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Project Title:  A US-Russian Collaborative Proposal for Data Collection in HERA: The Relationship between Composition, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Effectiveness in Space Crews Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/12/2016  
End Date: 06/30/2022  
Task Last Updated: 06/22/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 E NASA Pkwy 
SK311 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: suzanne.t.bell@nasa.gov 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI at NASA Johnson Space Center as of January 2021; previously at DePaul University 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gushin, Vadim  M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS, Russia 
Vinokhodova, Alla  Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS, Russia 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AQ48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AQ48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 6/30/2022 per NSSC information; PI now at JSC and extension is for subcontract completion and final reporting (Ed., 10/20/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2021 per HFBP element; PI now at JSC and extension is for subcontract completion and final reporting (Ed., 6/15/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/11/2021 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/28/20)

NOTE: End date changed to 8/11/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/31/19)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: The environments anticipated during Long-Distance Space Exploration Missions (LDSEM) will require crews diverse in national background, professional background, and gender to face a number of stressors such as living and working in isolated and confined environments (ICE) for an extended period of time, separation from family and friends, loss of or significant delay when in communication with the ground, and limited privacy. The unique challenges of LDSEM will require team members to rely on one another for social support and to keep conflict manageable. The long-term duration of the mission coupled with extreme living and working conditions means interpersonal compatibility among the crew members, and between the crew and mission control, will be essential to the success of any LDSEM.

How crew composition and interpersonal relations affect crew functioning and effectiveness has been and continues to be of interest to both NASA and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), whose research informs operations for Roscosmos. Over time, research related to interpersonal compatibility from these agencies has evolved with different emphases. NASA-sponsored team composition research heavily relies on trait and network theories. It seeks to identify traits and combinations of traits that can be used to compose, train, and manage highly effective crews (Team Gap 8). IBMP-sponsored research mostly has moved away from trait-based approaches toward an idiographic (in-depth, heavily descriptive) approach to researching crew interpersonal relations. Our research is a US-Russia collaborative research effort with two primary aims: (1) develop and empirically test a cutting-edge process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE, which integrates US and Russian approaches to examining interpersonal compatibility in ICE; and (2) examine the validity of the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), which is an approach utilized by the Russians to assess interpersonal compatibility and relations in ICE.

To address these aims, we are leveraging existing data previously collected in the Mars 105 and Mars 500 simulations; we have completed collecting new analog-definition research data in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) campaigns 4 and 5; and are using a novel data analysis approach. Our efforts will result in research products critical to Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8, including an empirically supported model, recommendations for a path forward for international collaboration in research related to team composition and interpersonal relations in ICE, and a summary of validation evidence for the PSPA with recommendations for whether it should be included in NASA’s standardized measures for analog environments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Results will contribute to a greater understanding of the life cycle of teams operating in isolated and confined environments (ICE), and the effective composition and management of future space crews. Particularly notable is the integration of Russian and US approaches to researching interpersonal compatibility. Our model makes significant contributions to team composition and interpersonal compatibility research by elaborating and testing the foundations of various states, which are individual, relational, and team events. This advancement is critical for understanding how personal attributes shape the subjective attitudes towards the self and towards others, and how relationships develop over time, which can affect the affect, motivation, cognition, and performance of the team. The specific propositions and research questions developed and tested in HERA are specific to ICE; thus, beyond space crews, the most direct application of the research findings will be to Earth teams that operate in ICE such as expedition and science teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. The general framework and analytic strategies we are developing to research interpersonal relationship formation, however, can be applied to Earth teams more generally.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: We have completed the fourth year of the project. During this past year, we completed data collection from the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) Campaign 5, and processed a large amount of data from Campaigns 4 and 5. We have completed coding data from the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle/Extra-Vehicular Activity (MMSEV/EVA) task, which will be used as an objective, dynamic, and operationally-relevant indicator of team performance in our analyses. We have completed coding behavioral data from our team interaction battery, except the most recently collected mission, for which coding is underway.

In regards to Aim 1, we developed an extensive coding handbook and used it to analyze video footage of communication processes within crews during both relational and task events. This will provide data for our relational event modeling. We implemented a team-specific intervention that was created during the previous year to enhance team relations during isolation. Initial evaluations suggest that this intervention helps maintain positive relations between crewmembers in isolation.

