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Project Title:  ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Dummy) Injury Metric Development Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2020  
Task Last Updated: 12/16/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. / KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2400 NASA Parklway 
MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/37C 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: jeff.somers@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-6010  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: November 2019: Jacob Putnam removed as CoInvestigator and Preston Greenhalgh now CoInvestigator. May 2018: Remove Jessica Wells as Co-Investigator. June 2016 report--Additional CoInvestigators: Jessica Wells, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Solutions, 2625 Bay Area Blvd, Houston, TX 77058, 281.483.7216. jessica.a.wells@nasa.gov ; Narayan Yoganandan, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. (414) 384-3453. yoga@mcw.edu ; John Humm, MS, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. jhumm@mcw.edu. ; Additional Key Personnel: Jacob Putnam, Wyle Science Technology and Engineering Group.
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Yoganandan, Narayan  Ph.D. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Humm, John  M.S. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Greenhalgh, Preston  M.S. KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.williams-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Occupant Protection:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (Risk move from HHC to SHFH per IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) OP-02:We do not know how load dynamics and sex differences affect injury risk in spaceflight conditions and do not have adequate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to mitigate the increased risk of injury to the crew. (Previous title: OP3) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2020 per B. Gore/ARC HRP (Ed., 10/1/19)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/HFBP/JSC (Ed., 11/17/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Change to start date per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 2/3/16)

NOTE: Added "Development" to title, per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 10/7/15)

NOTE: Change in title to "ATD Injury Metric" from "THOR Injury Metric Development" per E. Connell/SHFH HRP (Ed., 8/19/15)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 5/1/2015-9/30/2017 (previously 7/3/2014-10/31/2016) due to delayted start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 4/15/2015)

 

Task Description: Data from the Hybrid III and THOR (Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint), anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) currently available to test the Occupant Protection requirements, are not well correlated to low-injury risk, as these ATDs were designed for automotive use. Automotive research is directed at preventing severe injuries in very low probability events. NASA vehicles require a lower risk of injury because the vehicles will land every time, making that a high probability event. The objective of this study is to develop injury risk functions for the Hybrid III and THOR ATDs. Matched pair tests between postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) and each ATD will be used to determine ATD-specific injury criteria. The merit of the matched pair design is the one-to-one correspondence of the results from external loads to both surrogates. Injury outcomes from PMHS tests will be used with region-specific data, such as forces and moments either individually or in combination, to derive ATD-specific injury criteria.

Specific Aims

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis.

Historical human data will be selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database. The data will be selected based on loading dynamics and subject demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR ATDs will be tested in identical conditions. A Bayesian analysis along with survival analysis will be used to relate the resulting ATD responses to improve injury risk predictions. The results of the Occupant Protection (OP) Data Mining and Modeling Task will be used as prior distributions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to schedule constraints and the requirement of using the same test facilities used in the original human testing. Based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY17 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2. Because of this accelerated schedule, there is insufficient time to solicit this work. In addition, the testing in this task must be conducted to best replicate the original human test conditions. Because of this, testing will need to be conducted at the original test facility, excluding the ability to solicit the work.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The outcome of this research will be improved Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) for Anthropomorphic Test Devices or crash test dummies. By improving the quality of IARVs at low severity impacts in multiple directions, automotive vehicle designers can create safer cars and trucks and have the tools needed to show that a design is actually safer.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: For each phase of this study historical post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test cases are first selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database for match paired testing. Selection of these cases are made based on their similarity to spaceflight loading dynamics and Astronaut demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) are tested in identical conditions. A survival analysis is then used to relate the resulting ATD responses to identified PMHS injuries and develop injury risk correlation. This correlation will be used to improve upon the injury metrics previously developed in other research tasks. The resulting metrics will be used to update NASA standards and provided to the Orion and Commercial Crew Program to allow additional insight into verification, validation and risk analysis. Currently phase 1 – lower neck injury under rearward impact has been completed. A supplemental phase of this project, cervical spine injury under vertical contact loading, has also been completed. For this supplemental phase injury risk functions were developed from PMHS test only. It was determined that compressive contact loading, used in PMHS testing, had minimal value in matched paired ATD testing due to the inflexibility of the ATD head/neck structure in this loading configuration. The remaining lateral injury metrics for the neck, thorax, and pelvis are in various stages of completion and are on track to be finished by September 2020. The lateral lower neck metric development has completed the necessary ATD matched-pair testing, but due to a low number of those tests being applicable to spaceflight loading dynamics, additional cases are currently being run using finite element models to supplement the current data. In addition, tests using the GHBMC whole body finite element model are also being run in lateral neck loading conditions.

