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Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2020 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 07/01/2020  
Task Last Updated: 07/03/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Schmer-Galunder, Sonja  M.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmire, Alexandra  
Center Contact:  
alexandra.m.whitmire@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 7/01/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/29/2020)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/23/19)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2019 per J. Garrett/JSC (Ed., 12/21/18)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles, etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we are investigating individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on two 8-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Ed. note December 2018: Project has been rescoped and the specific aims of the re-scoped study are:

* Aim 1: Collect, develop, and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that are expected (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

* Aim 2: Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

* Aim 3: Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

* Aim 4: Validate that model over two eight-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog. Ed. note: The second of these was disrupted in the second week of isolation, and was unable to be completed. For this reason, this grant was rescoped to include data from NNX13AM78G.

* Aim 5: Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The objective of this investigation is to provide data and recommendations to inform crew composition for long-duration space missions, and to enable the implementation of countermeasures for problems related to crew behavioral health and performance.

This research addresses the following gaps, identified in the Human Research Roadmap :

- Team Gap 101: We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions.

- Team Gap 102: We need to identify a set of quantifiable and validated measures, based on 5-12 key indicators of mission-relevant and identified spaceflight acceptable thresholds (or ranges) of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance of integrated NASA and commercial/private crews, during shifting autonomy in increasingly Earth independent, long duration exploration missions.

- Team Gap 103: We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions.

This research also addresses behavioral health and performance issues in similar situations on Earth (e.g., small groups isolated during a pandemic).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2020 
Task Progress: Our goal in designing HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) mission conditions is to mimic the surface-exploration phase of a long-duration space mission as closely as practical. Of course, there are many aspects of HI-SEAS that are low fidelity: we do not attempt to simulate microgravity or a thin atmosphere, for example. Our focus is on those aspects of a mission that are most relevant to our research questions. In particular:

Isolation: HI-SEAS crewmembers do not have any in-person interactions outside the crew for the duration of the mission. Exchange of items (e.g., samples, food) is done via a resupply container, which is out of sight of the habitat. The only exception is for essential medical care that cannot be provided remotely. Communication: The time it takes for light to travel between Earth and Mars is between four and 24 minutes, depending on the relative positions of the planets. For this reason, all communications between HI-SEAS crewmembers and non-crewmembers are delayed by twenty minutes. In order to avoid confounding our duration-related sub-studies, we do not vary this latency over the course of the mission. This latency prevents the crew from having any real-time interactions with anyone else, or from using interactive websites. The only exception is for necessary functions (e.g., banking) that would typically be handled by a family member or assistant during a real mission.

Resource utilization: Habitat sensors allow us to track the use of critical resources, most notably power and water. The primary source of power is solar energy, which is stored in a large battery bank. There is also a back-up propane generator, which is typically only used in case of unusual weather (e.g., a string of cloudy days) or a malfunction of some kind. Water is delivered approximately once a month. Crewmembers are restricted to eight minutes of shower time per person per week. Crews have shown a competitive streak in trying to reduce water use as much as possible.

Food: All food is shelf-stable, and dried or freeze-dried food is preferred over canned food if available, to reduce mass. There is a small refrigerator for storing leftovers. The crew can grow food (typically leafy vegetables and sprouts), which makes more of a psychological than nutritional contribution to their diet. Food is resupplied every two months.

EVAs (Extravehicular activities): Barring emergencies, the crew can only leave the habitat in an EVA suit under an EVA plan that has been approved by mission support. EVA suits are not true life-support equipment, but instead mimic the bulk, awkwardness, vision limitation, etc. of a real EVA suit.

Mission Support: There are two tiers of mission support (aka ground control). Tier 1 is on duty from 8am to 8pm Hawaii time, and is staffed by volunteers from around the world. They approve routine requests, receive crew reports, provide news, research crew questions, and so on. Tier 2 is staffed by the research team, and is available 24/7 to respond to emergencies and to make decisions on issues not sufficiently defined in the mission rules.

Medical/psychological care: Crews are monitored remotely by a physician and clinical psychologist for the duration of the mission. Care is provided remotely if possible, in person if necessary (very rarely). This team has the final say on whether it is necessary to remove a crewmember from the mission for their own safety. This has happened twice.

Training/debrief periods: Crew arrive in Hawaii about one week prior to the start of their mission. During this time they are trained in mission protocols, and get a crash course in field geology. After the mission, they remain in state for a week of debriefing and post-mission research.

