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Project Title:  Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/20/2015  
End Date: 03/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 04/22/2020 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Steiner 3rd, Theodore J. Ph.D. Draper Laboratory 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: PI: Kevin R. Duda, Ph.D., Co-I: Ted J. Steiner, III, Ph.D., Program Manager: John J. West
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AP28G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-ILSRA. International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AP28G 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Hab:Risk of an Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HAB-05:We need to identify technologies, tools, and methods for data collection, modeling, and analysis that are appropriate for design and assessment of vehicles/habitats (e.g., net habitable volume, layout, and usage) for predetermined mission attributes, and for refinement and validation of level of acceptable risk. (Previous title: SHFE-HAB-09) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 2/12/19)

NOTE: End date change to 8/26/2018 per E. Connell/JSC HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Astronauts living and working onboard the International Space Station (ISS) provide a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the “architectural layout and 3-D space utilization” in a microgravity environment. As NASA looks to design and build future space exploration vehicles, information gathered on the human-system operational environment on-board the ISS will provide critical data on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) for these systems. This proposed research aims to produce a validated wearable kinematic system to unobtrusively and continuously determine an ISS crewmember’s navigation state vector as a function of time for characterizing vehicle habitability to reduce the risk of incompatible vehicle/habitat design for future deep space exploration missions. We aim to leverage extensively the wearable kinematic and positioning systems that have been developed at Draper Laboratory under prior NASA and U.S. Army Programs. In addition, we aim to leverage Draper’s decades of guidance, navigation and control, and perceptual systems experience for navigation in complex environments as well as our human-systems integration and engineering capabilities.

The overall goal of this project is to develop the concept of operations, high-level architecture, and requirements (crew/hardware/software) for ISS transition of a wearable kinematic system to be used for quantifying 3-D space utilization in the microgravity environment. This will be accomplished by demonstrating the vision-aided inertial navigation algorithms for net habitable volume (NHV) metrics on a COTS (commercial off-the-shelf)/existing device in a ground based analog environment.

The specific aims of this project are: (1) Definition of ISS Integration, Flight Definition, and NHV Model Requirements. This includes the specification of the technical, performance, functional, and operational requirements for the wearable kinematic system associated with ISS integration and analytics for NHV metrics calculation, as well as Flight Experiment Definition planning.

(2) Wearable Kinematic System Design, Development & Verification. A system architecture trade study and detailed design for the wearable module development, testing to verify the performance in ground-based analog scenarios, and the requirements for transitioning the equipment for ISS spaceflight operations will be completed.

(3) Quantification of ISS NHV Metrics. This aim develops the infrastructure and algorithms for calculating the relevant NHV metrics from the wearable module navigation state vector, including automating the process and providing intuitive visualizations of the data.

This research will address the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design. The development and implementation of the proposed wearable kinematic system will provide a capability for the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap SHFE-HAB-09 to collect data for the design and assessment of vehicles/habitats. Subsequently, this data will then address Gaps SHFE-HAB-03/05/07 for understanding how astronauts interact with the vehicle/habitat and informing guidelines for determining net habitable volume.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Knowing your location within an enclosed, or confined environment enables algorithms, technologies and systems to quantify the net habitable volume, analyze habitat/work environment geometry and task efficiencies, and improve safety through route and egress planning and guidance. This project developed algorithms that take advantage of a wearable camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to continually estimate position and orientation – a key technology that benefits life on Earth for soldiers, submariners, maintenance personnel, first responders, and oil rig workers to name a few. This project also demonstrated the ability to time, and location tag carbon dioxide measurements within an enclosed habitat – critical for environmental monitoring and mapping. Fundamentally, this system has the potential to be a location services provider in environments where GPS or other radio frequency-based systems are not available.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the architectural layout and 3-D space utilization in a microgravity environment from the astronauts living and working there. Information gathered will provide critical insight on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) required for future spacecraft, as well as architectural layout and task designs and efficiencies. This project developed a small, wearable system to estimate a crewmember’s navigation state vector – position and orientation – as a function of time during the course of their normal daily activities. The device does not require any special infrastructure, and includes completely passive vision and inertial sensors to bound long-term drift in position and orientation estimates, thus providing a location service within the ISS (or any confined environment) that can integrate with astronauts or moveable equipment. Throughout the course of this project, we made a preliminary definition of the system architecture, concept of operations (CONOPS), data processing pipeline, integrated a carbon dioxide sensor with our navigation system, and the development and integration of an algorithm to enable self-initialization and periodically correct accumulated drift through loop closures. Additionally, we prototyped a self-contained portable system for technology demonstration and algorithmic testing in a variety of representative environments including the ISS mockups within NASA’s Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, NASA’s Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) facility, and the Aquarius Reef Base during NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 23.