ATD testing in the lateral acetabular loading cases showed that the ATDs are too stiff to match the input conditions of the cadaveric data. Therefore, an injury assessment reference value (IARV) is being created based on the cadaveric data, instead of the ATDs.

The IARV for lateral chest compression is rib fracture. Correlation between cadaveric and ATD chest compression is difficult due to the mechanism to calculate fracture. The method for calculating fracture for the cadaveric and different ATDs are all different and do not necessarily correlated to the same points on the thorax and can not necessarily be used together. Current research includes finding the best way to create the IARV for rib fracture.

Other current research includes finding the injury metrics for pelvis and examining the effect of sex differences in lower neck, lateral thorax, lateral pelvis injuries, as well as sex differences in lordosis.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/22/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yoganandan N, Humm JR, DeVogel N, Banerjee A, Pintar FA, Somers JT. "Pelvis injury risk curves in side impacts from human cadaver experiments using survival analysis and Brier score metrics." Traffic Injury Prevention. Published online: 25 Nov 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2019.1682565 ; PubMed PMID: 31762331 , Nov-2019
Project Title:  ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Dummy) Injury Metric Development Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/09/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. / KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2400 NASA Parklway 
MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/37C 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: jeff.somers@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-6010  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2018: Remove Jessica Wells as Co-Investigator. June 2016 report--Additional CoInvestigators: Jessica Wells, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Solutions, 2625 Bay Area Blvd, Houston, TX 77058, 281.483.7216. jessica.a.wells@nasa.gov ; Narayan Yoganandan, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. (414) 384-3453. yoga@mcw.edu ; John Humm, MS, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. jhumm@mcw.edu. ; Additional Key Personnel: Jacob Putnam, Wyle Science Technology and Engineering Group.
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Yoganandan, Narayan  Ph.D. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Humm, John  M.S. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Putnam, Jacob  M.S. KBRwyle 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.williams-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Occupant Protection:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (Risk move from HHC to SHFH per IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) OP-02:We do not know how load dynamics and sex differences affect injury risk in spaceflight conditions and do not have adequate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to mitigate the increased risk of injury to the crew. (Previous title: OP3) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/HFBP/JSC (Ed., 11/17/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Change to start date per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 2/3/16)

NOTE: Added "Development" to title, per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 10/7/15)

NOTE: Change in title to "ATD Injury Metric" from "THOR Injury Metric Development" per E. Connell/SHFH HRP (Ed., 8/19/15)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 5/1/2015-9/30/2017 (previously 7/3/2014-10/31/2016) due to delayted start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 4/15/2015)

 

Task Description: Data from the Hybrid III and THOR (Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint), anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) currently available to test the Occupant Protection requirements, are not well correlated to low-injury risk, as these ATDs were designed for automotive use. Automotive research is directed at preventing severe injuries in very low probability events. NASA vehicles require a lower risk of injury because the vehicles will land every time, making that a high probability event. The objective of this study is to develop injury risk functions for the Hybrid III and THOR ATDs. Matched pair tests between postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) and each ATD will be used to determine ATD-specific injury criteria. The merit of the matched pair design is the one-to-one correspondence of the results from external loads to both surrogates. Injury outcomes from PMHS tests will be used with region-specific data, such as forces and moments either individually or in combination, to derive ATD-specific injury criteria.

Specific Aims

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis.

Historical human data will be selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database. The data will be selected based on loading dynamics and subject demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR ATDs will be tested in identical conditions. A Bayesian analysis along with survival analysis will be used to relate the resulting ATD responses to improve injury risk predictions. The results of the Occupant Protection (OP) Data Mining and Modeling Task will be used as prior distributions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to schedule constraints and the requirement of using the same test facilities used in the original human testing. Based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY17 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2. Because of this accelerated schedule, there is insufficient time to solicit this work. In addition, the testing in this task must be conducted to best replicate the original human test conditions. Because of this, testing will need to be conducted at the original test facility, excluding the ability to solicit the work.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The outcome of this research will be improved Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) for Anthropomorphic Test Devices or crash test dummies. By improving the quality of IARVs at low severity impacts in multiple directions, automotive vehicle designers can create safer cars and trucks and have the tools needed to show that a design is actually safer.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: For each phase of this study historical post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test cases are first selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database for match paired testing. Selection of these cases are made based on their similarity to spaceflight loading dynamics and Astronaut demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) are tested in identical conditions. A survival analysis is then used to relate the resulting ATD responses to identified PMHS injuries and develop injury risk correlation. This correlation will be used to improve upon the injury metrics previously developed in other research tasks. The resulting metrics will be used to update NASA standards and provided to the Orion and Commercial Crew Program to allow additional insight into verification, validation, and risk analysis.

