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Project Title:  Creating a Taxonomy of Variables Affecting Cognitive Aid Design via an Investigation of Hybrid Aids Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/09/2016  
End Date: 02/01/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/02/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   McLaughlin, Anne  Ph.D. / North Carolina State University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 7650 
Raleigh , NC 27695-7650 
Email: anne_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu 
Phone: 919-513-2434  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: North Carolina State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  M.S. KBRWyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2017 report: Dr. Aniko Sandor, the original co-Investigator, left her position at KBRWyle in late 2016. We have been working with substitute co-Is and currently are working with Vicky Byrne, a specialist in medical human factors, who is now listed as Co-Investigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP91G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP91G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Medical Conditions:Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to Medical Conditions that occur in Mission, as well as Long Term Health Outcomes Due to Mission Exposures (IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-201:We need to evaluate the demands of future exploration habitat/vehicle systems and mission scenarios (e.g. increased automation, multi-modal communication) on individuals and teams, and determine the risks these demands pose to crew health and performance (IRP Rev L)
(2) HSIA-401:We need to determine how HSI can be applied in the vehicle/habitat and computer interface Design Phase to mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g. problem-solving, execution procedures), during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-501:We need to determine how HSI will be used in the development of dynamic and adaptive mission procedures and processes, to mitigate individual and team performance decrements during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(4) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) HSIA-801:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards (e.g. radiation, isolation and confinement, altered gravity), we need to evaluate and identify how HSI can further characterize and/or mitigate additive and/or synergistic effects of the spaceflight environment, for increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 2/1/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/5/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

Task Description: This proposal addresses the NASA Research Announcement for Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), NNJ15ZSA001N-FLAGSHIP Appendix A, Interactive Cognitive Aids. Onboard crewmembers, similarly to operators from other industries, complain about using current checklist-like procedures. Issues include procedures having too much or too little detail and poor usability. Due to these, mistakes still occur and time to accomplish procedures is misestimated. NASA crew presently use static paper or electronic “cue cards” (PDFs) and procedures that provide guidance on both nominal and off-nominal tasks. Existing tools may not account for the lack of recent training, may not be optimized for the task, may not be optimized for the number of users, and may not be resilient to resumption after interruption. A more interactive cognitive aid can overcome the limitations of these cue cards and procedures by matching task, individual, team structure, and environment.

This project addressed the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE-TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF (human factors) tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures. A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it was not yet clear what attributes, such as adaptability, the aid should contain.

The project also addressed the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. (Previously: SHFE-TRAIN-03 - How can onboard training systems be designed to address Just in Time (JIT) and recurrent training needs for nominal and off nominal scenarios?). To contribute to the closure of this gap, we investigated cognitive aids for non-expert operators.

Our goals in this project were two-fold: The first goal was to investigate a new form of cognitive aid that incorporates the beneficial attributes of static, adaptable, adaptive, and dynamic aids into a hybrid aid. We see the benefit of this hybrid aid to be:

1. a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances),

2. a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments),

3. a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance.

We designed a prototype of a hybrid aid for medical equipment maintenance tasks, while at the same time building a library of tools to create similar aids for other procedures. Second, developed a taxonomy of cognitive aid design that considers the most important variables affecting performance with aids: user knowledge and experience, time pressure on performance, task criticality, and the number of operators expected to interact with the aid.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of the project provide guidelines for the development of cognitive aids in any number of areas, including aviation, automobiles, manufacturing, nuclear power plants, and medical procedures. Reducing error rate in many of these circumstances can save lives. Reducing duration spent on the task could reduce costs. A system that is no longer cumbersome or distracting will encourage adherence, one of the major flaws of current procedures and checklists.

Our Hybrid Aid toolkit is a prototype of an innovative cognitive aid technology that is designed to support non-expert operators in complex tasks, while also offering tools to the procedure designers and the operators themselves as they perform the task.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Project Aims, Objectives, or Hypothesis

To contribute to the closure of these gaps, the research focused on investigating cognitive aids for non-expert operators. Our goals were two-fold:

The first goal was to investigate a new form of cognitive aid that incorporates the beneficial attributes of static, adaptable, adaptive, and dynamic aids into a hybrid aid. We see the benefit of this hybrid aid to be: - a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances), - a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments), - a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance. The second goal was to develop a taxonomy of cognitive aid design that considers the most important variables affecting performance with aids: user knowledge and experience, resources demanded by the task and sub-tasks, time pressure, and the number of operators expected to interact with the aid. Hypotheses were that a hybrid aid would have the following benefits:

- a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances),

- a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments),

- a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance.