For Aim 2, we have begun processing Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) data from Campaigns 4 and 5 and incorporating it into our larger datasets. Preliminary analyses show that PSPA metrics (i.e., psychological distance between self and others, discrepancy between current and ideal self) are predictors of outcomes at the individual, dyadic, and team levels.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/23/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Books/Book Chapters Bell ST, Roma PG, Caldwell BJ. "Special considerations for conducting research in analog environments: Challenges, solutions, and what is needed." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs. (Research at the Frontier, Vol. 1)" Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. In press, as of June 2020., Jun-2020
Books/Book Chapters Bell ST, Vazquez M. "Team Composition." in "Oxford Bibliographies in Management." Ed. R. Griffin. New York : Oxford University Press, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199846740-0166 , Jul-2019
Project Title:  A US-Russian Collaborative Proposal for Data Collection in HERA: The Relationship between Composition, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Effectiveness in Space Crews Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/12/2016  
End Date: 08/11/2020  
Task Last Updated: 07/25/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 E NASA Pkwy 
SK311 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: suzanne.t.bell@nasa.gov 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI at NASA Johnson Space Center as of January 2021; previously at DePaul University 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gushin, Vadim  M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS, Russia 
Vinokhodova, Alla  Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS, Russia 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AQ48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AQ48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 8/11/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/31/19)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: The environments anticipated during Long-Distance Space Exploration Missions (LDSEM) will require crews diverse in national background, professional background, and gender to face a number of stressors such as living and working in isolated and confined environments (ICE) for an extended period of time, separation from family and friends, loss of or significant delay when in communication with the ground, and limited privacy. The unique challenges of LDSEM will require team members to rely on one another for social support and to keep conflict manageable. The long-term duration of the mission coupled with extreme living and working conditions means interpersonal compatibility among the crew members, and between the crew and mission control, will be essential to the success of any LDSEM.

How crew composition and interpersonal relations affect crew functioning and effectiveness has been and continues to be of interest to both NASA and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), whose research informs operations for Roscosmos. Over time, research related to interpersonal compatibility from these agencies has evolved with different emphases. NASA-sponsored team composition research heavily relies on trait and network theories. It seeks to identify traits and combinations of traits that can be used to compose, train, and manage highly effective crews (Team Gap 8). IBMP-sponsored research mostly has moved away from trait-based approaches toward an idiographic (in-depth, heavily descriptive) approach to researching crew interpersonal relations. Our research is a US-Russia collaborative research effort with two primary aims: (1) develop and empirically test a cutting-edge process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE, which integrates US and Russian approaches to examining interpersonal compatibility in ICE; and (2) examine the validity of the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), which is an approach utilized by the Russians to assess interpersonal compatibility and relations in ICE.

To address these aims, we are leveraging existing data previously collected in the Mars 105 and Mars 500 simulations; collecting new analog-definition research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) campaigns 4 and 5; and using a novel data analysis approach. Our efforts will result in research products critical to Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8, including an empirically supported model, recommendations for a path forward for international collaboration in research related to team composition and interpersonal relations in ICE, and a summary of validation evidence for the PSPA with recommendations for whether it should be included in NASA’s standardized measures for analog environments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Results will contribute to a greater understanding of the life cycle of teams operating in isolated and confined environments (ICE), and the effective composition and management of future space crews. Particularly notable is the integration of Russian and US approaches to researching interpersonal compatibility. Our model makes significant contributions to team composition and interpersonal compatibility research by elaborating and testing the foundations of various states, which are individual, relational, and team events. This advancement is critical for understanding how personal attributes shape the subjective attitudes towards the self and towards others, and how relationships develop over time, which can affect the affect, motivation, cognition, and performance of the team. The specific propositions and research questions developed and tested in HERA are specific to ICE; thus, beyond space crews, the most direct application of the research findings will be to Earth teams that operate in ICE such as expedition and science teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. The general framework and analytic strategies we are developing to research interpersonal relationship formation, however, can be applied to Earth teams more generally.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: We have completed the third year of the project. During this past year, we completed data collection in HERA Campaign 4, traveled to Moscow, Russia for a working group, and prepared for and began data collection in HERA Campaign 5. HERA Campaign 5 data collection is underway.

In regards to Aim 1, data cleaning, transcribing, and analyses on HERA Campaign 4 data were conducted. A codebook was developed to capture relational events. Coders were trained, and video and audio files relevant to the initial test of our model are currently being coded. We presented results to one another and refined our model during a working group in Moscow, Russia. Further, we created and added a team-specific training and intervention to HERA Campaign 5 that utilizes the PSPA and individual differences of specific crew members and crews to address relationship enhancement, maintenance, and repair during isolation. This intervention will be evaluated and assessed as a resource to support positive crew member relationships in isolated and confined environments.