Currently phase 1 – lower neck injury under rearward impact has been completed. A supplemental phase of this project, cervical spine injury under vertical contact loading, has also been completed. For this supplemental phase injury risk functions were developed from PMHS test only. It was determined that compressive contact loading, used in PMHS testing, had minimal value in matched paired ATD testing due to the inflexibility of the ATD head/neck structure in this loading configuration. The remaining lateral injury metrics for the neck, thorax and pelvis are planned to be completed by September 2019.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/22/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Somers JT, Kreutzberg GA. "ATD Injury Metric Development." Presented at the 2018 Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, Texas, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yoganandan N, Chirvi S, Pintar FA, Baisden JL, Banjeree A. "Preliminary female cervical spine injury risk curves from PMHS tests." J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2018 Jul;83:143-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.04.020 ; PMID: 29709826 , Jul-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yoganandan N, Chirvi S, Voo L, Pintar FA, Banerjee A. "Role of age and injury mechanism on cervical spine injury tolerance from head contact loading." Traffic Inj Prev. 2018 Feb 17;19(2):165-72. Epub 2017 Oct 16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2017.1355549 ; PubMed PMID: 28738168 , Feb-2018
Project Title:  ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Dummy) Injury Metric Development Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/15/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. / KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2400 NASA Parklway 
MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/37C 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: jeff.somers@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-6010  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2016 report--Additional CoInvestigators: Jessica Wells, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Solutions, 2625 Bay Area Blvd, Houston, TX 77058, 281.483.7216. jessica.a.wells@nasa.gov ; Narayan Yoganandan, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. (414) 384-3453. yoga@mcw.edu ; John Humm, MS, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. jhumm@mcw.edu. ; Additional Key Personnel: Jacob Putnam, Wyle Science Technology and Engineering Group.
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Wells, Jessica  B.S. Leidos 
Yoganandan, Narayan  Ph.D. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Humm, John  M.S. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.williams-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Occupant Protection:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (Risk move from HHC to SHFH per IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) OP-02:We do not know how load dynamics and sex differences affect injury risk in spaceflight conditions and do not have adequate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to mitigate the increased risk of injury to the crew. (Previous title: OP3) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 9/30/2019 per E. Connell/HFBP/JSC (Ed., 11/17/17)

NOTE: Change to start date per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 2/3/16)

NOTE: Added "Development" to title, per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 10/7/15)

NOTE: Change in title to "ATD Injury Metric" from "THOR Injury Metric Development" per E. Connell/SHFH HRP (Ed., 8/19/15)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 5/1/2015-9/30/2017 (previously 7/3/2014-10/31/2016) due to delayted start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 4/15/2015)

 

Task Description: Data from the Hybrid III and THOR (Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint), anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) currently available to test the Occupant Protection requirements, are not well correlated to low-injury risk, as these ATDs were designed for automotive use. Automotive research is directed at preventing severe injuries in very low probability events. NASA vehicles require a lower risk of injury because the vehicles will land every time, making that a high probability event. The objective of this study is to develop injury risk functions for the Hybrid III and THOR ATDs. Matched pair tests between postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) and each ATD will be used to determine ATD-specific injury criteria. The merit of the matched pair design is the one-to-one correspondence of the results from external loads to both surrogates. Injury outcomes from PMHS tests will be used with region-specific data, such as forces and moments either individually or in combination, to derive ATD-specific injury criteria.

Specific Aims

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis.

Historical human data will be selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database. The data will be selected based on loading dynamics and subject demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR ATDs will be tested in identical conditions. A Bayesian analysis along with survival analysis will be used to relate the resulting ATD responses to improve injury risk predictions. The results of the Occupant Protection (OP) Data Mining and Modeling Task will be used as prior distributions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to schedule constraints and the requirement of using the same test facilities used in the original human testing. Based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY17 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2. Because of this accelerated schedule, there is insufficient time to solicit this work. In addition, the testing in this task must be conducted to best replicate the original human test conditions. Because of this, testing will need to be conducted at the original test facility, excluding the ability to solicit the work.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The outcome of this research will be improved Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) for Anthropomorphic Test Devices or crash test dummies. By improving the quality of IARVs at low severity impacts in multiple directions, automotive vehicle designers can create safer cars and trucks and have the tools needed to show that a design is actually safer.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Specific Aims:

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison. Work started in February 2016 with the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) selecting appropriate matched pair datasets from their test laboratory. Datasets selected include those eliciting low-level AIS injuries in the neck and include a high number of female test data to allow study of sex differences in injury outcome. Datasets were chosen to examine lateral impact neck tolerance, vertical impact neck tolerance, and pelvic/acetabulum injury criteria. PMHS injury data will be used to develop risk curves in a similar process as seen in the 2017 paper “Load-Based Lower Neck Injury Criteria for Females from Rear Impact from Cadaver Experiments.” Additionally, historical human volunteer test data collected at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) can be added to the PMHS injury data to further refine the injury risk curves. Matched pair testing will then be performed with the Hybrid III 50th and THOR ATDs to develop injury risk curves for each.

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing. The MCW is documenting match pair tests already completed with the Hybrid III ATD and determining what tests will be required to supplement the existing Hybrid III dataset. The OP team is drafting a Space Act Agreement (SAA) with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to use the THOR ATD for testing at MCW. The MCW has begun ATD match pairing testing for lower-neck shear criteria. Currently, the THOR ATD is unavailable for use until the Summer 2017.

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences. Established injury risk function for the PMHS for the lower-neck shear force bending moment. Work to establish injury risk function for Hybrid III 50th and THOR will begin after match pair testing is complete.

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution. This work will begin after match pair testing is complete.

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis. This work will begin after match pair testing is complete.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/22/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Wells JA, Somers JT, Newby NJ, Putnam JB, Siders BA. "ATD Injury Metric Development." Presented at the 2017 Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Wells JA, Somers JT, Newby NJ. "ATD Injury Metric Development." Presented at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Banjeree A. "Load-based lower neck injury criteria for females from rear impact from cadaver experiments." Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 May;45(5):1194-203. Epub 2017 Jan 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-016-1773-5 ; PubMed PMID: 28091968 , May-2017
Project Title:  ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Dummy) Injury Metric Development Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 06/14/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. / KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2400 NASA Parklway 
MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/37C 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: jeff.somers@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-6010  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Comments:  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2016 report--Additional CoInvestigators: Jessica Wells, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Solutions, 2625 Bay Area Blvd, Houston, TX 77058, 281.483.7216. jessica.a.wells@nasa.gov ; Narayan Yoganandan, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. (414) 384-3453. yoga@mcw.edu ; John Humm, MS, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53226. jhumm@mcw.edu. ; Additional Key Personnel: Jacob Putnam, Wyle Science Technology and Engineering Group.
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Wells, Jessica  Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Solutions 
Yoganandan, Narayan  Ph.D. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Humm, John  M.S. Medical College of Wisconsin 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.williams-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Occupant Protection:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (Risk move from HHC to SHFH per IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) OP-02:We do not know how load dynamics and sex differences affect injury risk in spaceflight conditions and do not have adequate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to mitigate the increased risk of injury to the crew. (Previous title: OP3) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

NOTE: Change to start date per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 2/3/16)

NOTE: Added "Development" to title, per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 10/7/15)

NOTE: Change in title to "ATD Injury Metric" from "THOR Injury Metric Development" per E. Connell/SHFH HRP (Ed., 8/19/15)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 5/1/2015-9/30/2017 (previously 7/3/2014-10/31/2016) due to delayted start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 4/15/2015)

 

Task Description: The anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) – the Hybrid III and THOR (Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint) – currently available to test the Occupant Protection requirements, are not well correlated to low injury risk, as these ATDs were designed for automotive use. Automotive research is directed at preventing severe injuries in very low probability events. NASA vehicles require a lower risk of injury because the vehicles will land every time, making that a high probability event. The objective of this study is to develop injury risk functions for the Hybrid III and THOR ATDs. Matched-pair tests between postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) and each ATD will be used to determine ATD-specific injury criteria. The merit of the matched-pair design is the one-to-one correspondence of the results from external loads to both surrogates. Injury outcomes from PMHS tests will be used with region-specific data, such as forces and moments either individually or in combination, to derive ATD-specific injury criteria.

