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Project Title:  Gravitational Dose and Multi-system Physiologic Response Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/26/2016  
End Date: 07/25/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/24/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Martin, David  M.S. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. Memorial Sloan-KetteringCancer Center 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Arbeille, Philippe  M.D., Ph.D. CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales), France 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO73G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Artificial Gravity. Appendix D: NASA HRP Artificial Gravity Opportunity 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO73G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(3) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) M14:Indentify adjuncts to exercise countermeasures that can be used to better mitigate muscle loss (IRP Rev F)
(3) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(4) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances. However, the optimal AG load required for maintaining normal physiological function is unknown. Furthermore even with an AG capability exercise is very likely to remain in the countermeasure suite as it provides additional physiological and psychological benefits. Two important early steps in understanding AG are to evaluate how AG interacts with exercise and how this interaction is influenced by partial gravity between 0 and 1 G. Parabolic flight creates the only condition that allows assessment of the effects of partial gravity between 0 and 1 G in humans without the need for launching into space. On this basis, we contend that parabolic flight research with a range of gravitational loads provides a unique model to characterize the relationships among gravitational dose, exercise, and the acute physiologic responses of the sensorimotor, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ocular systems. Ultimately, this information will help to identify the optimal operating range of AG on exploration class missions. It is possible that AG levels below 1 G could be used with exercise supplementing the additional required loading potentially reducing the engineering requirements of future AG-compatible living quarters. The objective of this grant is to identify the AG dose-physiological response relationship. This proposal involves a multidisciplinary collaboration between investigators at Johnson Space Center who bring collective expertise in cardiovascular physiology, exercise physiology, muscle physiology, sensorimotor function, and statistical analysis. The proposal is arranged in four individual projects that are integrated together to complement each other and maximize data sharing. The overall aim of the study is: Specific Aim: Characterize the relationship between gravitational dose and acute physiologic responses of the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, ocular, muscular, and sensorimotor systems.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is little understanding of the effects of gravity on the human body apart from zero G and one G; we know nearly nothing about partial gravity in between 0-1. It is important to understand whether there are thresholds of gravity, above which, blood flow to the head is relatively normal. If, for example, blood flow to the head was the same at both 0.5 and 1.0 G this would allow for the development of countermeasures (such as artificial gravity) to be developed more easily and with less resource use.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Chronic exposure to the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shift is hypothesized to be a primary contributor to the development of Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between gravitational level (G-level) and acute cardiovascular and ocular changes to determine if G-levels less than normal gravity (1-G) mitigate SANS-related parameters associated with headward fluid shifts during weightlessness.

Methods. Internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJVA) and inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter (VividQ, GE Health Care, Chicago, IL), intraocular pressure (Triggerfish, Sensimed, Switzerland), heart rate, and beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands) were measured in 9 subjects (5F, 4M) while supine before flight and while seated when exposed to 1-G, 0.75-G, 0.50-G, and 0.25-G during parabolic flights flown by Novespace, Inc. (Bordeaux-Mérignac, France) as part of the first International Space Life Sciences Working Group Campaign in June 2018.

Results. There was a main effect of condition on IJVA (p=0.0001). IJVA was smallest in the 1-G seated posture, progressively increased in the seated subjects as G-levels decreased, and was largest during 1-G supine, our surrogate for 0-G. IJVA during 1-G seated was smaller than when subjects were exposed to 0.25- and when supine in 1-G. In contrast, there was no difference (p=0.71) in IVC diameter at any level of acceleration or while supine in 1-G. There was a main effect of condition on mean arterial pressure (p=0.004) such that MAP during 1-G seated rest was significantly greater than during any of the other conditions. Conversely, there was no effect of condition (p=0.09) on heart rate.