Specific Questions Addressed

The following specific research questions were addressed across four experiments, a validation study, and an integrative literature review. All experiments and studies focused on capable but non-expert operators using a cognitive aid.

First, how does the sensory modality of the aid interact with the demands of the task being aided? Is it better to avoid cognitive resource conflict or to consider the task and aid as an integrated system that might benefit from matching the resources needed for each? Second, how does the method of interaction (manual, voice) affect use of the aid in various sensory modalities? Third, how do teams of two operators differ from single operators in how they utilize the cognitive aid and perform the task? Does this interaction change when under time pressure? Fourth, how do individual differences in ability needed for the task (e.g., spatial ability) affect use of a cognitive aid? Is there a benefit to providing aid from perspectives that do not require mental rotation? Fifth, using the information gained from the literature review and experiments, can we create an aid that supports significantly better performance from space-experienced operators at Johnson Space Center compared to a traditional procedure?

Connection to the NASA Human Research Roadmap : The overall project addresses Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE- TASK-02 gap: What model-based HR tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures? A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it is not yet clear what attributes the aid should contain. The experiments included in this project are examining the variables of aid modality, number of team members, and support for off-nominal procedures. The first experiment, reported here, will draw conclusions about the importance of reducing sensory modality conflict between the cognitive aid and the task.

The project also addresses the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight.

Last, Risks not included in the original proposal (but discovered to be applicable to the current project ) were: - Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions: Med-05: We do not know how to train crew for medical decision making and medical skills to enable extended mission or autonomous operations. Cognitive aids can provide just-in-time training and job support; - Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction and HCI-06: We need guidelines to ensure operators receive all of the information required to accomplish necessary tasks in a timely fashion, even when operating autonomously. (Previous title: SHFE-HCI-06). Discovering the best way to design cognitive aids for previously unstudied scenarios (e.g., non-expert operators, numbers of operators) results in guidelines for the cognitive aids of the future.

As projected, the overall project addressed the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE- TASK-02 gap: What model-based HR tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures? A toolkit was created to support dynamic procedure design. Further, the literature review and taxonomy provides a structure and boundary conditions for the development of new cognitive aids, even those using unexplored technologies (e.g., Augmented or Virtual reality). One of the main take home messages from the literature review was the lack of research on supporting non-expert operators and a lack of focus on broad generalized knowledge of cognition that can be applied to all cognitive aids.

The project also addressed the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. All of the studies performed used non-expert operators and provided information on how to create aids that assist with just-in-time training. Another risk addressed was the Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions: Med-05: We do not know how to train crew for medical decision making and medical skills to enable extended mission or autonomous operations. Again, our focus on supporting non-expert operators applies to this risk, under the assumption that crewmembers may be called upon to perform medical tasks for which they are not fully trained.

Last, we addressed the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction and HCI-06: We need guidelines to ensure operators receive all of the information required to accomplish necessary tasks in a timely fashion, even when operating autonomously. Cognitive aids, as was shown in the literature review and taxonomy, require study both of how the aid supports cognition in the task and how cognition must be supported in using the aid itself. Discovering the best way to design cognitive aids for previously unstudied scenarios (e.g., non-expert operators, numbers of operators) resulted in guidelines for the cognitive aids of the future.

[Ed. note October 2020--HRP gaps have been changed since this report in May 2019]

