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Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 03/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 10/09/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Roalf, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Stahn, Alexander  Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Gunga, Hanns-Christian  M.D., Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Macri, Simone  Ph.D. Istituto Superiore di Sanità 
Münch, Mirjam  Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Leger, Damien  M.D., Ph.D. Université Paris Descartes 
Ambrecht, Gabriele  Charité Berlin 
Pattyn, Nathalie  M.D., Ph.D. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 
Smith, Michael  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2019: Michael Smith (Post-Doc) was added as a co-investigator. May 2017: Nathalie Pattyn (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium) was added as a co-investigator. She was the research MD on Halley station and will correlate Cognition data with SINSKILL data (also acquired in Halley). May 2016 report: Damien Leger and Gabi Ambrecht were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them. May 2015 report: David Roalf, PhD was added as a Co-Investigator to take over most of the tasks of Ted Sattherthwaite, MD. Alexander Stahn, PhD and Hanns-Christian Gunga, MD PhD were added as Co-Investigators for Cognition in Neumayer-III and Halley-VI. Simone Macri and Mirjam Münch were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/7/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC and NSSC information (Ed., 12/7/16)

Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the Behavioral Medicine (BMed) 3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in both resting-state and activated; diffusion tensor imaging; and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload, and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and International Space Station (ISS), as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. The Cognition test battery was also implemented in the Antarctic stations Neumayer-III and Halley-VI. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: With the proposed work we will relevantly contribute to the goal of the Human Research Program (HRP) to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. More specifically, our findings, based on state-of-the-art neuroimaging technologies and on innovative, non-invasive, low burden, yet methodologically sound measurement technologies for cognitive, physiological, and crew cohesion outcomes, will relevantly contribute to the development of technologies to provide mission planners and system developers with strategies for monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks. These methodologies will also be useful for assessing subjects living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Due to their complex logistical operations, harsh threatening environmental conditions such as extreme cold, altered photoperiod, low humidity, isolation, and confinement, as well as analogous population of researchers with multicultural backgrounds, but similar educational background compared to astronauts, Antarctic research stations are considered a high-fidelity analog for long-duration space missions.

This study investigated neurostructural and functional changes in 25 crewmembers over-wintering in the Antarctic Concordia station and in 26 age- and sex-matched controls at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Structural and functional neuroimaging was obtained prior to, immediately after, and 6-month after the winter-over. Crewmembers and controls performed the Cognition test battery on a monthly basis in mission. They also wore a small device measuring heart rate for a 24-h period on a monthly basis. Finally, the crew continuously wore wrist actigraphs to measure wake activity and sleep-wake rhythmicity. These watches also recorded proximity to watches worn by the other crewmembers and to devices strategically placed throughout the station as surrogate measures of crew cohesion and habitat use. Two Antarctic research stations (Neumayer and Halley) were added after the start of the study. The crews in these stations (N=17 at Neumayer and N=25 at Halley) only performed the Cognition test battery on a monthly basis. At Neumayer station, neuroimaging was also available before and ca. 3 months after the mission. This study had the following specific aims:

• Aim 1: Investigate neurostructural and neurofunctional changes

• Aim 2: Investigate changes in cognitive performance

• Aim 3: Investigate changes in sleep duration, sleep-wake rhythms, and light exposure

• Aim 4: Investigate physiologic changes in heart rate and heart rate variability

• Aim 5: Investigate changes in subjective assessments of mood, fatigue, health, energy, stress, workload, sleep quality, and conflicts

• Aim 6: Investigate changes in crew cohesion and habitat use.

For T1-weighted MRI, our results indicate small, but robust volume reductions immediately post-mission in the Antarctic winter-over group. Volume generally normalized by the 6-month follow-up, except for a small reduction in Parietal volume. In contrast to volume, gray matter density (GMD) increased in the Antarctic winter-over group, and normalized at the 6-months follow-up. These findings indicate that isolated, stressful environments are associated with transient brain volume reductions and by small increases in gray matter density. Increase in GMD may reflect experience-dependent structural plasticity and is also found in children who have experienced traumatic stressful events.