With the goal of providing ISS astronauts with navigation state vector information that can both be visualized by engineers and used in net habitable volume (NHV) modeling and analysis efforts, we have drafted a CONOPS for the use of the system. This CONOPS takes into account the required interactions by the astronauts as well as the required hardware and software functions to complete the required activities. This has resulted in the definition of key system and functional requirements that were used to guide the development of the prototype wearable kinematic system. Additionally, we worked with collaborators at Johnson Space Center (JSC) who support flight integration of technologies to understand the constraints of the ISS operational environment, as well as with our consultant (who is a former ISS crewmember) to ensure the design and operations will be accepted by the crew. Our team collaborated with the JSC Wearables Lab regarding integration with their wearable carbon dioxide (CO2) system to provide append a location estimate with each measurement.

The principal output of the wearable kinematic system is a time-stamped estimate of the astronaut’s navigation state vector (e.g., position and orientation) when the device is attached to their body. Through discussions with our NASA Space Human Factors and Habitability partners, we identified required performance metrics of the system (e.g., navigation accuracy) that will enable the definition and validation of ongoing net habitable volume modeling efforts. The specification of these performance metrics enabled the definition of a set of criteria to measure navigation performance against when testing the Draper-developed vision-inertial navigation system in the ground-based analog environments. Additionally, we used Draper’s optical motion tracking facility to validate the vision+inertial position and orientation estimate against a “ground truth” estimate. The vision+inertial estimate was extremely close to the “ground truth” estimate during the length of the testing.

Prior to the development of the prototype system, we used a self-contained set of trade study hardware that was previously developed for the U.S. Army, which simultaneously recorded time synchronized data from two cameras and three inertial measurement units (IMUs), was used during various waking routes within the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the International Space Station (ISS) mockup facility at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The data from a walking route within the ISS mockups and analyzed using Draper Laboratory’s Multi-State Constrained Kalman Filter (“Mischief”) for visual-inertial odometry can be seen on YouTube here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mb8x4WeM6q8 . We subsequently re-analyzed that same data set using our next-generation algorithm, smoothing and mapping with inertial state estimation (SAMWISE) and were able to repeat the performance, and in many cases show that we had less final position error as a percentage of the estimated route distance. SAMWISE is the baseline algorithm going forward to enable online initialization and periodic accumulated drift correction using “loop closures.”

Under Draper Laboratory internal research and development funding, we extended the use of the wearable kinematic system to include the integration of a carbon dioxide sensor for time and location stamping of environmental monitoring data. This was demonstrated with success during NEEMO 23 where the Wearable Kinematic Systems (WKS) identified trends in increases in CO2 over time, as well as the identification of pockets of CO2 within the habitat where there is known to be reduced airflow. This is a key demonstration of the technology that has direct applicability to operations within the ISS. Lastly, we have been in discussions with the EVA (extravehicular activity) Management Office regarding the extension of the technology for tracking ISS EVA astronauts as well as during operations on the lunar surface.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/09/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Duda KR, Steiner TJ, Endsley TC, West JJ. "Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment." 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

Abstracts. 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Steiner TJ, Endsley TC, Meyen FE, Duda KR, West JJ, Chamitoff GE. "Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment." 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

Abstracts. 2019 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Endsley TC, Steiner TJ. "Assessing the Wearable Kinematic System for the Measure of Localized CO2 in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) spaceflight analog." 124th Meeting of the Aerospace Guidance and Control Systems Committee (ACGSC), Williamsburg, VA, October 2019.