The ability to select crewmembers to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles, and performance, especially for long-duration missions. As of September 2020, five long-duration missions (two four-month missions, two eight-month, and one twelve-month) have been completed at HI-SEAS. This report focusses on Missions 2-5. The resulting data encompass a total of 15.75 person-years of working and living in the HI-SEAS isolated and confined mission environment.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Engler ST, Binsted K. "Towards Multi-Agent Mars Habitat Resource Management Systems." Ninth International Conference on Mars 2019, Pasadena, California, July 22-25, 2019.

Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) Contributions 2089. Ninth International Conference on Mars 2019, Pasadena, California, July 22-25, 2019. , Jul-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lyons KD, Slaughenhaupt RM, Mupparaju SH, Lim JS, Anderson AA, Stankovic AS, Cowan DR, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Buckey JC. "Autonomous psychological support for isolation and confinement." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Nov;91(11):876-85. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5705.2020 ; PMID: 33334408 , Nov-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wilson EL, DiGregorio AJ, Villanueva G, Grunberg CE, Souders Z, Miletti KM, Menendez A, Grunberg MH, Floyd MAM, Bleacher JE, Euskirchen ES, Edgar C, Caldwell BJ, Shiro B, Binsted K. "A portable miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) for remote measurements of column CH4 and CO2." Appl Phys B. 2019 Oct 21;125(211):11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-019-7315-8 ; PMID: 31920221; PMCID: PMC6951259 , Oct-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Barnard A, Engler ST, Binsted K. "Mars habitat power consumption constraints, prioritization, and optimization." Journal of Space Safety Engineering. 2019 Dec;6(4):256-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsse.2019.10.006 , Dec-2019
Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 07/01/2020  
Task Last Updated: 07/21/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Schmer-Galunder, Sonja  M.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 7/01/2020 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/29/2020)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 7/23/19)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2019 per J. Garrett/JSC (Ed., 12/21/18)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles, etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we are investigating individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on two 8-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Ed. note December 2018: Project has been rescoped and the specific aims of the re-scoped study are:

* Aim 1: Collect, develop, and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that are expected (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

* Aim 2: Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

* Aim 3: Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

* Aim 4: Validate that model over two eight-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog.

* Aim 5: Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The objective of this investigation is to provide data and recommendations to inform crew composition for long-duration space missions, and to enable the implementation of countermeasures for problems related to crew behavioral health and performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Due to an accident at the habitat in February 2018 that halted work, the program review by both University of Hawaii and NASA Institutional Review Boards, and the subsequent rescoping of the grant, no progress has been made in the research over the past year. We believe that all the issues have been resolved, and that we should be able to restart work soon. We did present at meetings and publish papers; see Bibliography section below.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bleacher JE, Shiro B, McAdam A, Young K, Garry WB, Whelley P, Richardson JA, Rowland SK, Binsted K, Caldwell B, Glotch TD. "Studies of Young Hawaiian Lava Tubes to Develop Techniques for Interpreting Lava Emplacement and Inferring Past Environment on the Moon and Mars." Presented at the AGU (American Geophysical Meeting) Fall Meeting, Washington, DC, December 10-14, 2018.

AGU (American Geophysical Meeting) Fall Meeting, Washington, DC, December 10-14, 2018. Fall Meeting Abstracts. Abstract #P31H-3800. , Dec-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Engler ST, Binsted K, Leung H. "HI-SEAS habitat energy requirements and forecasting." Acta Astronautica. 2019 Sep;162:50-5. Available online 2019 May 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.05.049 , Sep-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goemaere S, Brenning K, Beyers W, Vermeulen ACJ, Binsted K, Vansteenkiste M. "Do astronauts benefit from autonomy? Investigating perceived autonomy-supportive communication by Mission Support, crew motivation and collaboration during HI-SEAS 1." Acta Astronautica. 2019 Apr;157:9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.11.048 , Apr-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goemaere S, Van Caelenberg T, Beyers W, Binsted K, Vansteenkiste M. "Life on Mars from a Self-Determination Theory perspective: How astronauts’ needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness go hand in hand with crew health and mission success - Results from HI-SEAS IV. " Acta Astronautica. 2019 Jun;159:273-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.03.059 , Jun-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Frick SE, Fletcher KA, Ramsay PS, Bedwell WL. "Understanding team maladaptation through the lens of the four R's of adaptation." Hum Resour Manage Rev. 2018 Dec;28(4):411-22. Epub 2017 Aug 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.08.005 , Dec-2018
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Engler S, Hunter J, Binsted K, Leung H. "Robotic Companions for Long Term Isolation Space Missions." Presented at the 2018 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots (UR), Honolulu, HI, June 26-30, 2018.