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Pryor M, McLaughlin AC. "Developing video or multimedia instructions for older adults." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2018 Sep;62(1):1739-43. (62nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 1–5, 2018.) https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931218621394 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals McLaughlin AC, Byrne VE. "A fundamental cognitive taxonomy for cognition aids." Hum Factors. 2020 Sep;62(6):865-73. Epub 2020 May 21. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720820920099 ; PMID: 32436740 , Sep-2020
Project Title:  Creating a Taxonomy of Variables Affecting Cognitive Aid Design via an Investigation of Hybrid Aids Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/09/2016  
End Date: 02/01/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/26/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   McLaughlin, Anne  Ph.D. / North Carolina State University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 7650 
Raleigh , NC 27695-7650 
Email: anne_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu 
Phone: 919-513-2434  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: North Carolina State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  M.S. KBRWyle 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2017 report: Dr. Aniko Sandor, the original co-Investigator, left her position at KBRWyle in late 2016. We have been working with substitute co-Is and currently are working with Vicky Byrne, a specialist in medical human factors, who is now listed as Co-Investigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP91G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP91G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Medical Conditions:Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to Medical Conditions that occur in Mission, as well as Long Term Health Outcomes Due to Mission Exposures (IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-201:We need to evaluate the demands of future exploration habitat/vehicle systems and mission scenarios (e.g. increased automation, multi-modal communication) on individuals and teams, and determine the risks these demands pose to crew health and performance (IRP Rev L)
(2) HSIA-401:We need to determine how HSI can be applied in the vehicle/habitat and computer interface Design Phase to mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g. problem-solving, execution procedures), during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-501:We need to determine how HSI will be used in the development of dynamic and adaptive mission procedures and processes, to mitigate individual and team performance decrements during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(4) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) HSIA-801:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards (e.g. radiation, isolation and confinement, altered gravity), we need to evaluate and identify how HSI can further characterize and/or mitigate additive and/or synergistic effects of the spaceflight environment, for increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 2/1/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/5/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

Task Description: This proposal addresses the NASA Research Announcement for Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), NNJ15ZSA001N-FLAGSHIP Appendix A, Interactive Cognitive Aids. Onboard crewmembers, similarly to operators from other industries, complain about using current checklist-like procedures. Issues include procedures having too much or too little detail and poor usability. Due to these, mistakes still occur and time to accomplish procedures is misestimated. NASA crew presently use static paper or electronic “cue cards” (PDFs) and procedures that provide guidance on both nominal and off-nominal tasks. Existing tools may not account for the lack of recent training, may not be optimized for the task, may not be optimized for the number of users, and may not be resilient to resumption after interruption. A more interactive cognitive aid can overcome the limitations of these cue cards and procedures by matching task, individual, team structure, and environment.

This proposal addresses the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE-TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF (human factors) Tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures. A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it is not yet clear what attributes, such as adaptability, the aid should contain.

The proposal also addresses the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. (Previously: SHFE-TRAIN-03 - How can onboard training systems be designed to address Just in Time (JIT) and recurrent training needs for nominal and off nominal scenarios?). To contribute to the closure of this gap, the research proposed will investigate cognitive aids for non-expert operators.

Our goals in this proposal are two-fold: The first goal is to investigate a new form of cognitive aid that incorporates the beneficial attributes of static, adaptable, adaptive, and dynamic aids into a hybrid aid. We see the benefit of this hybrid aid to be:

1. a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances),

2. a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments),

3. a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance.

We will iteratively design a prototype of a hybrid aid for medical equipment maintenance tasks, while at the same time building a library of tools to create similar aids for other procedures. Second, we will develop a taxonomy of cognitive aid design that considers the most important variables affecting performance with aids: user knowledge and experience, resources demanded by the task and sub-tasks, time pressure on performance, and the number of operators expected to interact with the aid.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of the proposed work will provide guidelines for the development of cognitive aids in any number of areas, including aviation, automobiles, manufacturing, nuclear power plants, and medical procedures. Reducing error rate in many of these circumstances can save lives. Reducing duration spent on the task could reduce costs. A system that is no longer cumbersome or distracting will encourage adherence, one of the major flaws of current procedures and checklists.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Progress June 2017 - August 2018

The project received a no-cost extension until February, 2019, to complete software iterations on the cognitive aid, dissemination of the experiment data, and completion of the taxonomy of variables involved in cognitive aid design.

The two Risks and Gaps addressed by this research were:

Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE-TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF Tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures?

Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight.

The results inform the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design by: 1) discovering the helpful tools and forms of flexibility that aid in procedure use, in our case via a hybrid cognitive aid, 2) informing on the effects of aid-modality as it conflicts or does not conflict with the modality of the task described by the procedure, 3) the functioning of cognitive aids when operators are under time pressure, and 4) the real-world use of cognitive aids when operators work in teams. The findings also gauged the impact of interruptions during procedures and recovery from errors. Regarding the Risk of Performance Errors due to Training Deficiencies, the findings demonstrated how novices perform a new task with just-in-time training offered by the procedure and how this training might be improved by the added experiences of other operators who used the procedure in the same environment.