Abstracts. 124th Meeting of the Aerospace Guidance and Control Systems Committee (ACGSC), Williamsburg, VA, October 2019. , Oct-2019

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Duda KR, DeFronzo RA, Steiner TJ, Chamitoff GE. "Development of a Wearable Vision+Inertial Navigation System for International Space Station Intravehicular Activity Operations." 47th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Charleston, SC, July 16-20, 2017.

47th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Charleston, SC, July 16-20, 2017. ICES paper ICES-2017-29. , Jul-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Duda KR, Steiner TJ, DeFronzo RA, Chamitoff GE. "A Wearable Vision+Inertial Navigation System for Assessing Volumetric Utilization and Task Geometry Efficiency." 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Springfield, VA, October 23-26, 2017.

Proceedings. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Springfield, VA, October 23-26, 2017. , Oct-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Steiner TJ, Endsley TC, Duda KR. "A Loop Closure Hierarchy to Improve the Robustness of a Wearable Vision+Inertial Navigation System." 2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March 3-10, 2018.

In: 2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference. https://doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2018.8396434 , Mar-2018

Project Title:  Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/20/2015  
End Date: 03/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 04/25/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Steiner 3rd, Theodore J. Ph.D. Draper Laboratory 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: April 2017 report: Paul DeBitetto left Draper Lab and is no longer associated with the project (previously a Co-Investigator (Co-I)); Shane Jacobs removed from team due to project re-scope (previously a Co-I). Adding Draper Lab staff member Theodore Steiner as Co-Investigator; he is the algorithmic lead for the project and has taken on additional responsibility with the departure of Paul DeBitetto.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AP28G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-ILSRA. International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AP28G 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Hab:Risk of an Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HAB-05:We need to identify technologies, tools, and methods for data collection, modeling, and analysis that are appropriate for design and assessment of vehicles/habitats (e.g., net habitable volume, layout, and usage) for predetermined mission attributes, and for refinement and validation of level of acceptable risk. (Previous title: SHFE-HAB-09) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 2/12/19)

NOTE: End date change to 8/26/2018 per E. Connell/JSC HRP (Ed., 3/22/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Astronauts living and working onboard the International Space Station (ISS) provide a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the “architectural layout and 3-D space utilization” in a microgravity environment. As NASA looks to design and build future space exploration vehicles, information gathered on the human-system operational environment on-board the ISS will provide critical data on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) for these systems. This proposed research aims to produce a validated wearable kinematic system to unobtrusively and continuously determine an ISS crewmember’s navigation state vector as a function of time for characterizing vehicle habitability to reduce the risk of incompatible vehicle/habitat design for future deep space exploration missions. We aim to leverage extensively the wearable kinematic and positioning systems that have been developed at Draper Laboratory under prior NASA and U.S. Army Programs. In addition, we aim to leverage Draper’s decades of guidance, navigation and control, and perceptual systems experience for navigation in complex environments as well as our human-systems integration and engineering capabilities.

The overall goal of this project is to develop the concept of operations, high-level architecture, and requirements (crew/hardware/software) for ISS transition of a wearable kinematic system to be used for quantifying 3-D space utilization in the microgravity environment. This will be accomplished by demonstrating the vision-aided inertial navigation algorithms for net habitable volume (NHV) metrics on a COTS (commercial off-the-shelf)/existing device in a ground based analog environment.

The specific aims of this project are:

(1) Definition of ISS Integration, Flight Definition, and NHV Model Requirements. This includes the specification of the technical, performance, functional, and operational requirements for the wearable kinematic system associated with ISS integration and analytics for NHV metrics calculation, as well as Flight Experiment Definition planning.

(2) Wearable Kinematic System Design, Development, & Verification. A system architecture trade study and detailed design for the wearable module development, testing to verify the performance in ground-based analog scenarios, and the requirements for transitioning the equipment for ISS spaceflight operations will be completed.