Progress has been made on PSPA validation (Aim 2). Analyses of HERA Campaign 4 data at the individual, dyadic, and team-level indicate the PSPA metrics are an effective means of assessing interpersonal compatibility among crews, and are a predictor of team performance. HERA Campaign 5 data will increase this sample size to provide more robust examination of validation evidence, and allow for more complex analyses.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/23/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Books/Book Chapters Bell ST, Roma PG, Caldwell BJ. "Special considerations for conducting research in analog environments: Challenges, solutions, and what is needed." in "Psychology and Human Performance in Space Programs (Research at the Frontier, Vol. 1)." Ed. L.B. Landon, K.J. Slack, E. Salas. in press, as of July 2019., Jul-2019
Project Title:  A US-Russian Collaborative Proposal for Data Collection in HERA: The Relationship between Composition, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Effectiveness in Space Crews Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/12/2016  
End Date: 08/11/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/21/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 E NASA Pkwy 
SK311 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: suzanne.t.bell@nasa.gov 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI at NASA Johnson Space Center as of January 2021; previously at DePaul University 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gushin, Vadim  M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Vinokhodova, Alla  Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AQ48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AQ48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: The environments anticipated during Long-Distance Space Exploration Missions (LDSEM) will require crews diverse in national background, professional background, and gender to face a number of stressors such as living and working in isolated and confined environments (ICE) for an extended period of time, separation from family and friends, loss of or significant delay when in communication with the ground, and limited privacy. The unique challenges of LDSEM will require team members to rely on one another for social support and to keep conflict manageable. The long-term duration of the mission coupled with extreme living and working conditions means interpersonal compatibility among the crew members, and between the crew and mission control, will be essential to the success of any LDSEM.

How crew composition and interpersonal relations affect crew functioning and effectiveness has been and continues to be of interest to both NASA and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), whose research informs operations for Roscosmos. Over time, research related to interpersonal compatibility from these agencies has evolved with different emphases. NASA-sponsored team composition research heavily relies on trait and network theories. It seeks to identify traits and combinations of traits that can be used to compose, train, and manage highly effective crews (Team Gap 8). IBMP-sponsored research mostly has moved away from trait-based approaches toward an idiographic (in-depth, heavily descriptive) approach to researching crew interpersonal relations. Our research is a US-Russia collaborative research effort with two primary aims: (1) develop and empirically test a cutting-edge process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE, which integrates US and Russian approaches to examining interpersonal compatibility in ICE; and (2) Examine the validity of the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), which is an approach utilized by the Russians to assess interpersonal compatibility and relations in ICE.

To address these aims, we are conducting a 3-year research program in which we leverage existing data previously collected in the Mars 105 and Mars 500 simulations; collect new data using analog-definition research in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) campaigns 4 and 5; and use a novel data analysis approach. Our efforts will result in research products critical to Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8, including an empirically supported model, recommendations for a path forward for international collaboration in research related to team composition and interpersonal relations in ICE, and a summary of validation evidence for the PSPA with recommendations for whether it should be included in NASA’s standardized measures for analog environments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Results will contribute to a greater understanding of the life cycle of teams operating in isolated and confined environments (ICE), and the effective composition and management of future space crews. Particularly notable is the integration of Russian and US approaches to researching interpersonal compatibility. Our model makes significant contributions to team composition and interpersonal compatibility research by elaborating and testing the foundations of various states, which are individual, relational, and team events. This advancement is critical for understanding how personal attributes shape the subjective attitudes towards the self and towards others, and how relationships develop over time, which can affect the affect, motivation, cognition, and performance of the team. The specific propositions and research questions developed and tested in HERA are specific to ICE; thus, beyond space crews, the most direct application of the research findings will be to Earth teams that operate in ICE such as expedition and science teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. The general framework and analytic strategies we are developing to research interpersonal relationship formation, however, can be applied to Earth teams more generally.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: To address our research aims, we are conducting a three-year, multi-method research effort in which we: (a) refine an initial model and prepare for data collection in HERA (Phase I); (b) Collect data in the HERA campaigns 4 and 5 at the Johnson Space Center (Phase II); and (c) Analyze HERA data including relational event modeling, validation of the PSPA, and benchmarking of HERA data alongside data from Mars 105 and Mars 500 (Phase III).

We have completed our second year of the project, and are currently in Phase II. Phase II is comprised mostly of analog-definition research in which we will empirically test our model; it is the primary thrust of this research. High resolution data were collected over multiple timepoints within a 45-day isolation protocol, which will allow us to utilize relational events modeling for our primary analyses. This past year we collected data from 4 missions in HERA campaign 4, and are currently collecting data from the 5th and final mission. We collected data prior to isolation on individual differences, the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), and a baseline measure of our team interaction battery. We collected data during the 45 day isolation period using self-report survey, the PSPA, video and audio of specific team interactions, and performance. Post-isolation, we collected data using the PSPA, and a debrief interview and survey. These data each provide unique insight into how the HERA crew members behave and form relationships, as well as how the crews function as a whole.