Conclusions. Preliminary analysis of these data, particularly IJVA, suggest (a) that a G-level greater than 0.25-G may be required in the z-axis to reverse weightlessness-induced venous fluid shift to the extent that artificial gravity would be a viable countermeasure to SANS development during long-duration spaceflight and (b) that G-levels experienced on the moon and Mars may not be sufficient to prevent the development of SANS. Future work should include validation of these findings with similar measures during the application of countermeasures in spaceflight and with exposure to partial gravity environments.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lee SMC, Martin DS, Miller CA, Scott JM, Laurie SS, Macias BR, Mercaldo ND, Ploutz-Snyder L, Stenger MB. "Venous and arterial responses to partial gravity." Front Physiol. 2020 Jul 28;11:863. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00863 ; PMID: 32848835; PMCID: PMC7399573 , Jul-2020
Project Title:  Gravitational Dose and Multi-system Physiologic Response Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/26/2016  
End Date: 07/25/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/19/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Martin, David  M.S. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Arbeille, Philippe  M.D., Ph.D. CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales) 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO73G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Artificial Gravity. Appendix D: NASA HRP Artificial Gravity Opportunity 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO73G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(3) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) M14:Indentify adjuncts to exercise countermeasures that can be used to better mitigate muscle loss (IRP Rev F)
(3) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(4) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances. However, the optimal AG load required for maintaining normal physiological function is unknown. Furthermore even with an AG capability exercise is very likely to remain in the countermeasure suite as it provides additional physiological and psychological benefits. Two important early steps in understanding AG are to evaluate how AG interacts with exercise and how this interaction is influenced by partial gravity between 0 and 1 G. Parabolic flight creates the only condition that allows assessment of the effects of partial gravity between 0 and 1 G in humans without the need for launching into space. On this basis, we contend that parabolic flight research with a range of gravitational loads provides a unique model to characterize the relationships among gravitational dose, exercise, and the acute physiologic responses of the sensorimotor, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ocular systems. Ultimately, this information will help to identify the optimal operating range of AG on exploration class missions. It is possible that AG levels below 1 G could be used with exercise supplementing the additional required loading potentially reducing the engineering requirements of future AG-compatible living quarters. The objective of this grant is to identify the AG dose-physiological response relationship. This proposal involves a multidisciplinary collaboration between investigators at Johnson Space Center who bring collective expertise in cardiovascular physiology, exercise physiology, muscle physiology, sensorimotor function, and statistical analysis. The proposal is arranged in four individual projects that are integrated together to complement each other and maximize data sharing. The overall aim of the study is: Specific Aim: Characterize the relationship between gravitational dose and acute physiologic responses of the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, ocular, muscular, and sensorimotor systems.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: There is little understanding of the effects of gravity on the human body apart from zero G and one G; we know nearly nothing about partial gravity in between 0-1. It is important to understand whether there are thresholds of gravity, above which, blood flow to the head is relatively normal. If, for example, blood flow to the head was the same at both 0.5 and 1.0 G this would allow for the development of countermeasures (such as artificial gravity) to be developed more easily and with less resource use.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Nine subjects were exposed to 1-G, 0.75-G, 0.50-G, and 0.25-G during parabolic flight flown by Novespace, Inc. (Bordeaux-Mérignac, France) as part of the first International Space Life Sciences Working Group Campaign in June 2018. Measurements included: Internal jugular vein pressure (VeinPress GmbH, Switzerland) and area (VividQ, GE Health Care, Chicago, IL), inferior vena cava internal diameter, intraocular pressure (Triggerfish, Sensimed, Switzerland), and beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands). Accelerometer data provided by Novespace and collected by our group independently (APDM, Inc; Portland, OR) were used to indicate the respective partial-gravity epochs within which data were analyzed.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Gravitational Dose and Multi-system Physiologic Response Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/26/2016  
End Date: 07/25/2019  
Task Last Updated: 08/22/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Martin, David  M.S. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Arbeille, Philippe  M.D., Ph.D. CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales) 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO73G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Artificial Gravity. Appendix D: NASA HRP Artificial Gravity Opportunity 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO73G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(3) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) M14:Indentify adjuncts to exercise countermeasures that can be used to better mitigate muscle loss (IRP Rev F)
(3) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(4) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances. However, the optimal AG load required for maintaining normal physiological function is unknown. Furthermore even with an AG capability exercise is very likely to remain in the countermeasure suite as it provides additional physiological and psychological benefits. Two important early steps in understanding AG are to evaluate how AG interacts with exercise and how this interaction is influenced by partial gravity between 0 and 1 G. Parabolic flight creates the only condition that allows assessment of the effects of partial gravity between 0 and 1 G in humans without the need for launching into space. On this basis, we contend that parabolic flight research with a range of gravitational loads provides a unique model to characterize the relationships among gravitational dose, exercise, and the acute physiologic responses of the sensorimotor, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ocular systems. Ultimately, this information will help to identify the optimal operating range of AG on exploration class missions. It is possible that AG levels below 1 G could be used with exercise supplementing the additional required loading potentially reducing the engineering requirements of future AG-compatible living quarters. The objective of this grant is to identify the AG dose-physiological response relationship. This proposal involves a multidisciplinary collaboration between investigators at Johnson Space Center who bring collective expertise in cardiovascular physiology, exercise physiology, muscle physiology, sensorimotor function, and statistical analysis. The proposal is arranged in four individual projects that are integrated together to complement each other and maximize data sharing. The overall aim of the study is: Specific Aim: Characterize the relationship between gravitational dose and acute physiologic responses of the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, ocular, muscular, and sensorimotor systems.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016