(3) Quantification of ISS NHV Metrics. This aim develops the infrastructure and algorithms for calculating the relevant NHV metrics from the wearable module navigation state vector, including automating the process and providing intuitive visualizations of the data.

This research will address the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design. The development and implementation of the proposed wearable kinematic system will provide a capability for the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap SHFE-HAB-09 to collect data for the design and assessment of vehicles/habitats. Subsequently, this data will then address Gaps SHFE-HAB-03/05/07 for understanding how astronauts interact with the vehicle/habitat and informing guidelines for determining net habitable volume.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Knowing your location within an enclosed, or confined environment enables algorithms, technologies, and systems to quantify the net habitable volume, analyze habitat/work environment geometry and task efficiencies, and improve safety through route and egress planning and guidance. This project is developing algorithms that take advantage of a wearable camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to continually estimate position and orientation – a key technology that benefits life on Earth for soldiers, submariners, maintenance personnel, first responders, and oil rig workers to name a few. Fundamentally, this eventual system has the potential to be a location services provider in environments where GPS or other radio frequency-based systems are not available.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the architectural layout and 3-D space utilization in a microgravity environment from the astronauts living and working there. Information gathered will provide critical insight on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) required for future spacecraft, as well as architectural layout and task designs and efficiencies. This project aims to develop a small, unobtrusive wearable kinematic system to estimate a crewmember’s navigation state vector – position and orientation – as a function of time during the course of their normal daily activities. The proposed device will not require any special infrastructure, and includes completely passive vision and inertial sensors to bound long-term drift in position and orientation estimates, thus providing a location service within the ISS that can integrate with astronauts or moveable equipment. In this project year, we have made significant progress in the definition of the system architecture, concept of operations (CONOPS), data processing pipeline, the development and integration of an algorithm to enable self-initialization and periodically correct accumulated drift through loop closures. Additionally, we have prototype a self-contained portable system for technology demonstration and algorithmic testing in a variety of representative environments.

With the goal of providing ISS astronaut navigation state vector information that can both be visualized by engineers and used in net habitable volume (NHV) modeling and analysis efforts, we have drafted a CONOPS for the use of the system. This CONOPS takes into account the required interactions by the astronauts as well as the required hardware and software functions to complete the required activities. This has subsequently resulted in the definition of key system and functional requirements that will be used to guide the development of an eventual wearable kinematic system. Additionally, we have worked with collaborators at Johnson Space Center (JSC) who support flight integration of technologies to understand the constraints of the ISS operational environment, as well as with our consultant (who is a former ISS crewmember) to ensure the design and operations will be accepted by the crew. Our team has been in collaboration with the JSC Wearables Lab to identify potential collaboration opportunities, such as integration with their wearable carbon dioxide (CO2) system to provide append a location estimate with each measurement.

The principal output of the wearable kinematic system is a time-stamped estimate of the astronaut’s navigation state vector (e.g., position and orientation) when the device is attached to their body. Through discussions with our NASA Space Human Factors and Habitability partners, we identified required performance metrics of the system (e.g., navigation accuracy) that will enable the definition and validation of ongoing net habitable volume modeling efforts. The specification of these performance metrics enabled the definition of a set of criteria to measure navigation performance against when testing a Draper-developed vision-inertial navigation system in the ground-based analog environments.

In our first year, we used a self-contained set of trade study hardware that was previously developed for the U.S. Army, which simultaneously recorded time synchronized data from two cameras and three inertial measurement units (IMUs), was used during various waking routes within the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the International Space Station (ISS) mockup facility at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The data from a walking route within the ISS mockups and analyzed using Draper Laboratory’s Multi-State Constrained Kalman Filter (“Mischief”) for visual-inertial odometry can be seen on YouTube here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mb8x4WeM6q8 . In project year 2, we analyzed that same data set using our next-generation algorithm, smoothing and mapping with inertial state estimation (SAMWISE) and were able to repeat the performance, and in many cases show that we had less final position error as a percentage of the estimated route distance. SAMWISE will be the baseline algorithm going forward to enable online initialization and periodic accumulated drift correction using “loop closures.”