Most hippocampal subfield measurements indicated little to no change in the Antarctic winter-over group. There was a nominal decline in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) immediately upon return that completely normalized. Changes in the PHC are relevant as this region of the brain is critical for memory encoding and retrieval that could affect performance. Moreover, extant research has shown that this hippocampal region is sensitive to stress and other environmental stressor (e.g., radiation). As such, alterations in these brain structures should continue to be closely monitored, particularly in longer duration missions.

For diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional anisotropy (FA) in white matter decreased in the winter-over group and returned to baseline at 6-month follow-up. There were no significant changes in brain mean diffusivity (MD). Alterations in brain white matter signify microstructural changes in neural communication that are critical for sustaining neurocognitive performance, in particular working memory and executive function, and may relate to the manifestation of clinical symptoms. As such, it is important to monitor changes in brain white matter, especially for longer missions. For functional MRI, Voxelwise regional homogeneity (ReHo) was nominally increased in Fronto-dorsal and Temporal lobes immediately upon return from winter-over that normalized at the 6-months follow-up. Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations (ALFF) was lower across the brain immediately upon return from winter-over and also normalized at the 6-months follow-up. Alterations in brain connectivity can be associated with significant change in performance and can indicate the presence of neurological or psychological dysfunction. While resting BOLD measures normalized after the mission was complete, it is unknown whether transient changes in functional connectivity have lasting consequences or whether repeated changes in functional connectivity are, in general, detrimental to the integrity of the neural system.

Correlations between brain volume changes in the MRI and cognitive performance changes across the mission showed the strongest associations in subcortical brain regions. Individuals with larger reduction in brain volume in the nucleus accumbens (bilateral) and the right hippocampus after the winter-over mission showed larger performance deficits (less efficient) on Cognition over time. These data indicate significant individual differences in the relationship between alterations in brain structure and performance. Moreover, these data suggest that even small changes in brain subcortical volume can significantly impact cognitive performance in some individuals. Additional biologic and performance measures should be sought to identify individuals that may be vulnerable to small changes in brain volume given the effect that these changes have on cognitive performance. Paradoxically, volume change in the cerebral cortex showed the opposite pattern. More volume reduction during the winter-over was associated with improved performance on Cognition over time. As noted above, this could be related to changes in the composition of brain gray matter that allow for structural plasticity while in an isolated, stressful environment. More comprehensive analyses are needed to better understand this pattern.

Analyses in the Neumayer crew showed that dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 volumes were significantly decreased after the expedition. The strongest effects were observed for the dentate gyrus. All other subfields also showed a reduction, but these changes did not reach statistical significance. There were no statistically significant correlations between linear trends in cognitive accuracy, speed, and efficiency (across cognitive domains) with time in mission and change in dentate gyrus volume.

Cognitive performance data suggest significant increases in cognitive speed and decreases in cognitive accuracy, with a net increase in cognitive efficiency, across study sites with increasing time in mission even after adjusting for practice effects. This suggests a change in response strategy (sacrificing accuracy for speed) rather than an isolated insult to cognitive accuracy. However, these changes were small (=0.055 SD per mission quintile; linear trend) and likely irrelevant. Except for a few cognitive domains, differences in accuracy and speed between sites were minor and statistically non-significant. The findings suggest no relevant negative effect on cognitive performance when spending prolonged periods of time (10-14 months) in Antarctic ICE environments on cognitive performance. The subtle change in response bias was observed both in Antarctic crews and DLR controls.

