). Moreover, perceptions of positive emergent states (i.e., trust – affective and cognitive-trust and identity) increase while negative states decrease (i.e., faultline development). Finally, perceptions of team effectiveness increase as cultural intelligence increases. The results for the subscales that comprise cultural intelligence were found to align fairly closely with the overall composite.

Analysis of the data obtained from transcripts within the JSC Oral History project has tended to provide additional support to several of the findings that are emerging from the SIRIUS data collection. Qualitative coding of a subset of the transcripts obtained from the JSC Oral History project highlighted twelve areas as potential challenges to team interaction within culturally diverse spaceflight crews, including: differences in language, differences in philosophies, failure to integrate, differences in experience, differences in leadership style, differences in processes and rules, differences in thinking, gender differences, hierarchy, failure to share workload, and limited information sharing. Additionally, a number of factors that serve to mitigate the impact of cultural diversity were also highlighted. The most commonly used mitigating mechanisms included: socializing/building relationships, working towards team goals and communication along with adaptation/acquisition, cultural awareness/understanding each other, humor, knowledge and information sharing, and negotiation. To a lesser degree, things such as recognizing each other/providing praise and being able to recognize the social environment and pick up on cues were mentioned. Pulling from the data within the SIRIUS crew journals and interviews, we also see several additional ways that cultural awareness and cohesion can be built among the crew, including: language clubs [Russian-English, English-Russian], language socialization, use of movies and music as ways to transmit and discuss culture, and the importance of mealtime for building cohesion and understanding. The importance of both formal and informal mechanisms was noted.

Finally, additional data extracted from crew interviews and journals provide information on the role that isolation may occupy with respect to the impact of cultural values and team dynamics. For example, some crew members noted that isolation may cause individuals to identify more with their ‘origins’ (e.g., want to share it more with others). Additionally, isolation was brought up as a factor that may contribute to a blurring between professional and social boundaries as the crew becomes more like a ‘family.’

Moving forward we will continue to analyze the remaining information contained within the 4-month mission and look forward to the opportunities that will be afforded within the 8-month mission such that with both data sets we can begin to talk about cultural diversity in more detail. We will also continue to utilize the information gained to this point to prepare for the SIRIUS 8-month mission. With respect to the SIRIUS mission, the project team has attended planning and update meetings as well as begun to complete the necessary protocols and delineate the constructs that will be focused upon for our part of the mission, as well as the timing of specific measures. It is expected that in examining the primary research questions above information on: individual differences (i.e., cultural values, cultural intelligence, personality, social intelligence), team processes and states (i.e., teamwork, shared mental models, faultlines, and positive/negative affect), and outcomes (i.e., team effectiveness) will be collected. Additionally, crews will engage in journaling activities that will provide a more qualitative in depth understanding of their experiences while in the analog with respect to team interaction and culture. Finally, additional data collection/analysis opportunities (e.g., 8-month mission), will serve to refine our initial findings and facilitate the integration of this information into the products we are building.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Bisbey TM, Reyes DL, Traylor AM, Salas E. "Teams of psychologists helping teams: The evolution of the science of team training." Am Psychol. 2019 Apr;74(3):278-89. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000419 ; PMID: 30945891 , Apr-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Feitosa J, Salas E. "Today's virtual teams: Adapting lessons learned to the pandemic context." Organ Dyn. 2021 Jan-Mar;50(1):100777. Epub 24 June 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2020.100777 ; PMID: 32836509; PMCID: PMC7311332, Jan-2021 , Jan-2021
Books/Book Chapters Burke CS, Feitosa J, Moavero J. "Towards an understanding of training requirements for multicultural teams in long duration spacefllght." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs: Research at the Frontier." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, in press as of July 2020. Expected October 2020., Jul-2020
Project Title:  Facilitating the Synergistic Side of Cultural Diversity in LDSE: Identification of Challenges and Development of Cultural Training Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/22/2016  
End Date: 08/21/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/23/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Institute for Simulation and Training 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sburke@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-1326  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2018 report: No key personnel changes. July 2017 report: No key personnel changes.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP96G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP96G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Culture has been a factor for space exploration since the mid 1970s when the U.S. first partnered with Russia. Work has indicated that culturally-based differences in values, beliefs, and preferences for cognition and action can have an impact on interdependent action (Stahl et al., 2010). Cultural diversity can pose challenges for a number of transition, action, and interpersonal processes and emergent states in teams. However, almost all of this work has been conducted outside the context of spaceflight. The little work that has been conducted within spaceflight has begun to suggest that the impact of culture on teams may be different in long-duration space exploration (LDSE--see Suedfeld et al., 2013). This drives the question as to whether cultural diversity within spaceflight crews has the same impact on team performance as that reported within the wider literature on cross-cultural teams and what can be done to create synergy. We leverage prior work on cultural diversity and teams in mission critical environments and archival data on team interaction in ICE (isolated, confined environments) and pair this with experimentation in ground analog studies to better understand the critical challenges created by cultural diversity in LDSE and use this information to create and test cultural training tools that can be used pre- and in-flight. Specifically, we take a multi-pronged approach to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surround culture and team performance in LDSE, (2) from a compositional standpoint is there an ‘ideal’ team profile in terms of cultural orientations to facilitate team performance and adaptability in LDSE, (3) what types of cultural training can be developed for use pre-flight and in-flight, and (4) what tools can be developed to facilitate practitioners in maximizing the potential synergy in culturally diverse teams operating in LDSE (e.g., pillars, guidelines, practices, tips).