Project plans for the upcoming year of the program are to continue the development of the concept of operations and specification of the requirements of the system to enable both the science objectives of modeling and analysis of net habitable volume (NHV) as well as ensuring crew acceptance and use of the device during ISS expeditions. We are continuing our development of the SAMWISE vision-aided inertial navigation estimate algorithms to increase performance during extended duration routes by correcting for navigation estimate drift, as well as automatically initializing the position/orientation estimate to increase ease of use. We are also planning to work more closely with the JSC Wearables Laboratory to develop a roadmap for integration and technology demonstration activities.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/09/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Duda KR, Steiner TJ, DeFronzo RA, DeBitetto PA, West JJ. "Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment." Presented at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop. Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Duda KR, Steiner TJ, Debitetto PA. "Ground-Based Performance Evaluation of a Wearable Vision+Inertial Navigation System for ISS Net Habitable Volume Estimation." 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March 4-11, 2017.

In: 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference. https://doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2017.7943702 , Mar-2017

Project Title:  Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/20/2015  
End Date: 01/19/2018  
Task Last Updated: 05/19/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Jacobs, Shane  Ph.D. David Clark Company, Inc. 
DeBitetto, Paul  The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AP28G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-ILSRA. International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AP28G 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Hab:Risk of an Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HAB-05:We need to identify technologies, tools, and methods for data collection, modeling, and analysis that are appropriate for design and assessment of vehicles/habitats (e.g., net habitable volume, layout, and usage) for predetermined mission attributes, and for refinement and validation of level of acceptable risk. (Previous title: SHFE-HAB-09) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Astronauts living and working onboard the International Space Station (ISS) provide a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the “architectural layout and 3-D space utilization” in a microgravity environment. As NASA looks to design and build future space exploration vehicles, information gathered on the human-system operational environment on-board the ISS will provide critical data on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) for these systems. This proposed research aims to produce a validated wearable kinematic system to unobtrusively and continuously determine an ISS crewmember’s navigation state vector as a function of time for characterizing vehicle habitability to reduce the risk of incompatible vehicle/habitat design for future deep space exploration missions. We aim to leverage extensively the wearable kinematic and positioning systems that have been developed at Draper Laboratory under prior NASA and U.S. Army Programs. In addition, we aim to leverage Draper’s decades of guidance, navigation and control, and perceptual systems experience for navigation of complex systems in complex environments as well as our human-systems integration and engineering capabilities.

The overall goal of this project is to develop the concept of operations, high-level architecture, and requirements (crew/hardware/software) for ISS transition of a wearable kinematic system to be used for quantifying 3-D space utilization in the microgravity environment. This will be accomplished by demonstrating the vision-aided inertial navigation algorithms for net habitable volume (NHV) metrics on a COTS (commercial off-the-shelf )/existing device in a ground based analog environment.

The specific aims of this project are:

(1) Definition of ISS Integration, Flight Definition, and NHV Model Requirements. This includes the specification of the technical, performance, functional, and operational requirements for the wearable kinematic system associated with ISS integration and analytics for NHV metrics calculation, as well as Flight Experiment Definition planning.

(2) Wearable Kinematic System Design, Development, & Verification. A system architecture trade study and detailed design for the wearable module development, testing to verify the performance in ground-based analog scenarios, and the requirements for transitioning the equipment for ISS spaceflight operations will be completed.

(3) Quantification of ISS NHV Metrics. This aim develops the infrastructure and algorithms for calculating the relevant NHV metrics from the wearable module navigation state vector, including automating the process and providing intuitive visualizations of the data.