With ca. 6.5 hours total sleep time (TST) sleep duration in the Concordia crew fell a little short compared to the recommended 7 h of sleep per 24 h. However, these recommendations are largely based on self-reported sleep time, which over-estimates objectively assessed sleep duration and more likely reflects time-in-bed (TIB) rather than TST. TIB exceeded 7 hours both in the Concordia crew and in DLR controls. Sleep efficiency was borderline low in both the Concordia crew and DLR controls. Subjectively assessed sleep quality and sleepiness were in the average range and did not differ between sites. According to spectral analyses and visual inspection of double-plotted data the Concordia crew remained entrained to the 24-h day. Periodic breathing during sleep was a common phenomenon in the Concordia crew, but detailed analyses are still pending. Wake activity levels in the Concordia crew were mostly in the light to moderate range, and they did not differ significantly from DLR controls. These results do not suggest major sleep-wake problems in the Concordia crew on the group level, although more detailed analyses may reveal inter-individual differences among the crew.

We found some differences in sympathovagal balance between the first and the second half of the mission in the Concordia crew, with higher vagal activity in the afternoon and evening in the second mission half compared to the first. There was no difference in average heart rate between the Concordia crew and DLR controls. However, sympathovagal balance was shifted towards sympathetic activity in the Concordia crew relative to DLR controls, which could have been caused by the chronic hypobaric hypoxia at Concordia station.

Crews and controls subjectively reported low levels of stress, loneliness, depression, and conflict; high levels of happiness and health; and intermediate levels of workload, physical exhaustion, boredom, and monotony. Of note, the Halley crew scored highest on levels of boredom, monotony, loneliness, and depression. There were significant linear trends across mission quintiles for all of the studied outcomes, indicating a deterioration with increasing time in mission. Unobtrusive proximity measurements were found to provide useful information on who is spending time with whom as a proxy of crew cohesion, and how crew cohesion changed over time in mission. This technology could be extremely useful for NASA and would allow flight surgeons and Psych-Ops to continuously monitor crew interactions and intervene early if, e.g., a crewmember shows signs of withdrawal from the rest of the crew. The fact that the proximity technology was embedded in actigraphs that provide information on movement activity and sleep-wake rhythms at the same time was an advantage of the system used.

Habitat use varied individually, by time of day, and by mission phase. The proximity technology allows unobtrusive investigation of habitat use, and may inform the design of future spacecraft. It also indirectly (through the use of common areas and private quarters) provided information on crew cohesion.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Kawasaki A, Wisniewski S, Healey B, Pattyn N, Kunz D, Basner M, Munch M. "Impact of long-term daylight deprivation on retinal light sensitivity, circadian rhythms and sleep during the Antarctic winter." Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 1;8(1):16185. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33450-7 ; PubMed PMID: 30385850; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6212492 , Nov-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lee G, Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Roalf DR, Ruparel K, Port AM, Dinges DF, Gur RC. "Age, sex, and repeated measures effects on NASA's "Cognition" test battery in STEM educated adults." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Jan 1;91(1):18-25. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5485.2020 ; PubMed PMID: 31852569 , Jan-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith MG, Kelley M, Basner M. "A brief history of spaceflight from 1961 to 2020: An analysis of missions and astronaut demographics." Acta Astronaut. 2020 Oct;175:290-9. Epub 2020 Jun 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.06.004 ; PMID: 32801403; PMCID: PMC7422727 , Oct-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Moore TM, Hermosillo E, Nasrini J, Dinges DF, Gur RC, Johannes B. "Cognition test battery performance is associated with simulated 6df spacecraft docking performance." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Nov;91(11):861-7. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5602.2020 ; PMID: 33334406; PMCID: PMC7755107 , Nov-2020
Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 03/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/01/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Roalf, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Stahn, Alexander  Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Gunga, Hanns-Christian  M.D., Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Macri, Simone  Ph.D. Istituto Superiore di Sanità 
Münch, Mirjam  Ph.D. Charité Berlin 
Leger, Damien  M.D., Ph.D. Université Paris Descartes 
Ambrecht, Gabriele  Charité Berlin 
Pattyn, Nathalie  M.D., Ph.D. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2017: Nathalie Pattyn (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium) was added as a co-investigator. She was the research MD on Halley station and will correlate Cognition data with SINSKILL data (also acquired in Halley). May 2016 report: Damien Leger and Gabi Ambrecht were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them. May 2015 report: David Roalf, PhD was added as a Co-Investigator to take over most of the tasks of Ted Sattherthwaite, MD. Alexander Stahn, PhD and Hanns-Christian Gunga, MD PhD were added as Co-Investigators for Cognition in Neumayer-III and Halley-VI. Simone Macri and Mirjam Münch were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 1/10/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 12/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/7/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC and NSSC information (Ed., 12/7/16)

Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the Behavioral Medicine (BMed) 3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in both resting-state and activated; diffusion tensor imaging; and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload, and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and International Space Station (ISS), as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. The Cognition test battery was also implemented in the Antarctic stations Neumayer-III and Halley-VI. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: With the proposed work we will relevantly contribute to the goal of the Human Research Program (HRP) to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. More specifically, our findings, based on state-of-the-art neuroimaging technologies and on innovative, non-invasive, low burden, yet methodologically sound measurement technologies for cognitive, physiological, and crew cohesion outcomes, will relevantly contribute to the development of technologies to provide mission planners and system developers with strategies for monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks. These methodologies will also be useful for assessing subjects living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Data acquisition in the 2 Concordia winter-over crews has concluded. In January 2018, we received the final scans (6-month post-mission equivalent) of the second control group studied at DLR (German Aerospace Center) Cologne. Data acquisition for the whole study is therefore complete. Our efforts in recent months have thus mainly concentrated on the analysis of complex neuroimaging, actigraphy, proximity, ECG, and cognitive data. Preliminary neuroimaging results were presented at the 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop in Houston, TX.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Boland EM, Rao H, Dinges DF, Smith RV, Goel N, Detre JA, Basner M, Sheline YI, Thase ME, Gehrman PR. "Meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of acute sleep deprivation." J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Sep/Oct;78(8):e1020-e1034. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16r11332 ; PubMed PMID: 28937707 , Sep-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. "Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Oct 1;88(10):937-46. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4801.2017 ; PubMed PMID: 28923143 , Oct-2017
Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 07/31/2018  
Task Last Updated: 06/02/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Roalf, David  University of Pennsylvania 
Stahn, Alexander  Charité Berlin 
Gunga, Hanns-Christian  Charité Berlin 
Macri, Simone  Istituto Superiore di Sanità 
Münch, Mirjam  Charité Berlin 
Leger, Damien  M.D., Ph.D. Université Paris Descartes 
Ambrecht, Gabriele  Charité Berlin 
Pattyn, Nathalie  M.D., Ph.D. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2017: Nathalie Pattyn (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium) was added as a co-investigator. She was the research MD on Halley station and will correlate Cognition data with SINSKILL data (also acquired in Halley). May 2016 report: Damien Leger and Gabi Ambrecht were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them. May 2015 report: David Roalf, PhD was added as a Co-Investigator to take over most of the tasks of Ted Sattherthwaite, MD. Alexander Stahn, PhD and Hanns-Christian Gunga, MD PhD were added as Co-Investigators for Cognition in Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. Simone Macri and Mirjam Münch were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC and NSSC information (Ed., 12/7/16)

Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the Behavioral Medicine (BMed) 3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in both resting-state and activated; diffusion tensor imaging; and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload, and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and International Space Station (ISS), as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. The Cognition test battery was also implemented in the Antarctic stations Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: With the proposed work we will relevantly contribute to the goal of the Human Research Program (HRP) to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. More specifically, our findings, based on state-of-the-art neuroimaging technologies and on innovative, non-invasive, low burden, yet methodologically sound measurement technologies for cognitive, physiological, and crew cohesion outcomes, will relevantly contribute to the development of technologies to provide mission planners and system developers with strategies for monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks. These methodologies will also be useful for assessing subjects living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The second and final winter-over campaign in Concordia station is completed. 12 out of 13 crewmembers consented to participate in the study. We received MRIs from all crewmembers pre-mission at envihab Cologne. Two of these crewmembers were replaced before the start of the mission. In one of the two newly added crewmembers, we were able to receive a pre-mission scan in Hobart. Thus we were able to acquire pre-mission scans in 11 out of the 12 consenting crewmembers. Immediately post-mission, we received again 11 out of 12 scans. Finally, we were able to gather the 6-month post-mission scans in 6 out of the 12 crewmembers in May 2017. We also performed a final human phantom scan in May 2017 in the five investigators that were originally scanned at DLR (German Aerospace Center) envihab in October 2014 to investigate any systematic changes in the envihab MRI.

Crewmember adherence was similar relative to wearing actigraphs during the 2016 winter-over campaign relative to the 2015 campaign, but substantially lower relative to cognitive test performance and 24-h ECG data acquisition. The equipment deployed in Concordia station was shipped back to France and is currently in transition to Philadelphia. We expect to find some more data on the research MD laptop that were not submitted via the Internet. Final adherence rates will depend on the amount of data we will find on this laptop.

Cognition data acquisition at the British Halley Station and the German Neumayer station concluded in 2016 with good adherence rates. Post-mission MRI scans were obtained in 5 out of the 7 participating Neumayer crew members. We were not able to obtain any Cognition data from the SANAE station in the 2015 or 2016 winter-over season.

Data acquisition for the 2016 winter-over control group was finalized with good adherence rates. The post-mission equivalent scan was performed in May 2017 and the 6-month post-mission equivalent scan is scheduled for November 2017.

Preliminary neuroimaging results were presented at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop in Houston, TX.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 07/31/2018  
Task Last Updated: 06/01/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Roalf, David  University of Pennsylvania 
Stahn, Alexander  Charité Berlin 
Gunga, Hanns-Christian  Charité Berlin 
Macri, Simone  Istituto Superiore di Sanità 
Münch, Mirjam  Charité Berlin 
Leger, Damien  M.D., Ph.D. Université Paris Descartes 
Ambrecht, Gabriele  Charité Berlin 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2016 report: Damien Leger and Gabi Ambrecht were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them. May 2015 report: David Roalf, PhD was added as a Co-Investigator to take over most of the tasks of Ted Sattherthwaite, MD. Alexander Stahn, PhD and Hanns-Christian Gunga, MD PhD were added as Co-Investigators for Cognition in Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. Simone Macri and Mirjam Münch were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC and NSSC information (Ed., 12/7/16)

Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the Behavioral Medicine (BMed) 3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in both resting-state and activated; diffusion tensor imaging; and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload, and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and International Space Station (ISS), as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. The Cognition test battery was also implemented in the Antarctic stations Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: With the proposed work we will relevantly contribute to the goal of the Human Research Program (HRP) to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. More specifically, our findings, based on state-of-the-art neuroimaging technologies and on innovative, non-invasive, low burden, yet methodologically sound measurement technologies for cognitive, physiological, and crew cohesion outcomes, will relevantly contribute to the development of technologies to provide mission planners and system developers with strategies for monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks. These methodologies will also be useful for assessing subjects living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Task progress in year 2:

The first of two winter-over (WO) campaigns in Concordia station is completed. All 13 crewmembers participated in the study. We received MRIs from all crewmembers at all 3 time points (pre-mission October 2014, immediately post-mission November-January 2015/16, 6-months post mission May 2016). In September 2015, 4 members of the research team traveled to Christchurch, NZ and Hobart, Tasmania to set up the GE scanners and perform phantom scans on themselves. These scans will be used to facilitate comparisons between the 3 scanners (Siemens scanner at envihab Cologne and two different models of GE scanners in Christchurch and Hobart).