Stahl, G.K., Makela, K., Zander, L., & Maznevski, M.L. (2010a ). A look at the bright side of multicultural team diversity. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 (4), 439 - 447.

Stahl, G.K., Maznevski, M.L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010b). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta - analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of International Business Studies, 41 (4), 690 - 709.

Suedfeld, P., Wilk, K. E., & Cassel, L. (2013). Flying with strangers: postmission reflections of multinational space crews (pp. 185-209). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Within this project, we seek to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surrounding culture and team performance in long duration spaceflight, (2) is there a team cultural profile that facilitates team performance and adaptation in long duration spaceflight, and (3) what tools can be developed to facilitate synergy/mitigate decrements in teamwork and team performance within culturally diverse teams operating in the context of spaceflight.

The proposed project will impact numerous areas. First, this research will address current theoretical gaps surrounding the critical challenge of cultural diversity in long duration spaceflight (both on the ground and in orbit). This information is then used to build a series of complementary, modular training tools to facilitate the crew’s ability to turn cultural diversity into a synergistic force. The existent literature on cross-cultural training does little to focus on cultural diversity in crews operating in isolated, confined environments. Additionally, the focus of most cross-cultural training programs is to prepare expatriates to go abroad; therefore, teaching cross-cultural competence with regard to teamwork skills is rarely seen. In building our training we seek to validate the effectiveness of such programs within analog environments using sound scientific methods and training evaluation techniques. Finally, as an important part of training development is the assessment of the skills gained during training we will also deliver a set of assessment tools that can be used to diagnose cross-cultural competence levels with regard to team interaction.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: During the timeframe covered within this report, 2017-2018, the primary focus has been on the analysis of archival sources from within the space-industry that may contain insight into how cultural diversity within the crew may impact the team interaction during spaceflight. In doing so, we are particularly interested in how mission phase may impact the types of challenges seen as well as the mitigation strategies that may prove useful. In doing so, we have examined the life sciences data archive as well as analyzed a series of archived operational assessments/interviews focusing on team interaction during exploration missions to extract themes related to cultural diversity and team interaction.

The products resulting from the examination of the Life Sciences Data Archive include an annotated bibliography as well as insight into where gaps in knowledge may lie in terms of the impact of cultural diversity on team interaction in the context of exploration missions. This insight was utilized to draft interview protocols for use in later years of the project as well as help to guide decisions regarding the complement of measures and focus of data collection within an analog environment (i.e., SIRIUS (Scientific International Research In a Unique terrestrial Station) 4-month mission).

In conjunction with this effort, analysis of archived interviews with NASA subject matter experts provided information and corresponding gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of culture on crew interaction, mitigation strategies/countermeasures, and information on how the above may differ based on mission phase/stage/temporality. Some of the insights gained from this work include: differences in leadership styles, cultural factors that cause negative affect, and how mission phase/stage may impact the cognitive scripts crew members have concerning member interaction and how this impacts what crew members are willing to ‘accept.’ Findings also emerged that provide information on key trigger points where cultural differences may cause degradation in the quality of coordinated action among long duration spaceflight crews. For example, segmented workflow between cultures was mentioned as tending to amplify cultural differences. Additionally, insight is being gained into those more informal mechanisms that can be used to build cohesion within culturally diverse crews, such as the sharing of meals together and other socialization opportunities (both informal, formal), many of which can be done prior to flight. The importance of humor and inclusive leadership was also mentioned as important, but the appropriate use of humor can be a stumbling block.