In: 2018 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots (UR) Proceedings, Honolulu, HI, June 26-30, 2018. p. 424-430. https://doi.org/10.1109/URAI.2018.8441838 , Jun-2018

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Idota T, Biagioni E, Binsted K. "Swarm Exploration of Extraterrestrial Lava Tubes with Ad-Hoc Communications." Presented at the 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless for Space and Extreme Environments (WiSEE), Huntsville, AL, December 11-13, 2018.

In: Proceedings, 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless for Space and Extreme Environments (WiSEE), Huntsville, AL, December 11-13, 2018. p. 163-168. https://doi.org/10.1109/WiSEE.2018.8637325 , Dec-2018

Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 07/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 12/24/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Schmer-Galunder, Sonja  M.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, Inc. 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2017 report: Sonja Schmer-Galunder is added as CoInvestigator to serve as the lead scientist for our project at Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC (SIFT).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2019 per J. Garrett/JSC (Ed., 12/21/18)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we are investigating individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on two 8-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Ed. note December 2018: Project has been rescoped and the specific aims of the re-scoped study are:

* Aim 1: Collect, develop, and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that are expected (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

* Aim 2: Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

* Aim 3: Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

* Aim 4: Validate that model over two eight-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog.

* Aim 5: Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The objective of this investigation is to provide data and recommendations to inform crew composition for long-duration space missions, and to enable the implementation of countermeasures for problems related to crew behavioral health and performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Editor’s Note: The project has been on hold and rescoped. It has restarted recently per December 2018 information from HFBP (Human Factors and Behavioral Performance) element personnel.

The specific aims of the re-scoped study are:

* Aim 1: Collect, develop, and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that are expected (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

* Aim 2: Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

* Aim 3: Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

* Aim 4: Validate that model over two eight-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog.

* Aim 5: Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 07/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Schmer-Galunder, Sonja  M.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, Inc. 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2017 report: Sonja Schmer-Galunder is added as CoInvestigator to serve as the lead scientist for our project at Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC (SIFT).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2019 per J. Garrett/JSC (Ed., 12/21/18)

NOTE: Extended to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we are investigating individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on two 8-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The objective of this investigation is to provide data and recommendations to inform crew composition for long-duration space missions, and to enable the implementation of countermeasures for problems related to crew behavioral health and performance.

This ground-based investigation will:

1. Collect, develop and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that we expect (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

2. Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

3. Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

4. Validate that model over two 8-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog.

5. Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: This research takes place at two analog sites: the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah, and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) habitat on Mauna Loa.

The MDRS season runs from October to May, with about 10-12 crews per season. Some of these crews, however, are not suitable for this project, because either a) they are primarily educational crews; b) they are using MDRS primarily as a base for out-of-simulation activities (e.g., geology fieldwork); or c) the crew will be at the habitat for less than two weeks. Nonetheless, we still expect to have a total of 18-22 crews participate in this study. MDRS crews participated in spring 2016 and the 2016-2017 season; the rest will participate in the one remaining season. Although the levels of researcher control at MDRS is much lower than at HI-SEAS (e.g., we will have influence on, but not full control of, crew composition), these missions provide an excellent opportunity increase the number of crews studied and to validate our approach in other environments.

At HI-SEAS, in contrast, we have complete control over crew composition and mission conditions. The first of two 8-month HI-SEAS missions is underway, and has recently passed the halfway mark. So far, crew compliance with study procedures has been near 100%, with only a few minor errors or connectivity issues.

The next major stage of activity is crew composition for the second HI-SEAS mission. We expect the composition effort to start in July 2017, with the anticipated start of the mission in January 2018. Our research at both locations has been approved by both University of Hawaii and NASA Institutional Review Boards, subject to annual review.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Binsted K, Basner M, Bedwell W, Bishop S, Caldwell B, Chang D, Hunter J, Kozlowski S, Roma P, Shiro B, Wu P. "Investigations at HI-SEAS into Team Function and Performance on, and Crew Compostion for, Long Duration Exploration Missions." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Caldwell B, Binsted K. "Frequency of Hi-Seas Crew Communications to Mission Support During 4-, 8-, and 12-Month Simulated Planetary Exploration Missions." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dunn J, Landry S, Binsted K. "Trajectories of Health and Stress in Long-Duration Mars Analog Crews." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Nasrini J, Dinges DF, McGuire S, Hermosillo E, Ecker AJ, Mollicone DJ, Mott CG, Binsted K, Caldwell B, Moore TM, Gur RC, Basner M. "Cognitive Performance in Long-Duration Mars Simulations at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS)." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Anderson A, Fellows A, Hegel M, Binsted K, Buckey J. "Evaluation of an Autonomous, Computer-Based Behavioral Health Countermeasure in an Isolated, Confined Environment." 87th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, April 24-28, 2016.

Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2016 Mar;87(3). , Mar-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Caldwell B, Roma P, Binsted K, Shiro B. "Team Cohesion, Performance, and Biopsychosocial Adaptation Research at the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS)" 31st Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, California, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, California, April 14-16, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/2292/28717 , Apr-2016

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wu P, Morie J, Wall P, Ott T, Binsted K. "ANSIBLE: Virtual reality for behavioral health." Procedia Engineering. 2016;159:108-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.132 , Aug-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Anderson AP, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. "Autonomous, computer-based behavioral health countermeasure evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars Analog." Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2016 Nov;87(11):912-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4676.2016 ; PubMed PMID: 27779949 , Nov-2016
Books/Book Chapters Roma PG, Bedwell WL. "Key factors and threats to team dynamics in long-duration extreme environments." in "Team Dynamics Over Time. Book series: Research on Managing Groups and Teams, Vol. 18." Ed. E. Salas. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017. p. 155-87. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-085620160000018007 , Jul-2017
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Ott T, Wu P, Morie J, Wall P, Ladwig J, Chance E, Haynes K, Bell B, Miller C, Binsted K. "ANSIBLE: A Virtual World Ecosystem for Improving Psycho-Social Well-being." International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016.

In: VAMR 2016: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2016. p. 532-543. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series ; volume 9740). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39907-2_51 , Jul-2016

Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 09/06/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we are investigating individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on two 8-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The objective of this investigation is to provide data and recommendations to inform crew composition for long-duration space missions, and to enable the implementation of countermeasures for problems related to crew behavioral health and performance.

This ground-based investigation will:

1. Collect, develop and verify a set of individual, dyad, and crew characteristics that we expect (based on past investigations) to be relevant to crew composition.

2. Identify correlations, if any, between those characteristics and crew function/performance, using data from a series of simulated missions of various lengths at analog sites.

3. Build a predictive model based on these correlations.

4. Validate that model over two 8-month simulated missions at the HI-SEAS analog.

5. Develop a set of tools (e.g., rubric, implemented model, best practices) NASA can use to optimize crew composition.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: The first nine months of this grant have been spent primarily on planning, staffing, setting up sub-awards (e.g., to the Mars Society, which runs the Mars Desert Research Station, or MDRS), institutional review, and the first MDRS mission. We are now ready for the next two MDRS seasons, and have begun recruitment for the two 8-month HI-SEAS missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  Using Analog Missions to Develop Effective Team Composition Strategies for Long Duration Space Exploration Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/14/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bedwell, Wendy  Ph.D. University of South Florida, Tampa 
Bishop, Sheryl  Ph.D. University of Texas, Galveston 
Hunter, Jean  Ph.D. Cornell University 
Kozlowski, Steve  Ph.D. Michigan State University 
Miller, Christopher  Ph.D. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Roma, Peter  Ph.D. Institutes for Behavior Resources, Inc 
Wu, Peggy  B.S. Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AN05G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AN05G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team-101:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and evolution of the team throughout its life cycle for shifting autonomy and interface with automation in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(2) Team-103:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof for use in selecting individuals and composing highly effective crews most likely to maintain team function during shifting autonomy in increasingly earth independent, long duration exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
Task Description: Astronaut crews for long-duration multi-national missions will endure many physical challenges and psychological stressors, some largely predictable in type and timing and others unpredictable. Crews are likely to be diverse with respect to educational background, skill set, ethnicity, gender, leadership/followership styles etc., yet they must form a cohesive team, and continue to function together at a high level of objective performance and remain responsive to mission support over the duration of the mission. Crew cohesion will be more fragile at times of high stress and fatigue, yet those are the times when performance must be unimpaired if the crew is to succeed. Adding to the challenge, the pool from which crews must be selected may be significantly constrained by other factors, such as past radiation exposure.

For these reasons, it is essential that we understand how best to compose and support crews for long-duration space missions, and that we develop a set of validated tools to this end.

In order to enable and advance long duration human space exploration, we propose to investigate individual and crew characteristics that may affect crew function and performance, by measuring both characteristics and performance on a range of simulated missions in analog environments. Based on the correlations found, we will develop a predictive model of the relationship between crew composition and performance. We will validate and enhance this model via data collected on four 4-month Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) missions, and use the results to provide NASA with a set of tools to optimize its crew composition strategies.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2015