This research will address the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design. The development and implementation of the proposed wearable kinematic system will provide a capability for the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap SHFE-HAB-09 to collect data for the design and assessment of vehicles/habitats. Subsequently, this data will then address Gaps SHFE-HAB-03/05/07 for understanding how astronauts interact with the vehicle/habitat and informing guidelines for determining net habitable volume.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Knowing your location within an enclosed, or confined environment enables algorithms, technologies, and systems to quantify the net habitable volume, analyze habitat/work environment geometry and task efficiencies, and improve safety through route and egress planning and guidance. This project is developing algorithms that take advantage of a wearable camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU) to continually estimate position and orientation – a key technology that benefits life on Earth for soldiers, submariners, maintenance personnel, first responders, and oil rig workers to name a few. Fundamentally, this eventual system has the potential to be a location services provider in environments where GPS or other radio frequency-based systems are not available.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the architectural layout and 3-D space utilization in a microgravity environment from the astronauts living and working there. Information gathered will provide critical insight on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) required for future spacecraft, as well as architectural layout and task designs and efficiencies. This project aims to develop a small, unobtrusive wearable kinematic system to estimate a crewmember’s navigation state vector – position and orientation – as a function of time during the course of their normal daily activities. The proposed device will not require any special infrastructure, and includes completely passive vision and inertial sensors to bound long-term drift in position and orientation estimates, thus providing a location service within the ISS that can integrate with astronauts or moveable equipment. In this project year, we have made significant progress in the definition of the system architecture, concept of operations, data processing pipeline, and initial testing of an off-the-shelf vision-aided inertial navigation system in two ground-based analog environments.

With the goal of providing ISS astronaut navigation state vector information that can both be visualized by engineers and used in net habitable volume (NHV) modeling and analysis efforts, we have drafted a concept of operations (CONOPS) for the use of the system. This CONOPS takes into account the required interactions by the astronauts as well as the required hardware and software functions to complete the required activities. This has subsequently resulted in the definition of key system and functional requirements that will be used to guide the development of an eventual wearable kinematic system. Additionally, we have worked with collaborators at Johnson Space Center who support flight integration of technologies to understand the constraints of the ISS operational environment, as well as with our consultant (who is a former ISS crewmember) to ensure the design and operations will be accepted by the crew.

The principal output of the wearable kinematic system is a time-stamped estimate of the astronaut’s navigation state vector (e.g., position and orientation) when the device is attached to their body. Through discussions with our NASA Space Human Factors and Habitability partners, we identified required performance metrics of the system (e.g., navigation accuracy) that will enable the definition and validation of ongoing net habitable volume modeling efforts. The specification of these performance metrics enabled the definition of a set of criteria to measure navigation performance against when testing a Draper-developed vision-inertial navigation system in the ground-based analog environments.

A self-contained set of trade study hardware that was previously developed for the U.S. Army, which simultaneously recorded time synchronized data from two cameras and three inertial measurement units (IMUs), was used during various waking routes within the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the International Space Station (ISS) mockup facility at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Data was collected from 14 ISS mockup routes where the system traversed more than 1,943 m total (1.2 miles) over the course of more than 60 minutes. The average ISS mockup walking route was 139 m (455 ft) and took 4.3 minutes. Similarly, 19 HERA mockup routes were traversed totaling more than 769 m traversed (0.48 miles) over the course of more than 40 minutes. The average HERA walking route was 40 m (133 ft) and took 2.1 minutes. The analysis of the data using the six camera and IMU combinations enables a trade study of hardware configuration (e.g., camera and IMU fidelity pairs) and visual-inertial odometry algorithms. The data from a walking route within the ISS mockups using data from the uEye imager and ADIS 16448 IMU and analyzed using Draper Laboratory’s Multi-State Constrained Kalman Filter (“Mischief”) for visual-inertial odometry can be seen on YouTube here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mb8x4WeM6q8 . The initial position and orientation were manually specified, and the subsequent navigation state estimates during the 5 minute, 550 foot traverse were made via visual-inertial odometry. The total error was estimated at approximately 2.5 feet (0.4%). We typically found final position errors of less than 1% of the estimated route distance across all of the routes analyzed. Future work will include the analysis of alternate routes within the facilities, and collection of data from tasking that is representative of a “day-in-the-life” of an ISS astronaut.

