Project objectives for the last reporting period were:
1. Complete all data collection procedures for 8 crewmembers (including 1y mission) and 7 ground-based control subjects.
2. Continue analysis of archived samples for all enrolled subjects.
3. Disseminate research findings to the scientific community.
Overview of Work Completed Study Progress: The study was initiated in September 2012 and data collection started in March 2013. We successfully enrolled the required number of subjects giving us a sample size of eight crewmembers and seven ground-based controls including an additional crewmember who completed a 1-year mission to the ISS. Baseline blood, urine, and saliva samples have been collected from all crewmembers and ground-based control subjects. All crewmembers and ground-based controls have completed all experimental procedures. We have obtained in flight samples and ambient blood returns from all enrolled crewmembers. All baseline and in flight ambient blood samples were processed and analyzed successfully. Frozen saliva, urine, and plasma samples have all been processed and analyzed. The IRB (Institutional Review Board) protocol was renewed in July 2018. During the last reporting period, the project team have been analyzing and interpreting data in preparation for dissemination to the scientific community. Data analysis and write up was somewhat delayed due to the Principal Investigator (PI) Dr. Simpson changing institutions (moving from the University of Houston to the University of Arizona) within the last reporting period. One scientific paper was published during the last reporting period, two others have been submitted for publication, and two others are currently in preparation (details below). One of the recent articles from this work “Long-duration spaceflight impairs NK-cell function” is currently under review with the Journal of Applied Physiology. Publications and Presentations: Our validation work for this project allowed us to assess NK-cell function in the context of latent cytomegalovirus infection, age, and exercise. This led to publications by Bigley et al. (2016) in the journals Cellular Immunology and Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Bigley et al. (2015) in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity and Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, and Bigley et al. (2018) in Clinical and Experimental Immunology. We also published a manuscript in European Journal of Applied Physiology, which stemmed from the validation work of our saliva assays for this project (Kunz et al., 2015). In addition, Spielmann et al. (2016) and Kunz et al. (2018) used the validation work from the viral T-cell quantification component of the “Salivary Markers” study for a publication in Scientific Reports and Physiology and Behavior, respectively. Furthermore, Graff et al. (2018), Agha et al. (2018), and LaVoy et al. (2017) used the validation work for cellular phenotyping of the “Salivary Markers” study in their recent publications in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity and Physiological Reports. The PI (Dr. Simpson) collaborated with NASA scientists and other space life scientists to generate two review articles pertaining to the effects of space travel on immune function (Crucian et al. 2018; Makedonas et al., 2018). Hematology data from this project was also used in the BMC Hematology publication by Kunz et al. (2017). NASA funding was acknowledged in all of these publications. The work supported by this research grant was presented at the International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) 2017 Symposium in July 2017, the Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop in January 2017 and February 2018, and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) annual meetings in 2017 and 2018. Current and Future Work
All data has been collected and analyzed. The following papers are a direct result of this project and have been published (See also Cumulative Bibliography): Crucian BE, Chouker A, Simpson RJ, Mehta S, Marshall G, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Ponomarev S, Whitmire A, Frippiat JP, Douglas GL, Lorenzi H, Buchheim JI, Makedonas G, Ginsburg GS, Ott CM, Pierson DL, Krieger SS, Baecker N & Sams C (2018). Immune System Dysregulation During Spaceflight: Potential Countermeasures for Deep Space Exploration Missions. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 1437. Crucian, B., Simpson, R.J., Mehta, S., Stowe, R., Chouker, A., Hwang, S., Actor, J.K., Salam, A.P., Pierson, D. and C. Sams. (2014) Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 39, 23-32.
Kunz H, Quiriarte H, Simpson RJ, Ploutz-Snyder R, McMonigal K, Sams C & Crucian B. (2017). Alterations in hematologic indices during long-duration spaceflight. BMC Hematology, 8, 17-12. Makedonas G, Chouker A, Mehta S, Simpson RJ, Stowe R, Sams C, Pierson DL & Crucian BE (2018). Mechanistic Clues to Overcome Spaceflight-Induced Immune Dysregulation. Current Pathobiology Reports, 6, 185-192. Spielmann, G., Laughlin, M. S., Kunz, H., Crucian, B. E., Quiriarte, H. D., Mehta, S. K., Pierson, D. L. & Simpson, R. J. (2018). Latent viral reactivation is associated with changes in plasma antimicrobial protein concentrations during long-duration spaceflight. Acta Astronautica, 146, 111-116.
The following manuscripts have been submitted for publication or are in preparation:
Bigley, A.B., Agha, N.H., Kunz, H.E., Baker, F.L., Spielmann, G., Rooney, B.V., Mylabathula, P., Laughlin, M. S., Mehta, S. K., Pierson, D. L. Crucian, B. E., & Simpson, R. J. (2018). NK-cell function is impaired during long duration spaceflight. Journal of Applied Physiology (In Review).
Spielmann, G., Simpson, R. J. Laughlin, M. S., Kunz, H., Crucian, B. E., Mehta, S. K. & Campbell, J.C. (2018). B-cell homeostasis is maintained during long-duration spaceflight. Journal of Applied Physiology (In Review).
Agha, N.H., Kunz, H.E., Baker, F.L., Spielmann, G., Rooney, B.V., Mylabathula, P., Bigley, A.B., Laughlin, M. S., Mehta, S. K., Pierson, D. L. Crucian, B. E., & Simpson, R. J. (2018). Long-duration spaceflight alters antimicrobial proteins in astronaut saliva (In preparation).
Agha, N.H., Spielmann, G., Kunz, H.E., Baker, F.L., Rooney, B.V., Mylabathula, P., Bigley, A.B., Laughlin, M. S., Mehta, S. K., Pierson, D. L. Crucian, B. E., & Simpson, R. J. (2018). T-cell and NK-cell responses to latent viral reactivation onboard the International Space Station (In preparation).