In the last year we fully completed, analyzed, and wrote up Experiments 1 and 2, which served as the dissertation of Dr. John (Jojo) Sprufera. Research questions in these experiments included task-aid modality conflict and the tools provided in a hybrid cognitive aid. We collected pilot data and full data for Experiment 3 concerning team interactions with the cognitive aid and the effects of time pressure on aid use, with and without a second operator. We collected data for Experiment 4, regarding the best perspective (first person vs. third person) for media shown in the cognitive aid. Last, we developed a working aid prototype with the help of a research assistant in computer science based on our findings from these experiments. This working prototype was tested in a validation study at Johnson Space Center where 28 experienced participants interacted with the aid compared to a procedure not augmented with the cognition aids.

Summary of progress on Experiment 3: Participants and Materials and methods were similar to Experiment 1. Changes included: the ventilator setup task was divided into sections that were either performed under time pressure (using video and audio to mimic an emergency) and participants were randomly assigned to perform the setup task alone or in a team of two. Twenty participants operated alone and and forty in teams of two.

In general, the setup task was performed faster and more accurately by teams and faster (but less accurately) when under time pressure. Use of the cognitive aid was observed to be distributed among the team members, where one tended to take ownership of reading the aid while the other followed instruction. Negotiation of understanding of each step occurred frequently between team members.This finding points to the importance of an operator (either human or potentially part of the aid) providing directive instruction while the task is being performed by another. This keeps the operator engaged in the task.

Summary of progress on Experiment 4: When participants used the aid in Experiments 1, 2, and 3, we observed the benefits and difficulties our media augmentations provided. This prompted a new question that needed to be answered in design of the aid: from which perspective should video and picture augmentations be provided? A media visual taken from the first person perspective requires no mental rotation when the task is performed, while a third-person perspective requires mental rotation. We hypothesized that, under ideal conditions with highly able operators, the perspective of the media would have little effect on performance. However, when the task was highly spatial, difficult, and or complex, we expected perspective to have an effect, such that the addition of mental rotation would decrement performance. Similarly, when the operators were under high cognitive demand, as can occur with multi-tasking or interruptions, we expected perspective to have an effect.

To test these hypotheses, we again used the setup of a medical ventilator as our task and provided video instruction via a cognitive aid. This instruction was manipulated to show the first or third person perspective. Our participants were younger adults (18-28) with relatively high fluid abilities (as measured via tests of spatial ability) and older adults (65-75) with relatively lower fluid abilities. Such a sample allowed us to test the general hypothesis that the importance of perspective was linked to available mental resources. Participants were randomly assigned to a perspective condition. The full design contained two age groups and two perspective conditions. Errors (omission and commission) and completion times were collected.

Data were gathered in the spring and summer of 2018. Analyses are ongoing.

Software Products: The hybrid aid prototype was iteratively designed and tested during the validation study at Johnson Space Center.

The designs are the result of several iterations of usability testing of the hybrid-aid concept via the validation study. They are currently being implemented in software.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sprufera JF, Pryor M, Byrne V, McLaughlin AC. "Sensory modal interaction while using a cognitive aid during an off-nominal complex medical task." Presented at APA2018, Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, August 9-12, 2018.

APA2018, Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, August 9-12, 2018. , Aug-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Hicks WB, Pryor M, Greene A, Sprufera JF, Byrne V, McLaughlin AC. "Development of evidence-based guidelines for medical cognition aids." Presented at the 2018 International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, San Francisco, CA, July 23-26, 2018.