Specific Aims

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis

Historical human data will be selected from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) database. The data will be selected based on loading dynamics and subject demographics. Once these data are selected, the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR ATDs will be tested in identical conditions. A Bayesian analysis along with survival analysis will be used to relate the resulting ATD responses to improve injury risk predictions. The results of the Occupant Protection (OP) Data Mining and Modeling Task will be used as prior distributions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to schedule constraints and the requirement of using the same test facilities used in the original human testing. Based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY17 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2. Because of this accelerated schedule, there is insufficient time to solicit this work. In addition, the testing in this task must be conducted to best replicate the original human test conditions. Because of this, testing will need to be conducted at the original test facility, excluding the ability to solicit the work.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The outcome of this research will be improved Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) for Anthropomorphic Test Devices or crash test dummies. By improving the quality of IARVs at low severity impacts in multiple directions, automotive vehicle designers can create safer cars and trucks and have the tools needed to show that a design is actually safer.

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Specific Aims:

1. Identify appropriate datasets for ATD comparison. Work started in February 2016. Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) is currently selecting appropriate match-pair datasets from their test laboratory. Datasets selected include those eliciting low level Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) injuries in the neck and include a high number of female test data to allow study of sex differences in injury outcome.

2. Test Hybrid III 50th percentile male and THOR in same conditions as historical testing. MCW is documenting match-pair tests already completed with the Hybrid III ATD and determining what tests will be required to supplement the existing Hybrid III dataset. The OP team is drafting a Space Act Agreement (SAA) with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to use the THOR ATD for testing at MCW.

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences. This work will begin after match-pair testing is complete.

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution. This work will begin after match-pair testing is complete.

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis. This work will begin after match-pair testing is complete.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/22/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Dummy) Injury Metric Development Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 09/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 07/17/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Somers, Jeffrey  M.S. / KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  2400 NASA Parklway 
MAILCODE: WYLE/HAC/37C 
Houston , TX 77058 
Email: jeff.somers@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-6010  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Gernhardt, Michael  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Whitmore, Mihriban  
Center Contact: 281-244-1004 
mihriban.whitmore-1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: GROUND 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Occupant Protection:Risk of Injury from Dynamic Loads (Risk move from HHC to SHFH per IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) OP-02:We do not know how load dynamics and sex differences affect injury risk in spaceflight conditions and do not have adequate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) to mitigate the increased risk of injury to the crew. (Previous title: OP3) (IRP Rev H)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Change to start date per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 2/3/16)

NOTE: Added "Development" to title, per E. Connell/SHFH/HRP (Ed., 10/7/15)

NOTE: Change in title to "ATD Injury Metric" from "THOR Injury Metric Development" per E. Connell/SHFH HRP (Ed., 8/19/15)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 5/1/2015-9/30/2017 (previously 7/3/2014-10/31/2016) due to delayted start, per E. Connell/JSC SHFH element (Ed., 4/15/2015)

 

Task Description: Currently, the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) is the most biofidelic Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash test dummy) available. This ATD is the best solution for future occupant protection standards and requirements; however, the THOR responses are not well correlated to low injury risk. Since automotive research is directed at preventing severe injuries in very low probability events, and because NASA vehicles will land every time, a lower risk of injury is needed. Because NASA requires this lower level of injury risk, new injury risk functions for the THOR are needed.

Specific aims are as follows:

1. Identify appropriate datasets for THOR comparison

2. Test THOR in same conditions as historical testing

3. Use historical human data to establish tolerance and injury risk focusing on lateral responses and sex differences

4. Use Bayesian analysis combined with survival analysis along with human tolerance to estimate injury risk. Use results of prior data mining and existing literature as prior distribution

5. Develop new Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs) based on the new statistical analysis

Historical human data will be selected from the Wright-Patterson Collaborative Biodynamics Network (CBDN) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) databases. The data will be selected based on loading dynamics and subject demographics. Once these data are selected, the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) will be tested in identical conditions. A Bayesian analysis along with survival analysis will be used to relate the resulting THOR responses to improve injury risk predictions. The results of the Occupant Protection (OP) Data Mining and Modeling Task will be used as prior distributions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This task meets the criteria for a Directed Task due to schedule constraints and the requirement of using the same test facilities used in the original human testing. Based on the approved Path to Risk Reduction, this task is required to be completed by the end of FY17 in order to meet the Orion schedule for EM-2. Because of this accelerated schedule, there is insufficient time to solicit this work. In addition, the testing in this task must be conducted to best replicate the original human test conditions. Because of this, testing will need to be conducted at the original test facility, excluding the ability to solicit the work.

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

 

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

(Ed. Note 4/15/2015: change in period of performance per SHFH element)

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/22/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2015