This information as well as gaps in knowledge concerning the impact of cultural diversity on team interaction across the crew and mission lifespan is being used to not only guide future data collection efforts within the SIRIUS 4-month mission, but is serving to refine the development of a semi-structured interview protocol for subject matter experts. During the current reporting period, an initial draft of the interview protocol was developed.

Additionally, during this reporting period, the project received the final approval to be part of the complement of studies included in the SIRIUS 4-month mission (a joint mission between IBMP (Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems) and NASA). Therefore, the project team began to engage in some of the preparatory work necessary for inclusion as part of the complement of studies the SIRIUS 2018-2019 mission. For this 4-month study, primary research questions include: (1) What is the impact of cultural diversity on team dynamics (team process, emergent states) and team outcomes across the team’s lifespan? and (2) Where are the places that cultural diversity causes challenges for team dynamics and where can it be a synergistic force?

With respect to the SIRIUS mission, the project team has attended planning and update meetings as well as begun to complete the necessary protocols and delineate the constructs that will be focused upon for our part of the mission, as well as the timing of specific measures. It is expected that in examining the primary research questions above information on individual differences (i.e., cultural values, cultural intelligence, personality, social intelligence), team processes and states (i.e., teamwork, shared mental models, faultlines, and positive/negative affect), and outcomes (i.e., team effectiveness) will be collected. Additionally, crews will engage in journaling activities that will provide a more qualitative in depth understanding of their experiences while in the analog with respect to team interaction and culture.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lacerenza CN, Marlow SL, Tannenbaum SI, Salas E. "Team development interventions: Evidence-based approaches for improving teamwork." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):517-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000295 ; PubMed PMID: 29792465 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Salas E, Reyes DL, McDaniel SH. "The science of teamwork: Progress, reflections, and the road ahead." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):593-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000334 ; PubMed PMID: 29792470 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Shuffler ML, Diazgranados D, Maynard MT, Salas E. "Developing, sustaining, and maximizing team effectiveness: An integrative, dynamic perspective of team development interventions." Acad Manag Ann. 2018 Jun;12(2):688-724. https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0045 ; PubMed PMID: 30931078; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6438631 , Jun-2018
Dissertations and Theses King M. "The effects of cultural diversity on team performance and team satisfaction: A meta-analysis." Master's Thesis, Ludwig-Maximillian Universität, Munich, March 2018. , Mar-2018
Project Title:  Facilitating the Synergistic Side of Cultural Diversity in LDSE: Identification of Challenges and Development of Cultural Training Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/22/2016  
End Date: 08/21/2020  
Task Last Updated: 07/05/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Institute for Simulation and Training 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sburke@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-1326  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: July 2017 report: No key personnel changes.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP96G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP96G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Culture has been a factor for space exploration since the mid 1970s when the U.S. first partnered with Russia. Work has indicated that culturally-based differences in values, beliefs, and preferences for cognition and action can have an impact on interdependent action (Stahl et al. , 2010). Cultural diversity can pose challenges for a number of transition, action, and interpersonal processes and emergent states in teams. However, almost all of this work has been conducted outside the context of spaceflight. The little work that has been conducted within spaceflight has begun to suggest that the impact of culture on teams may be different in long-duration space exploration (LDSE--see Suedfeld et al., 2013). This drives the question as to whether cultural diversity within spaceflight crews has the same impact on team performance as that reported within the wider literature on cross-cultural teams and what can be done to create synergy. We leverage prior work on cultural diversity and teams in mission critical environments and archival data on team interaction in ICE (isolated, confined environments) and pair this with experimentation in ground analog studies to better understand the critical challenges created by cultural diversity in LDSE and use this information to create and test cultural training tools that can be used pre- and in-flight. Specifically, we take a multi-pronged approach to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surround culture and team performance in LDSE, (2) from a compositional standpoint is there an ‘ideal’ team profile in terms of cultural orientations to facilitate team performance and adaptability in LDSE, (3) what types of cultural training can be developed for use pre-flight and in-flight, and (4) what tools can be developed to facilitate practitioners in maximizing the potential synergy in culturally diverse teams operating in LDSE (e.g., pillars, guidelines, practices, tips).

Stahl, G.K., Makela, K., Zander, L., & Maznevski, M.L. (2010 a ). A look at the bright side of multicultural team diversity. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 (4), 439 - 447.

Stahl, G. K., Maznevski, M. L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010b). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta - analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of international business studies , 41 (4), 690 - 709.

