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Project Title:  Integrative Physiology of VIIP: Cardiopulmonary, Sleep, and Cognitive Function Assessment During Hypercapnic Bed Rest Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2016  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/30/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2400 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-2749 
Email: steven.laurie@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-244-0029  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hu, Xiao  Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco 
Lathan, Corrinna  Ph.D. AnthroTronix, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lovering, Andrew  Ph.D. University of Oregon 
Martin, David  M.S. KBRwyle./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Young, Millennia  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Smith, Scott M Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(3) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS12:We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(4) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2019 per PI (Ed., 1/7/2019)

NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2018 per JSC HHC element info (Ed., 2/5/18)

Task Description: As of 2016, ~40% of crew members completing long-duration spaceflight missions have developed ocular structural or functional changes that characterize the Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) (formerly, Visual Impairment, Intracranial Pressure syndrome (VIIP)), yet no ground-based analogs have successfully replicated these symptoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) and has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of SANS, which may explain why previous ground-based analog studies which have not included elevated CO2 levels in the ambient air have not successfully replicated SANS. The research outlined in this grant proposal seeks to link physiological changes that occur during exposure to chronic hypercapnia (elevated carbon dioxide, 0.5% CO2 inspired) similar to that occurring on ISS, in subjects undergoing the spaceflight analog of 6° head-down tilt bed rest, with changes associated with the SANS syndrome and decrements in cognition, sleep quality, and circadian alignment. Optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, cerebral and ocular blood flow, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide will be used to assess the development of SANS and determine the relationship between physiological changes associated with hypercapnic bed rest and SANS symptoms. Cognitive function will be assessed using two tools: the Cognition battery currently being tested on ISS crew members, and the Digital Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, the only FDA-cleared computerized cognitive assessment tool that has been validated in thousands of active military personnel. The Philips Respironics Alice PDx Sleep System will be used to assess sleep quality and core body temperature will be measured to determine circadian misalignment. This research proposal addresses multiple risks within NASA’s Integrated Research Plan, including determining if this unique ground-based analog can simulate SANS, and if the mild hypercapnic environment represents a threat to behavioral health and performance, sleep quality, and normal circadian rhythm.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research conducted as part of this experiment was unique to the International Space Station environment due to the elevated ambient CO2. However, understanding the role of a chronic headward fluid shift on ocular pathology will provide new insight into mechanisms of ocular diseases on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: The data outlined in this report were collected at the Institute for Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) :envihab facility at an altitude of ~50 meters as part of the “VIIP and Psychological :envihab Research (VaPER)” bedrest campaign. Data collection occurred from October 2 through December 4, 2017. Twelve subjects (six female) consented to participate in this study, but one female subject dropped out after the start of data collection. Data from the remaining 11 subjects are presented here.

The novel approach to this study compared to previous head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) studies was to more closely match the International Space Station (ISS) environment. To do this, two modifications were implemented that differed from previous HDTBR studies.

First, this study included a 3.8 mmHg (0.5%) CO2 environment (3.8 mmHg) in the ambient air during the 30 days of HDTBR. During the pre- and post-HDTBR period subjects were exposed to normal indoor CO2 levels. The mild elevation in ambient CO2 levels was made possible because of the unique climate control capabilities of the DLR :envihab facility that allows for elevated CO2 levels to be maintained throughout the entire module the subjects lived in, including the 12 individual bedrooms used by subjects.

Second, previous head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) studies have allowed subjects to use a pillow during the day and at night which lifts the head out of the HDTBR position relative to the rest of their body. Additionally, subjects were previously allowed to raise their head and upper body onto an elbow to eat during meals. In the current study subjects were not allowed use of a traditional pillow during HDTBR, nor were they allowed to lift their head and upper body during meals. A custom head-support was developed for use during side-sleeping, which some subjects chose to use. As a result, these subjects maintained a strict head-down tilt posture throughout the duration of the study, more accurately mimicking the chronic nature of the headward fluid shift that occurs on ISS.

