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Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 03/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 10/30/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA Principal Investigator (PI) is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: The objective of the project is to develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and universities in Japan, USA, and France. Dr. Olson is a U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

The investigation strategy is to perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2018 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

 

Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Changed end date to 3/31/2021 per PI (Ed., 6/3/19)

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: The 2019 annual international Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE) January workshop was cancelled due to the Government shutdown. An expanded ‘Spacecraft Materials Flammability Workshop’ was held from May 20-22, 2019 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Guerin House. The workshop was an expansion of the JAXA flare experiment annual workshop, and included presentations on programs from international representatives from JAXA, German Aerospace Center (DLR), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), ESA, NASA [Headquarters, Glenn Research Center (GRC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), and Johnson Space Center (JSC)], and a number of universities. Also at that meeting, the FLARE science teams presented their status to the group. In addition, results from parabolic aircraft campaigns were discussed. Workshop attendees toured the Zero Gravity Research Facility, the Telescience Support Center, and the Combustion Integrated Rack.

Low-gravity aircraft parabolic trajectories and microgravity drop tower experiments have been conducted to study blowoff extinction limits for thin sheets of bleached grade#90 cheesecloth. To avoid confusion with ignition limits, the flames were ignited under a flammable condition, and the conditions were changed (flow, oxygen) to determine if the flame would blow off. Preliminary blowoff boundaries were mapped for both opposed and concurrent flow. The concurrent blowoff boundary occurs at lower oxygen concentrations for the same ambient flow velocities than the opposed blowoff boundary, and the slopes do not appear to be parallel. This is hypothesized to be due to the a higher Damkohler number at the flame base of a concurrent flame (stagnation flow) than at the leading edge of an opposed flow flame (boundary layer flow) under the same flows.

Local blowoffs were observed during testing, where a significant fraction of the opposed flame width extinguishes, and where one whole side of the concurrent flame blows off. Often, the remaining flame will again spread to the affected area, only to have the event occur, often repeatedly, during the test. Due to the stochastic nature of the local extinctions along the 2D stabilization region [leading edge (opposed flow), flame base (concurrent flow)], they do not always result in total extinction of the flame, indicating the flammability boundary is a band rather than a sharp boundary of conditions (flow, oxygen concentration).

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Olson S. "Update on GRC Research, FLARE Workshop." Spacecraft Materials Flammability Workshop, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, May 20-22, 2019. (Expanded FLARE Workshop)

Abstracts. Spacecraft Materials Flammability Workshop, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, May 20-22, 2019. , May-2019

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Olson S, Torikai H, Hokari K, Fukuda M. "Low-gravity near-blowoff opposed and concurrent flame behavior of burning cotton in parabolic aircraft testing and microgravity drop tower testing." 11th U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Pasadena, CA, March 24-27, 2019.

11th U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Pasadena, CA, March 24-27, 2019. https://wssci.us/meetings/ncm2019/ , Mar-2019

Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 03/31/2021  
Task Last Updated: 10/17/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA Principal Investigator (PI) is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: The objective of the project is to develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and universities in Japan, USA, and France. Dr. Olson is a U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

The investigation strategy is to perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2018 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

 

Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Changed end date to 3/31/2021 per PI (Ed., 6/3/19)

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: An international workshop was held at Tsukuba, Japan in January, 2018. At that meeting, the science teams presented their status to the group. In addition, plans for a parabolic aircraft campaign were discussed.

A series of NASA Glenn Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGRF) tests were continued this year to determine the approximate high velocity blowoff limits for thin cotton fabrics for both opposed and some concurrent flow conditions. For concurrent flow, flame spread was obtained over the accessible range of flow at 12% oxygen at one atmosphere pressure. These results were shared with the Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE) Co-Investigator while planning his aircraft campaigns.

Concurrent blowoff parabolic aircraft testing was conducted in Japan in the G-II aircraft in August and September, 2018. A number of blowoff conditions were obtained as well as flame spread. The data was shared, and analysis is underway of the flame spread and blowoff onset. Concurrent blowoff of thin cotton sheet occurs frequently on only on one side of the sample at near-limit conditions. Often, during a single test, the flame will blow off one side only to re-form, wrapping around the base from the flame on the other side. This is possible because the cotton fabric burns away at the base. Definitive blowoff occurs when both sides of the flame blow off. This one-sided blowoff behavior creates a larger band of uncertainty along the blowoff boundary.