2018 International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, San Francisco, CA, July 23-26, 2018. , Jul-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hicks WB, Pryor M, Sprufera JF, Greene A, Byrne V, McLaughlin AC. "Time pressure and team dynamics: Contextual factors influencing performance when using a cognitive aid." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2018 Sep;62(1)):125-9. (62nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 1–5, 2018.) https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931218621029 , Sep-2018
Dissertations and Theses Sprufera JF. "Cognitive aid use during complex off-nominal tasks: Considerations of modality and additional functionality on performance." Dissertation, North Carolina State University, June 2018. , Jun-2018
Project Title:  Creating a Taxonomy of Variables Affecting Cognitive Aid Design via an Investigation of Hybrid Aids Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/09/2016  
End Date: 02/01/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/10/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   McLaughlin, Anne  Ph.D. / North Carolina State University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 7650 
Raleigh , NC 27695-7650 
Email: anne_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu 
Phone: 919-513-2434  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: North Carolina State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Byrne, Vicky  M.S. KBRWyle 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2017 report: Dr. Aniko Sandor, the original co-Investigator, left her position at KBRWyle in late 2016. We have been working with substitute co-Is and currently are working with Vicky Byrne, a specialist in medical human factors, who is now listed as Co-Investigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP91G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP91G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Medical Conditions:Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to Medical Conditions that occur in Mission, as well as Long Term Health Outcomes Due to Mission Exposures (IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-201:We need to evaluate the demands of future exploration habitat/vehicle systems and mission scenarios (e.g. increased automation, multi-modal communication) on individuals and teams, and determine the risks these demands pose to crew health and performance (IRP Rev L)
(2) HSIA-401:We need to determine how HSI can be applied in the vehicle/habitat and computer interface Design Phase to mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g. problem-solving, execution procedures), during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-501:We need to determine how HSI will be used in the development of dynamic and adaptive mission procedures and processes, to mitigate individual and team performance decrements during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(4) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) HSIA-801:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards (e.g. radiation, isolation and confinement, altered gravity), we need to evaluate and identify how HSI can further characterize and/or mitigate additive and/or synergistic effects of the spaceflight environment, for increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 2/1/2019 per NSSC information (Ed., 9/5/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

Task Description: This proposal addresses the NASA Research Announcement for Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), NNJ15ZSA001N-FLAGSHIP Appendix A, Interactive Cognitive Aids. Onboard crewmembers, similarly to operators from other industries, complain about using current checklist-like procedures. Issues include procedures having too much or too little detail and poor usability. Due to these, mistakes still occur and time to accomplish procedures is misestimated. NASA crew presently use static paper or electronic “cue cards” (PDFs) and procedures that provide guidance on both nominal and off-nominal tasks. Existing tools may not account for the lack of recent training, may not be optimized for the task, may not be optimized for the number of users, and may not be resilient to resumption after interruption. A more interactive cognitive aid can overcome the limitations of these cue cards and procedures by matching task, individual, team structure, and environment.

This proposal addresses the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE-TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF (human factors) Tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures. A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it is not yet clear what attributes, such as adaptability, the aid should contain.

The proposal also addresses the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. (Previously: SHFE-TRAIN-03 - How can onboard training systems be designed to address Just in Time (JIT) and recurrent training needs for nominal and off nominal scenarios?). To contribute to the closure of this gap, the research proposed will investigate cognitive aids for non-expert operators.

Our goals in this proposal are two-fold: The first goal is to investigate a new form of cognitive aid that incorporates the beneficial attributes of static, adaptable, adaptive, and dynamic aids into a hybrid aid. We see the benefit of this hybrid aid to be:

1. a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances),

2. a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments),

3. a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance.

We will iteratively design a prototype of a hybrid aid for medical equipment maintenance tasks, while at the same time building a library of tools to create similar aids for other procedures. Second, we will develop a taxonomy of cognitive aid design that considers the most important variables affecting performance with aids: user knowledge and experience, resources demanded by the task and sub-tasks, time pressure on performance, and the number of operators expected to interact with the aid.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The results of the proposed work will provide guidelines for the development of cognitive aids in any number of areas, including aviation, automobiles, manufacturing, nuclear power plants, and medical procedures. Reducing error rate in many of these circumstances can save lives. Reducing duration spent on the task could reduce costs. A system that is no longer cumbersome or distracting will encourage adherence, one of the major flaws of current procedures and checklists.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: This is the first report of progress on funded activities from August 10th, 2016 through June 10th, 2017. This overall project addresses Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE- TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF Tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures? A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it is not yet clear what attributes the aid should contain. The first experiment, currently in progress and described here, will draw conclusions about the importance of reducing sensory modality conflict between the cognitive aid and the task. The project also addresses the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. To contribute to the closure of this gap, the research is investigating cognitive aids for non-expert operators. Our original timeline, as produced for the proposal, was to complete Experiment 1, focused on exploration of task sensory modality and cognitive aid modality conflict, before the end of the first year. We also anticipated planning and beginning the second Experiment, focused on team use of cognitive aids. We are on track for both of these experiments including a small follow-up to the first experiment (described below).