Currently, an astronaut is diagnosed with SANS if they develop optic disc edema based on fundoscopic images revealing a Frisèn Scale grade 1 or higher. However, additional ocular structural changes including choroidal and/or retinal folds, cotton wool spots, hyperopic shifts, and globe flattening have also been documented in astronauts and are being tracked as metrics related to SANS by Flight Medicine. In this study, we documented for the first time the development of optic disc edema in 5 of 11 subjects, but did not identify any choroidal or retinal folds or cotton wool spots. We did not conduct MRI imaging to determine if globe flattening developed. Cycloplegic refraction was not conducted so we do not have an objective assessment of refractive error change, but there were no changes in corrected visual acuity.

Data collection and analysis are complete. Three manuscripts have been published in peer reviewed journals, with additional manuscripts currently being drafted for submission.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/31/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Laurie SS, Macias BR, Lee SMC, Stenger MB. "VaPER: Linking PCO2 to physiology." Presented at the NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019.

Abstracts. NASA Human Research Program Investigators' Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2019. , Jan-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Christian K, Petitti C, Ortega-Schwartz K, Penrose S, Schallerer A, Lovering A, Laurie S. "Assessment of Sleep and Circadian Rhythm During Hypercapnic 6-degree Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest." Presented at American College of Sports Medicine Northwest Chapter, Annual Meeting, Bend, OR, February 2018.

American College of Sports Medicine Northwest Chapter, Annual Meeting, Bend, OR, February 2018. , Feb-2018

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kysar J, Christian K, Olson T, Laurie SS, Lovering AT. "Breath-by-Breath: Effect of mild hypercapnic bedrest on ventilatory chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide." Presented at American College of Sports Medicine Northwest Chapter, Annual Meeting, Bend, OR, February 2018.

American College of Sports Medicine Northwest Chapter, Annual Meeting, Bend, OR, February 2018. , Feb-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Laurie SS, Macias BR, Dunn JT, Young M, Stern C, Lee SMC, Stenger MB. "Optic disc edema after 30 days of strict head-down tilt bed rest." Ophthalmology. 2019 Mar;126(3):467-8. Epub 2018 Oct 9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.09.042 ; PubMed PMID: 30308219 , Mar-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Laurie SS, Chen JJ, Macias BR, Lee SMC, Stenger MB, Grantham B, Carey K, Young M, Smith SM. "Association of genetics and B vitamin status with the magnitude of optic disc edema during 30-day strict head-down tilt bed rest." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019;137(10):1195-200. Epub 2019 Aug 15. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.3124 ; PubMed PMID: 31415055; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6696878 , Oct-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Laurie SS, Christian K, Kysar J, Lee SMC, Lovering AT, Macias BR, Moestl S, Sies W, Mulder E, Young M, Stenger MB. "Unchanged cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and hypercapnic ventilatory response during strict head-down tilt bed rest in a mild hypercapnic environment." J Physiol. 2020 Jun;598(12):2491-505. https://doi.org/10.1113/JP279383 ; PMID: 32196672 , Jun-2020
Dissertations and Theses Christian KH. "VaPER: The Development of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS): sans sufficient sleep?" Master's Thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, August 2018. , Aug-2018
Project Title:  Integrative Physiology of VIIP: Cardiopulmonary, Sleep, and Cognitive Function Assessment During Hypercapnic Bed Rest Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2016  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 02/07/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2400 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-2749 
Email: steven.laurie@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-244-0029  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hu, Xiao  Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco 
Lathan, Corrinna  Ph.D. AnthroTronix, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lovering, Andrew  Ph.D. University of Oregon 
Martin, David  M.S. KBRwyle./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Young, Millennia  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Smith, Scott M Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(3) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS12:We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(4) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2019 per PI (Ed., 1/7/2019)

NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2018 per JSC HHC element info (Ed., 2/5/18)