A successful Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Aug. 22-23, 2018. The FLARE project status and the ISO standardization plan were discussed. Extensive data was shared on JAXA parabolic aircraft testing and 1g blowoff testing of practical materials (Nomex HT90-40, Polycarbonate, Kevlar, Kapton, Conex, Technora, Kydex). NASA has proposed an improved upward flame spread Test 1 of NASA STD 6001B which evaluates the upward limiting oxygen index and maximum oxygen concentration (ULOI/MOC) of a material in 1g. JAXA is pursuing a downward burning limiting oxygen index (LOI) method as a potential alternative index for flammability. For either of these methods, there is a discrepancy in the actual flammability limit in microgravity since material flammability can be higher in microgravity.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Olson SL. "Normal gravity test method to estimate microgravity material flammability limits in exploration atmospheres: upward blowoff of axisymmetric samples." FLARE Workshop, JAXA, Tsukuba, Japan, January 22-24 2018.

FLARE Workshop, JAXA, Tsukuba, Japan, January 22-24 2018. , Jan-2018

Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/16/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA Principal Investigator (PI) is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: The objective of the project is to develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and universities in Japan, USA, and France. Dr. Olson is a U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

The investigation strategy is to perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2018 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: A successful TIM (technical interchange meeting) and Phase 0/1 Flammability hazard review was held at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Dec. 6-8, 2016. Also discussed at that meeting was the FLARE project status and the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization plan was updated. NASA has proposed an improved upward flame spread Test 1 of NASA STD 6001B which evaluates the upward limiting oxygen index and maximum oxygen concentration (ULOI/MOC) of a material in 1g. JAXA is pursuing a downward burning limiting oxygen index (LOI) method as a potential alternative index for flammability. For either of these methods, there is a discrepancy in the actual flammability limit in microgravity since material flammability can be higher in microgravity.

An international workshop was held at European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), in Noordwick, Netherlands in January, 2017. At that meeting, the science teams presented their status to the group. In addition, plans for a parabolic aircraft campaign were discussed.

A series of NASA Glenn Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGRF) tests were continued this year with the updated Microgravity Wind Tunnel, which includes a new longer test section and two high resolution GIGE cameras. The tests were performed to determine the approximate high velocity blowoff limits for thin cotton fabrics for both opposed and some concurrent flow conditions. The materials were ignited in normal gravity and then the experiment was dropped. The ambient gas oxidizer concentration was switched to the test atmosphere to determine if the flame could survive in the reduced oxygen concentration during the 5.18 second drop.

For opposed flow flame spread, the lowest section of the flammability boundary is filled in with microgravity drop data, and the wings of the boundary include normal gravity blowoff data from Fernandez-Pello, Ray, and Glassman (18th Symposium on Combustion, 1981) and Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) quiescent microgravity data from Ramachandra et al. (Combustion and Flame 100, 1995). The minimum in the flammability boundary is at an oxygen concentration of ~13% O2 at approximately 10 cm/s, which is in the range of spacecraft ventilation flow velocities.

The normal gravity buoyant only limit occurs at a limiting oxygen concentration of ~15.9% O2, significantly higher than the observed minimum in the flammability boundary. This demonstrates how a normal gravity test is not a conservative test to evaluate microgravity flammability. However, it may be possible to account for the buoyant flow and correct the data to predict a conservative microgravity limit, since the blowoff boundary is linear with flow down to very low velocities. If the blowoff boundary is determined via 1g testing, and the buoyant flow contribution is included, the minimum in the flammability boundary can be estimated by extrapolating to zero flow.

Some concurrent ZGRF tests have also been conducted near the bottom of the flammability boundary, and the blowoff limits are even lower than opposed limits.

Steady flames are obtained as low as 12% O2. The 12% O2 concurrent ZGRF flame spread tests were tracked to determine if they appeared to be stable. The flame length appears to grow linearly with flow, and the flame spread rate increases linearly with flow as well. This is in agreement with numerical modelling (Ferkul and T'ien, 1994). The flame length increases linearly with the flame spread rate, in agreement with the Markstein and deRis paper (1973) where they indicate a concurrent flame over a given material should have a constant burnout time (length/spread rate) for fixed oxygen and pressure.