Overall, compliance during the 2015 winter-over campaign was good. We received

- 101 out of 117 expected Cognition test bouts (86.3%), - 433 out of 481 expected PVTs (90.0%), and - 112 out of 117 expected 24 hour ECG measurements (95.7%).

Actigraphy compliance was variable between crewmembers. 38% were fully compliant, 31% took the actigraph off during the night, 31% only wore the actigraph during some periods of the day.

For WO2016, we were able to obtain baseline cognitive and neuroimaging data from all 13 crewmembers in October 2015. Data acquisition for the 2016 winter-over campaign started in February 2016. Compliance for the WO2016 campaign is lower compared to the preceding year, probably due to the higher workload generated by 7 research projects implemented in Concordia by ESA during this winter-over.

Cognition data acquisition in the Antarctic Neumayer-III and Halley-VI stations is ongoing with good subject compliance. We were not able to obtain any Cognition data from the SANAE station in the 2015 winter-over, and we do not expect any data for the 2016 winter-over, either.

Data acquisition for the 2015 winter-over control group was finalized. We received all pre-mission scan equivalents. As the control group started with a delay, we are still waiting for the post-mission scan equivalents. We also received:

- 121 out of 156 expected Cognition test bouts (77.6%), - 404 out of 507 expected PVTs (79.7%), and - 110 out of 130 expected 24 hour ECG measurements (84.6%).