We ran preliminary analyses comparing the PSPA data from HERA crews with data from the Mars 105 and Mars 500 isolation experiments. We have also coded debrief interviews and used a grounded theory approach to understand the evolution of relationships between HERA crew members. Results were presented at conferences. Finally, we have done extensive data preparation on our performance data, and on the video and audio recordings. These preparations and preliminary data analysis will allow us to move into our next phase of the project including the relational event modeling. In addition to our intensive data collection and preliminary analysis, we also finalized our HERA campaign 5 protocol.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/23/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Awards Bell ST. "Distinguished Alumnus “O” Award, Olivet Nazarene University, November 2017." Nov-2017
Awards Bell ST. "Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, April 2018. " Apr-2018
Awards Bell ST. "Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, May 2018. " May-2018
Awards Vazquez M. "24 Under 24 Leaders and Innovators in STEAM and Space by the Mars Generation in conjunction with Aerojet Rocketdyne and the United Launch Alliance, December 2017." Dec-2017
Significant Media Coverage Winsborough D. (Interviewed Suzanne Bell) "'Predicting team success in outer space.' Interview of Suzanne Bell by Dave Winsborough." People + Strategy. 2018 Spring;41(2):62-4. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA535943013&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=19464606&p=AONE&sw=w ; accessed 6/25/2018., Mar-2018
Project Title:  A US-Russian Collaborative Proposal for Data Collection in HERA: The Relationship between Composition, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Effectiveness in Space Crews Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/12/2016  
End Date: 08/11/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/07/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 E NASA Pkwy 
SK311 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: suzanne.t.bell@nasa.gov 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI at NASA Johnson Space Center as of January 2021; previously at DePaul University 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gushin, Vadim  M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Vinokhodov, Alla  Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Northwestern University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AQ48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AQ48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: The environments anticipated during Long-Distance Space Exploration Missions (LDSEM) will require crews diverse in national background, professional background, and gender to face a number of stressors such as living and working in isolated and confined environments (ICE) for an extended period of time, separation from family and friends, loss of or significant delay when in communication with the ground, and limited privacy. The unique challenges of LDSEM will require team members to rely on one another for social support and to keep conflict manageable. The long-term duration of the mission coupled with extreme living and working conditions means interpersonal compatibility among the crew members, and between the crew and mission control, will be essential to the success of any LDSEM.

How crew composition and interpersonal relations affect crew functioning and effectiveness has been and continues to be of interest to both NASA and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), whose research informs operations for Roscosmos. Over time, research related to interpersonal compatibility from these agencies has evolved with different emphases. NASA-sponsored team composition research heavily relies on trait and network theories. It seeks to identify traits and combinations of traits that can be used to compose, train, and manage highly effective crews (Team Gap 8). IBMP-sponsored research mostly has moved away from trait-based approaches toward an idiographic (in-depth, heavily descriptive) approach to researching crew interpersonal relations. Our research is a US-Russia collaborative research effort with two primary aims: (1) develop and empirically test a cutting-edge process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE, which integrates US and Russian approaches to examining interpersonal compatibility in ICE; and (2) Examine the validity of the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), which is an approach utilized by the Russians to assess interpersonal compatibility and relations in ICE.

To address these aims, we are conducting a 3-year research program in which we leverage existing data previously collected in the Mars 105 and Mars 500 simulations; collect new data using analog-definition research in the 2017 and 2018 Human Exploration Research. Analog (HERA) campaigns; and use a novel data analysis approach. Our efforts will result in research products critical to Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8, including an empirically supported model, recommendations for a path forward for international collaboration in research related to team composition and interpersonal relations in ICE, and a summary of validation evidence for the PSPA with recommendations for whether it should be included in NASA’s standardized measures for analog environments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Results will contribute to a greater understanding of the life cycle of teams operating in isolated and confined environments (ICE), and the effective composition of future space crews. Particularly notable is the integration of Russian and US approaches to researching interpersonal compatibility. Our model makes significant contributions to team composition and interpersonal compatibility research by elaborating and testing the foundations of various states, which are individual, relational, and team events. This advancement is critical for understanding how personal attributes shape the subjective attitudes towards the self and towards others, and how relationships develop over time, which can affect the affect, motivation, cognition, and performance of the team. The specific propositions and research questions developed and tested in HERA are specific to ICE; thus, beyond space crews, the most direct application of the research findings will be to Earth teams that operate in ICE such as expedition and science teams in the Arctic and Antarctic. The general framework and analytic strategies we are developing to research interpersonal relationship formation, however, can be applied to Earth teams more generally.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: To address our research aims, we are conducting a 3-year, multi-method research effort, in which we: (a) refine an initial model and prepare for data collection in HERA (Phase I); (b) Collect data in 2017 and 2018 HERA campaigns at the Johnson Space Center (Phase II); and (c) Analyze HERA data including text mining, relational event modeling, coevolution statistical approach validation of the PSPA, and benchmarking of HERA data alongside data from Mars 105 and Mars 500 (Phase III).