References

Fernandez-Pello, A. C., Ray, S. R., and Glassman, I. (1981). "Flame spread in an opposed forced flow: the effect of ambient oxygen concentration." Symposium (International) on Combustion. Vol. 18. No. 1. Elsevier.

Ramachandra, P. A., Altenkirch, R. A., Bhattacharjee, S., Tang, L., Sacksteder, K., & Wolverton, M. K. (1995). The behavior of flames spreading over thin solids in microgravity. Combustion and flame, 100(1), 71-84.

Ferkul, P. V., and J. S. T'ien. (1994). "A model of low-speed concurrent flow flame spread over a thin fuel." Combustion science and technology 99.4-6 : 345-370.

Markstein, G. H., & De Ris, J. (1973, January). Upward fire spread over textiles. In Symposium (International) on Combustion (Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1085-1097). Elsevier.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Olson SL. "Flammability limits of thin and intermediately thick fuels in normal and microgravity." Presented at FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017.

FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Marcum JW, Olson SL, Ferkul PV. "Normoxic Low Pressure Blowoff Test Method for Exploration Atmospheres." Presented at FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017.

FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Olson S. "Spacecraft Fire Safety Cohesive Experiment Utilization Plan: An International Topical Team Meeting Discussion Topic. " Presented at FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017.

FLARE International Workshop and International Topical Team Meeting, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwjk, the Netherlands, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/21/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA Principal Investigator (PI) is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: The objective of the project is to develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and universities in Japan, USA, and France. Dr. Olson is a U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

The investigation strategy is to perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2018 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: An international workshop was held at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan in January, 2016. At that meeting, the science requirements were reviewed and finalized. The science teams presented their status to the group. In addition, plans for a parabolic aircraft campaign were discussed.

A series of NASA Glenn Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGRF) tests were performed this year with the updated Microgravity Wind Tunnel, which includes a new longer test section and two high resolution GIGE cameras. The tests were performed to determine the approximate high velocity blowoff limits for thin cotton fabrics. The materials were ignited in normal gravity and then the experiment was dropped. The ambient gas oxidizer concentration was switched to the test atmosphere to determine if the flame could survive in the reduced oxygen concentration during the 5.18 second drop.

For opposed flow flame spread, the low gravity blowoff limits were determined at three oxygen concentrations. These were compared to normal gravity data. The 1g data indicates the limiting (zero flow) oxygen concentration is ~15.9% O2, significantly higher than the observed ZGRF limits at ~13% O2. This demonstrates how the 1g test is not a conservative test to evaluate microgravity flammability. However, it may be possible to account for the buoyant flow and correct the data to predict a conservative microgravity limit.

Some concurrent ZGRF tests have also been conducted, and the blowoff limits are even lower than opposed limits, but further drop and 1g testing is required to determine if a similar shift in the limits is feasible for concurrent flow. Because concurrent flames grow rapidly, it is difficult to get a 1g flame blowoff before the flame exceeds the apparatus size.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Olson SL. "Concurrent Flow Blowoff Boundary Extrapolation to Zero Stretch: A Proposed New Materials Flammability Test Method." Presented at the FLARE International Workshop, Sapporo Japan, Jan. 20-22, 2016.

FLARE International Workshop, Sapporo Japan, Jan. 20-22, 2016. , Jan-2016

Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 12/22/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA PI is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: The objective of the project is to develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA and universities in Japan, USA, and France. Dr. Olson is a U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

The investigation strategy is to perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in International Space Station (ISS)/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2018 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: A workshop for the project was held January 2015 at NASA’s White Sands Test Facility. A presentation was made to the international team discussing the Burning and Suppression of Solids –II (BASS-II) test results obtained in 2014. In addition, pressure effects on flammability limits were examined.

This year, a summer student performed microgravity forced convection drop testing using cotton fabric sheets, and blowoff limits were obtained and compared with normal gravity buoyant blowoff limits at low oxygen. Limits are lower in microgravity, consistent with previous results. Testing to study blowoff of acrylic slabs has started.