Participants for the 2016 winter-over control group were selected by DLR (German Aerospace Center). Pre-mission scans were performed and the crew has begun Cognition and ECG data acquisition.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Dinges DF, Nasrini J, McGuire S, Hermosillo E, Ecker AJ, Johannes B, Gerlach DA, Stahn A, Gunga HC, Mollicone DJ, Mott CG, Melzer T, Roalf D, Elliott M, Prabhakaran K, Bilker W, Gur RC. "Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-Year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Savitt A, Moore TM, Port AM, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Nasrini J, Mollicone DJ, Mott CM, McCann C, Dinges DF, Gur RC. "Development and validation of the Cognition test battery for spaceflight." Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2015 Nov;86(11):942-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4343.2015 ; PubMed PMID: 26564759; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4691281 , Nov-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Mcguire S, Goel N, Rao H, Dinges DF. "A new likelihood ratio metric for the psychomotor vigilance test and its sensitivity to sleep loss." J Sleep Res. 2015 Dec;24(6):702-13. Epub 2015 Jun 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12322 ; PubMed PMID: 26118830 , Dec-2015
Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 07/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Roalf, David  University of Pennsylvania 
Stahn, Alexander  Charité Berlin 
Gunga, Hanns-Christian  Charité Berlin 
Macri, Simone  Istituto Superiore di Sanità 
Münch, Mirjam  Charité Berlin 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2015 report: David Roalf, PhD was added as a Co-Investigator to take over most of the tasks of Ted Sattherthwaite, MD. Alexander Stahn, PhD and Hanns-Christian Gunga, MD PhD were added as Co-Investigators for Cognition in Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. Simone Macri and Mirjam Münch were added as Co-Investigators as we are sharing actigraphy data with them.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the Behavioral Medicine (BMed) 3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in both resting-state and activated; diffusion tensor imaging; and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload, and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and International Space Station (ISS), as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. The Cognition test battery was also implemented in the Antarctic stations Neumayer-III, Halley-VI, and SANAE. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: With the proposed work we will relevantly contribute to the goal of the Human Research Program (HRP) to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. More specifically, our findings, based on state-of-the-art neuroimaging technologies and on innovative, non-invasive, low burden, yet methodologically sound measurement technologies for cognitive, physiological, and crew cohesion outcomes, will relevantly contribute to the development of technologies to provide mission planners and system developers with strategies for monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks. These methodologies will also be useful for assessing subjects living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: The first of two winter-over campaigns in Concordia station is currently ongoing. All 13 crewmembers are participating in our study. We obtained baseline data (neuroimaging and Cognition) in 11 crewmembers at envihab in Cologne, Germany in October 2014. The two remaining crewmembers were scanned in Christchurch, NZ and Hobart, Tasmania, in January 2015, respectively. The equipment was shipped to Concordia in November 2014 and arrived safely at Concordia station in February 2015. Data acquisition started late February 2015. Until now, all crewmembers continue to participate in our protocol. Compliance on wearing the actigraphs is variable (38% fully compliant, 31% take the actigraph off during the night, 31% only wear the actigraph during some periods of the day). Compliance on the cognitive testing (12/13) and on wearing the ECG on a monthly basis (100%) is much higher. We are in regular contact with ESA's research MD and receive data for quality control purposes on a regular basis. Cognition data acquisition in the Antarctic Neumayer-III and Halley-VI stations is ongoing with good subject compliance. We were not able to obtain any Cognition data from the SANAE station until now. Participants for the control group were selected by DLR. Scans were obtained and they have begun data acquisition (actigraphs, cognitive testing, monthly ECG).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Nasrini J, McGuire S, Dinges DF, Goel N, Ecker AJ, Johannes B, Rittweger J, Gerlach D, Stahn A, Gunga H-C, Mollicone DJ, Mott CG, Satterthwaite T, Elliott M, Bilker W, Gur RC. "Neurostructural, cognitive, and physiologic changes during a 1-year Antarctic winter-over mission: study design and research methodology." Poster at 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Project Title:  Neurostructural, Cognitive, and Physiologic Changes During a 1-year Antarctic Winter-Over Mission Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2014  
End Date: 07/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 08/04/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology 
423 Service Dr, 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-573-5866  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Bilker, Warren  University of Pennsylvania 
Dinges, David  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Elliott, Mark  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Goel, Namni  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Gur, Ruben  Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Satterthwaite, Theodore  M.D. University of Pennsylvania 
Johannes, Bernd  Ph.D. German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine 
Mollicone, Daniel  Ph.D. Pulsar Informatics, Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AM81G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AM81G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CBS-Bmed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev H)
Task Description: This proposal primarily addresses the BMed3 Gap on the nature and duration of cognitive performance changes in-flight and post mission, by assessing neurostructural, cognitive, behavioral, physiologic, and psychosocial changes in maximally N=24-28 crewmembers during a 10-12 month Antarctic winter-over in Concordia station, and in the same number of controls matched to crewmembers based on age, gender, and educational attainment. State-of -the-art quantitative structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (both resting-state and activated), diffusion tensor imaging, and arterial spin labeled fMRI will be performed in crewmembers and controls 4 months before, immediately after, and 6 months after the mission. During the mission, crewmembers will wear a wrist-watch like device that measures movement activity and proximity to other devices 24/7 to investigate sleep-wake behavior and crew cohesion. Once monthly, subjects will perform the Cognition test battery to quantify changes in cognitive performance. Cognition was specifically designed for high-aptitude astronauts and astronaut surrogates. It consists of 10 brief, validated neuropsychological tests that cover a wide range of cognitive domains. A 24-hour, two-electrode ECG will be performed monthly to investigate systematic changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, objectively assessed workload and sleep fragmentation with time-in-mission. Behavioral alertness will be assessed with a 3 min. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on a weekly basis along with brief surveys to assess subjective ratings of mood, workload, stress, sleep quality, tiredness, sickness, and conflicts among crewmembers. The results will be compared with findings from Mars520 and ISS, as many of the variables to be gathered overlap with those successfully obtained by our team in these and other space analog environments. After this project we will have a much better understanding whether, to what extent, and for how long neurostructural and neurofunctional changes are induced in subjects over-wintering in the isolated and confined space analog environment of Concordia station.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2014.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 12/22/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014