Our project began with a working meeting located at IBMP in Moscow, Russia. Drs. Vinokhodova and Gushin hosted Drs. Bell, Contractor, and DeChurch, along with research assistants and other parties in the Fall of 2016. Our working group was a time to meet one another in person, share ideas, become familiar with different approaches used, discuss our working model and HERA protocol, and for US researchers to be trained on the PSPA. The visit was extremely useful and brought greater understanding to how IBMP and NASA can work together to make significant significant progress in the study of teams in ICE. Our efforts will result in research products critical to closing Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8.

In our first year, we analyzed Mars 105 and Mars 500 data, created a working process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE, and developed a protocol for data collection in the 2017 Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) campaign (Campaign 4). With the completion of Phase I, Phase II is currently underway. Phase II is analog-definition research in which we will empirically test our model; it is the primary thrust of this research. High resolution data are collected over multiple timepoints within a 45-day isolation protocol, which allows us to utilize relational events modeling for our primary analyses.

We started data collection in HERA at the Johnson Space Center, and have successfully completed data collection for the first mission. In Phase II, we will continue to collect data in the current HERA campaign, finalize our 2018 HERA protocol, and provide a tech report describing preliminary results with HERA 2017 data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/23/2022) 

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Awards Bell ST. "Named one of the top 10 Chicago women in science by Make it Better Magazine, December 2016." Dec-2016
Significant Media Coverage Winsborough DW, Chamorro-Premuzic T. "Personalities, Not Just Skills. Quotes from an interview with Bell about the NASA research." Harvard Business Review, January 25, 2017. Retrieved at https://hbr.org/2017/01/great-teams-are-about-personalities-not-just-skills , Jan-2017
Project Title:  A US-Russian Collaborative Proposal for Data Collection in HERA: The Relationship between Composition, Interpersonal Relations, and Team Effectiveness in Space Crews Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/12/2016  
End Date: 08/11/2019  
Task Last Updated: 10/19/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bell, Suzanne  Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2101 E NASA Pkwy 
SK311 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: suzanne.t.bell@nasa.gov 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: PI at NASA Johnson Space Center as of January 2021; previously at DePaul University 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gushin, Vadim  M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Vinokhodov, Alla  Ph.D. Institute of Bio-Medical Problems RAS 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. Georgia Tech Research Corporation 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AQ48G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AQ48G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: How crew composition and interpersonal relations affect crew functioning and effectiveness has been and continues to be of interest to both NASA and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), whose research informs operations for the Russian Federal Space Agency. Over time, research from these agencies has evolved with different emphases. NASA-sponsored team composition research heavily relies on trait and network theories. It seeks to identify traits and combinations of traits that can be used to compose, train, and manage highly effective crews (Team Gap 8). IBMP-sponsored research mostly has moved away from trait-based approaches toward an idiographic (in-depth, heavily descriptive) approach to researching crew interpersonal relations.

We propose a cutting-edge integrative model which details how team member attributes, combinations thereof, and interpersonal perceptions affects the emergence of relational states in isolated and confined environments (ICE). Specifically, we propose to develop and empirically test a process model of interpersonal relationship formation in ICE. As part of our research, we also will examine the validity of the Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA), which is a standardized measure utilized by the Russians to assess interpersonal compatibility and relations.

We propose a 3-year US-Russian collaborative effort in which we leverage existing data previously collected in the Mars 105 and Mars 500 simulations; collect new data using analog-definition research in the 2017 and 2018 HERA campaigns; and use a novel data analysis approach. Our efforts will result in research products critical to Team Gaps 1, 4, and 8, including an empirically supported model, recommendations for a path forward for international collaboration in research related to team composition and interpersonal relations in ICE, and a summary of validation evidence for the PSPA with recommendations for whether it should be included in NASA’s standardized measures for analog environments.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/23/2022) 

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 None in FY 2016