NASA and JAXA are discussing a collaboration that would utilize the BASS-II (Burning and Suppression of Solids) hardware in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox for FLARE’s thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples in microgravity.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Fujita O, Takahashi S, Torikai H, Olson S, Fernandez-Pello C, Legros G, Tsue M, Nakamura Y, Wakatsuki K, Beeson H, Hirsch D, Orilandi M, Rhor T, Sakurai N, Shimamura H, Kikuchi M, Hosogai A, Katsuta M, Nakamura Y. "Introduction of combustion research project 'FLARE' utilizing ISS/KIBO for fire safety standard in the next generation." 6th ISPS (International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space), Kyoto, Japan, September 14-18, 2015.

6th ISPS (International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space), Kyoto, Japan, September 14-18, 2015. http://www.jasma.info/isps-6_ITTW2015/ , Sep-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kikuchi M, Mizushima T, Fujita O, Takahashi S, Ito A, Torikai H, Nakamura Y, Olson SL. "Overview of 'Solid Combustion' Experiment in the Kibo on board the ISS." 6th ISPS (International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space), Kyoto, Japan, September 14-18, 2015.

6th ISPS (International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space), Kyoto, Japan, September 14-18, 2015. http://www.jasma.info/isps-6_ITTW2015/ , Sep-2015

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Kikuchi M, Fujita O, Takahashi S, Ito A, Torkiai H, Nakamura Y, Olson SL. "Overview of the 'Solid Combustion' Experiment in the Japanese Experiment Module 'Kibo' on the International Space Station." 45th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Bellevue, Washington, July 12-16, 2015.

45th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Bellevue, Washington, July 12-16, 2015. Paper number ICES-2015-213. , Jul-2015

Project Title:  Fundamental Research on International Standard of Fire Safety in Space - Subteam 1: Study of Flammability of Fabric Materials Expand All
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Start Date: 07/01/2014  
End Date: 06/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 08/14/2015 
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Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Olson, Sandra  Ph.D. / NASA Glenn Research Center 
Address:  LTX, Combustion Physics and Reacting Systems Branch 
MS 77-5, 21000 Brookpark Rd. 
Cleveland , OH 44135 
Email: Sandra.Olson@nasa.gov 
Phone: 216-433-2859  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Glenn Research Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Dr. Sandra Olson is U.S. Co-Investigator on Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA PI is Prof. Osamu Fujita, Hokkaido University.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA GRC 
Grant Monitor: Urban, David  
Center Contact: 216-433-2835 
david.l.urban@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: OTHER 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  
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Program--Element: COMBUSTION SCIENCE--Combustion science 
Task Description: Funding is for Dr. Olson's role as U.S. Co-Investigator for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)-sponsored project, “Flammability Limits At Reduced-g Experiment (FLARE)." JAXA International Announcement of Opportunity (AO) to fund experiments to be conducted aboard the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo, 2012.

Objective: To develop a methodology to correlate material flammability limits in normal gravity and microgravity, which allows quantitative estimation of material flammability limit in microgravity based on the flammability data obtained on the ground. The project involves an international team including JAXA, NASA, ESA and universities in Japan, USA, and France.

To establish global standards for fire safety in space, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of how NASA’s material flammability test, NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1, relates to the actual flammability of materials in micro and partial gravity.

Investigation Strategy: Perform extensive research via ground-based experiments, including 1g and parabolic flight tests, and via theoretical formulations. Flight experiments on orbit in ISS/KIBO will be performed to verify the correlation. The flight experiments on orbit are expected in 2017 or later.

By the end of the project, a new fire safety standard test method for screening spacecraft materials will be proposed that addresses the shortcomings of existing standard test method such as NASA STD 6001B.

Relevance/Impact:

Fundamental Science – studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction.

Efficiency - The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening.

Safety - Terrestrial fire safety; spacecraft fire safety

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Studying materials flammability in space allows us to accurately control the flow field and thus elucidate the importance of a critical Damkohler number (flow time /reaction time) on flame extinction. The anticipated improved methodology should reduce time and cost for the spacecraft material screening. Investigation and results have Earth benefits for terrestrial fire safety.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2014.

(Editor's Note: added to Task Book in April 2015 when information received.)

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 11/13/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014