Project plans for the subsequent year of the program are to continue the development of the concept of operations and specification of the requirements of the system to enable both the science objectives of modeling and analysis of net habitable volume (NHV) as well as ensuring crew acceptance and use of the device during ISS expeditions. We are continuing our development of the vision-aided inertial navigation estimate algorithms to increase performance during extended duration routes by correcting for navigation estimate drift, as well as automatically initializing the position/orientation estimate to increase ease of use. Lastly, we have identified several additional routes and motions that we would like to collect in the ISS mockup facility to test our system and algorithms to give us greater confidence in the performance during a representative ISS mission.

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Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Duda KR, Steiner TJ, DeBitetto PA, West JJ. "Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment." Abstract and Poster at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Project Title:  Wearable Kinematic Systems for Quantifying 3-D Space Utilization in the Microgravity Environment Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/20/2015  
End Date: 01/19/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/20/2015 
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Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Jacobs, Shane  Ph.D. David Clark Company, Inc. 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AP28G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013-14 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-ILSRA. International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AP28G 
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND 
Flight Program: PostFlight 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
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No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Hab:Risk of an Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HAB-05:We need to identify technologies, tools, and methods for data collection, modeling, and analysis that are appropriate for design and assessment of vehicles/habitats (e.g., net habitable volume, layout, and usage) for predetermined mission attributes, and for refinement and validation of level of acceptable risk. (Previous title: SHFE-HAB-09) (IRP Rev H)
Task Description: Astronauts living and working onboard the International Space Station (ISS) provide a unique opportunity to capture and quantify the “architectural layout and 3-D space utilization” in a microgravity environment. As NASA looks to design and build future space exploration vehicles, information gathered on the human-system operational environment on-board the ISS will provide critical data on the minimum net habitable volume (NHV) for these systems. This proposed research aims to produce a validated wearable kinematic system to unobtrusively determine an International Space Station (ISS) crewmember’s navigation state vector as a function of time for characterizing vehicle habitability to reduce the risk of incompatible vehicle/habitat design for future deep space exploration missions. We aim to leverage extensively the wearable kinematic and positioning systems that have been developed under prior NASA and U.S. Army Programs. In addition, we aim to leverage the decades of guidance, navigation and control, and perceptual systems experience of Draper Laboratory for navigation of complex systems in complex environments as well as our human-centered engineering capabilities.

The overall goal of this project is to develop the concept of operations, high-level architecture, and requirements (crew/hardware/software) for International Space Station (ISS) transition of a wearable kinematic system to be used for quantifying 3-D space utilization in the microgravity environment. This shall be accomplished by demonstrating the vision+ inertial navigation algorithms for net habitable volume (NHV) metrics on a COTS (commercial off-the-shelf )/existing device in a ground based analog environment.

The specific aims of this study are:

(1) Definition of ISS Integration, Flight Definition, and NHV Model Requirements. This will include the specification of the technical, performance, functional, and operational requirements for the wearable kinematic system associated with ISS integration and analytics for NHV metrics calculation, as well as Flight Experiment Definition planning.

(2) Wearable Kinematic System Design, Development & Verification. A system architecture trade study and detailed design for the wearable module development, testing to verify the performance in ground-based analog scenarios, and the requirements for transitioning the equipment for ISS spaceflight operations will be completed.

(3) Quantification of ISS NHV Metrics. This aim develops the infrastructure and algorithms for calculating the relevant NHV metrics from the wearable module navigation state vector, including automating the process and providing intuitive visualizations of the data.

This research will address the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Program Requirements Document (PRD) Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design. The development and implementation of the proposed wearable kinematic system will provide a capability for the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap SHFE-HAB-09 to collect data for the design and assessment of vehicles/habitats. Subsequently, this data will then address Gaps SHFE-HAB-03/05/07 for understanding how astronauts interact with the vehicle/habitat and informing guidelines for determining net habitable volume.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/09/2021) 

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 None in FY 2015