In the last year, we have assembled a team at NC State and worked with our colleague at Johnson Space Center to stay on track for the proposed timeline. The team at NC State included one PhD student supported by the project as a research assistant, another PhD student supported by a Provost fellowship but dedicated to the project for research experience, and several undergraduate research assistants working in the lab for experience and course credit. After a thorough task analysis of the medical ventilator and interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs) at the College of Veterinary Medicine, we created a SME-validated simulator that collects data. We have also developed a prototype of the cognitive aid that allows operation through various sensory modalities as prescribed by the experimenter. Further, we have identified a small follow-up to the first experiment that we plan to run as well, with higher-order Wizard-of-Oz audio (voice inputs) interfacing with the cognitive aid than was possible in Experiment 1 (where conditions needed to be kept identical between the auditory and visual aid conditions). The undergraduate and graduate research assistants on this project presented the project development at the North Carolina Cognition Conference (NCCC) and the Southeastern Human Factors Applied Research Conference (SHARC).

We have recruited a sample of veterinary students from the NC State College of Veterinary medicine and several psychology PhD students aged 22-35 into the LACElab at NC State University. This group was sampled due to their similarities to crewmember non-experts: highly educated, highly motivated to perform procedures accurately, often expected to perform in emergencies, yet not experienced in the procedure. Our power analysis indicated a need for 65 participants: we have currently run 58 (10 pilot participants).

Challenges we have faced include turnover of our Co-Investigators (Co-Is) at Johnson Space Center (KBRWyle). Dr. Aniko Sandor was the original co-I who helped to write the proposal, but left her position at KBRWyle in late 2016. Since then we have had great relations with substitute co-Is and currently are working with Vicky Byrne, a specialist in medical human factors, but this has been a change. We are planning an in-person team meeting at NC State for August/September 2107. Another challenge has been hiring a graduate student in computer science to program the Hybrid-Aid Toolkit (HAT). These students generally start their research assistantships in fall, but our funding was not received in time to advertise a position in 2016. We are currently recruiting for a computer scientist to join our team in summer 2017 and continue through summer 2018.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomquist E, Sprufera JF, Pryor M, McLaughlin AC. "Benefits of using Axure RP prototyping software for research purposes." Poster presented at the Southeastern Human Factors Applied Research Conference (SHARC), Raleigh, NC, April 1, 2017.

Southeastern Human Factors Applied Research Conference (SHARC), Raleigh, NC, April 1, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings McLaughlin AC, Sandor A, Sprufera JF, Pryor M. "Creating a taxonomy of variables affecting cognitive aids via an investigation of hybrid aids." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Pietrowski B, McLaughlin AC. "Matching the demands of a physical ventilator simulator by utilizing a task analysis." Southeastern Human Factors Applied Research Conference (SHARC), Raleigh, NC, April 1, 2017.

Southeastern Human Factors Applied Research Conference (SHARC), Raleigh, NC, April 1, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Pryor M, McLaughlin AC. "Individual differences in performance on a complex task." First Year Project Poster Presentations, Human Factors and Applied Cognition Program, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, April 2017.

First Year Project Poster Presentations, Human Factors and Applied Cognition Program, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, April 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Sprufera JF, Pryor M, McLaughlin AC. "Rapid iterative testing in experimental design." Poster presented at the Meeting of the North Carolina Cognition Group, UNC-Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, March 2017.

Meeting of the North Carolina Cognition Group, UNC-Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, March 2017. , Mar-2017