Suedfeld, P., Wilk, K. E., & Cassel, L. (2013). Flying with strangers: postmission reflections of multinational space crews (pp. 185-209). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Within this project, we seek to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surrounding culture and team performance in long duration spaceflight, (2) is there a team cultural profile that facilitates team performance and adaptation in long duration spaceflight, and (3) what tools can be developed to facilitate synergy/mitigate decrements in teamwork and team performance within culturally diverse teams operating in the context of spaceflight.

The proposed project will impact numerous areas. First, this research will address current theoretical gaps surrounding the critical challenge of cultural diversity in long duration spaceflight (both on the ground and in orbit). This information is then used to build a series of complementary, modular training tools to facilitate the crew’s ability to turn cultural diversity into a synergistic force. The existent literature on cross-cultural training does little to focus on cultural diversity in crews operating in isolated, confined environments. Additionally, the focus of most cross-cultural training programs is to prepare expatriates to go abroad; therefore, teaching cross-cultural competence with regard to teamwork skills is rarely seen. In building our training we seek to validate the effectiveness of such programs within analog environments using sound scientific methods and training evaluation techniques. Finally, as an important part of training development is the assessment of the skills gained during training we will also deliver a set of assessment tools that can be used to diagnose cross-cultural competence levels with regard to team interaction.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Efforts within the current reporting period primarily focused on moving through the definitional phase of the grant whereby the purpose was twofold: 1) to address comments that came up during the review of the original proposal, and 2) to further delineate the experimental activities within the grant so that an analog suited to conducting the experimentation could be identified. In working through this process, our team not only consulted the literature, websites, and archival documentation, but also worked with the flight and ground analog teams to refine the methodology, procedures, and measures such that an initial NASA analog could be identified to support experimentation. This along with supplemental analog samples that can be mapped back onto portions of the defining features of long duration spaceflight will provide us with more robust results than either setting alone.

The results of the definitional phase culminated in a revised statement of work that was submitted and reviewed by NASA. The approval of this document, in turn, has recently resulted in permission to move beyond the definitional phase. We look forward to embarking on the work within this grant.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Facilitating the Synergistic Side of Cultural Diversity in LDSE: Identification of Challenges and Development of Cultural Training Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/22/2016  
End Date: 08/21/2020  
Task Last Updated: 01/03/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Institute for Simulation and Training 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sburke@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-1326  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP96G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP96G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(3) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(4) Team-104:We need to identify validated ground-based and in-flight training methods for both preparatory and sustaining team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) Team-105:We need to identify a set of countermeasures to support team function and enable multiple distributed teams to manage shifting levels of autonomy for all phases of increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Culture has been a factor for space exploration since the mid 1970s when the U.S. first partnered with Russia. Work has indicated that culturally-based differences in values, beliefs, and preferences for cognition and action can have an impact on interdependent action (Stahl et al. , 2010). Cultural diversity can pose challenges for a number of transition, action, and interpersonal processes and emergent states in teams. However, almost all of this work has been conducted outside the context of spaceflight. The little work that has been conducted within spaceflight has begun to suggest that the impact of culture on teams may be different in long-duration space exploration (LDSE--see Suedfeld et al., 2013). This drives the question as to whether cultural diversity within spaceflight crews has the same impact on team performance as that reported within the wider literature on cross-cultural teams and what can be done to create synergy. We leverage prior work on cultural diversity and teams in mission critical environments and archival data on team interaction in ICE (isolated, confined environments) and pair this with experimentation in ground analog studies to better understand the critical challenges created by cultural diversity in LDSE and use this information to create and test cultural training tools that can be used pre- and in-flight. Specifically, we take a multi-pronged approach to answer the following questions: (1) what are the critical issues surround culture and team performance in LDSE, (2) from a compositional standpoint is there an ‘ideal’ team profile in terms of cultural orientations to facilitate team performance and adaptability in LDSE, (3) what types of cultural training can be developed for use pre-flight and in-flight, and (4) what tools can be developed to facilitate practitioners in maximizing the potential synergy in culturally diverse teams operating in LDSE (e.g., pillars, guidelines, practices, tips).

Stahl, G.K., Makela, K., Zander, L., & Maznevski, M.L. (2010 a ). A look at the bright side of multicultural team diversity. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26 (4), 439 - 447.

Stahl, G. K., Maznevski, M. L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010b). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta - analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of international business studies , 41 (4), 690 - 709.

Suedfeld, P., Wilk, K. E., & Cassel, L. (2013). Flying with strangers: postmission reflections of multinational space crews (pp. 185-209). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/02/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016