Project Title:  Creating a Taxonomy of Variables Affecting Cognitive Aid Design via an Investigation of Hybrid Aids Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/09/2016  
End Date: 08/08/2018  
Task Last Updated: 12/14/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   McLaughlin, Anne  Ph.D. / North Carolina State University 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 7650 
Raleigh , NC 27695-7650 
Email: anne_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu 
Phone: 919-513-2434  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: North Carolina State University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Sandor, Aniko  Ph.D. Lockheed-Martin/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AP91G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AP91G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) HSIA:Risk of Adverse Outcome Due to Inadequate Human Systems Integration Architecture (IRP Rev L)
(2) Medical Conditions:Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to Medical Conditions that occur in Mission, as well as Long Term Health Outcomes Due to Mission Exposures (IRP Rev M)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) HSIA-201:We need to evaluate the demands of future exploration habitat/vehicle systems and mission scenarios (e.g. increased automation, multi-modal communication) on individuals and teams, and determine the risks these demands pose to crew health and performance (IRP Rev L)
(2) HSIA-401:We need to determine how HSI can be applied in the vehicle/habitat and computer interface Design Phase to mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g. problem-solving, execution procedures), during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(3) HSIA-501:We need to determine how HSI will be used in the development of dynamic and adaptive mission procedures and processes, to mitigate individual and team performance decrements during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
(4) HSIA-601:We need to determine individual and team-based Human System Integration (HSI) training procedures, regimens, and standards that are required pre- and in-mission, and post-landing to help reduce demands on crew (e.g., neurocognitive, time); support meaningful work during long-duration missions; and mitigate potential decrements in operationally-relevant performance (e.g., training retention, problem-solving, procedure execution) during increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (IRP Rev L)
(5) HSIA-801:Given each crewmember will experience multiple spaceflight hazards (e.g. radiation, isolation and confinement, altered gravity), we need to evaluate and identify how HSI can further characterize and/or mitigate additive and/or synergistic effects of the spaceflight environment, for increasingly earth-independent, future exploration missions (including in-mission and at landing) (IRP Rev L)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Space Human Factors & Habitability (Ed., 1/19/17)

Task Description: This proposal addresses the NASA Research Announcement for Human Exploration Research Opportunities (HERO), NNJ15ZSA001N-FLAGSHIP Appendix A, Interactive Cognitive Aids. Onboard crewmembers, similarly to operators from other industries, complain about using current checklist-like procedures. Issues include procedures having too much or too little detail and poor usability. Due to these, mistakes still occur and time to accomplish procedures is misestimated. NASA crew presently use static paper or electronic “cue cards” (PDFs) and procedures that provide guidance on both nominal and off-nominal tasks. Existing tools may not account for the lack of recent training, may not be optimized for the task, may not be optimized for the number of users, and may not be resilient to resumption after interruption. A more interactive cognitive aid can overcome the limitations of these cue cards and procedures by matching task, individual, team structure, and environment.

This proposal addresses the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design of the Human Research Program (HRP), specifically the SHFE-TASK-02 gap: What model-based HF Tools can assist with the design and evaluation of spacecraft systems and task procedures. A toolkit is needed to support dynamic task design, particularly for design by non-programmers who would be making the procedures. There exists no taxonomy of cognitive aid design and task type nor standards for interactive cognitive aids to drive development. A cognitive aid should provide guidance to support efficiency and success while minimizing cognitive workload, but it is not yet clear what attributes, such as adaptability, the aid should contain.

The proposal also addresses the HRP’s Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies, specifically the TRAIN-03 gap: We need to develop guidelines for effective onboard training systems that provide training traditionally assumed for pre-flight. (Previously: SHFE-TRAIN-03 - How can onboard training systems be designed to address Just in Time (JIT) and recurrent training needs for nominal and off nominal scenarios?). To contribute to the closure of this gap, the research proposed will investigate cognitive aids for non-expert operators.

Our goals in this proposal are two-fold: The first goal is to investigate a new form of cognitive aid that incorporates the beneficial attributes of static, adaptable, adaptive, and dynamic aids into a hybrid aid. We see the benefit of this hybrid aid to be:

1. a technology able to be immediately deployed (unlike augmented reality or other heavily technology-dependent advances),

2. a technology able to be used by non-programmers as they design aids for crewmembers (the audiences would be procedure designers and scientists creating procedures for in-flight experiments),

3. a form of aid that offers the beneficial attributes of a dynamic aid that responds to each step in a procedure with the security of a static or adaptable aid that does not require functioning sensors for performance.

We will iteratively design a prototype of a hybrid aid for medical equipment maintenance tasks, while at the same time building a library of tools to create similar aids for other procedures. Second, we will develop a taxonomy of cognitive aid design that considers the most important variables affecting performance with aids: user knowledge and experience, resources demanded by the task and sub-tasks, time pressure on performance, and the number of operators expected to interact with the aid.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/31/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016