Task Description: As of 2016, ~40% of crew members completing long-duration space flight missions have developed ocular structural or functional changes that characterize the Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) (formerly, Visual Impairment, Intracranial Pressure syndrome (VIIP)), yet no ground-based analogs have successfully replicated these symptoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) and has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of SANS, which may explain why previous ground-based analog studies which have not included elevated CO2 levels in the ambient air have not successfully replicated SANS. The research outlined in this grant proposal seeks to link physiological changes that occur during exposure to chronic hypercapnia (elevated carbon dioxide, 0.5% CO2 inspired) similar to that occurring on ISS, in subjects undergoing the space flight analog of 6° head-down tilt bed rest, with changes associated with the SANS syndrome and decrements in cognition, sleep quality, and circadian alignment. Optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, cerebral and ocular blood flow, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide will be used to assess the development of SANS and determine the relationship between physiological changes associated with hypercapnic bed rest and SANS symptoms. Cognitive function will be assessed using two tools: the Cognition battery currently being tested on ISS crew members, and the Digital Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, the only FDA-cleared computerized cognitive assessment tool that has been validated in thousands of active military personnel. The Philips Respironics Alice PDx Sleep System will be used to assess sleep quality and core body temperature will be measured to determine circadian misalignment. This research proposal addresses multiple risks within NASA’s Integrated Research Plan, including determining if this unique ground-based analog can simulate SANS, and if the mild hypercapnic environment represents a threat to behavioral health and performance, sleep quality, and normal circadian rhythm.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research conducted as part of this experiment was unique to the International Space Station environment due to the elevated ambient CO2. However, understanding the role of a chronic headward fluid shift on ocular pathology will provide new insight into mechanisms of ocular diseases on Earth.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: The Principal Investigator team successfully delivered all hardware to the German Aerospace Center (DLR) :envihab facility and completed training for all essential personnel during a site visit in August of 2017 and returned to DLR to oversee baseline data collection (BDC) during the first 2 weeks of pre-bedrest testing, which started Oct 2, 2017. All data collection was completed between October 2 and December 4, 2017. We developed and oversaw a data transfer plan which required daily data transfers to our team in order to verify data quality, provide real-time feedback to test operators if necessary, and improve the accuracy of data management on secure servers at Johnson Space Center. This was complemented by Matlab programs written by the PI team that enabled data visualization and preliminary analysis of data to assist with data verification. Sleep, circadian rhythm, and hypercapnic ventilatory response data collected for our co-investigators were then transferred to them for analysis.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/31/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Integrative Physiology of VIIP: Cardiopulmonary, Sleep, and Cognitive Function Assessment During Hypercapnic Bed Rest Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2016  
End Date: 09/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 05/09/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2400 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-2749 
Email: steven.laurie@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-244-0029  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hu, Xiao  Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco 
Lathan, Corrinna  Ph.D. AnthroTronix, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  KBRwyle/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lovering, Andrew  University of Oregon 
Martin, David  KBRwyle./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Young, Millennia  Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Smith, Scott M Ph.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. University of Texas Medical Branch/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: May 2017: Robert Ploutz-Snyder was dropped from this protocol as CoInvestigator due to leaving JSC and Millenia Young was added as the local statistician to replace Robert. Drs. Scott Smith and Sara Zwart were added to this protocol as CoInvestigators due to expertise in one-carbon genetics and biochemistry and there will be studies as part of this project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(3) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS12:We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(4) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 9/30/2018 per JSC HHC element info (Ed., 2/5/18)

Task Description: Over 70% of crew members completing long-duration space flight missions have developed ocular structural or functional changes that characterize the Vision Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, yet no ground-based analogs have successfully replicated these symptoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) and has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP, which may explain why previous ground-based analog studies which have not included elevated CO2 levels in the ambient air have not successfully replicated VIIP. The research outlined in this grant proposal seeks to link physiological changes that occur during exposure to chronic hypercapnia (elevated carbon dioxide, 0.5% CO2 inspired) similar to that occurring on ISS, in subjects undergoing the space flight analog of 6° head-down tilt bed rest, with changes associated with the VIIP syndrome and decrements in cognition, sleep quality, and circadian alignment. Optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, cerebral and ocular blood flow, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide will be used to assess the development of VIIP and determine the relationship between physiological changes associated with hypercapnic bed rest and VIIP symptoms. Cognitive function will be assessed using two tools: the Cognition battery currently being tested on ISS crew members, and the Digital Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, the only FDA-cleared computerized cognitive assessment tool which has been validated in thousands of active military personnel. The Philips Respironics Alice PDx Sleep System will be used to assess sleep quality and core body temperature will be measured to determine circadian misalignment. This research proposal addresses multiple risks within NASA’s Integrated Research Plan, including determining if this unique ground-based analog can simulate VIIP, and if the mild hypercapnic environment represents a threat to behavioral health and performance, sleep quality, and normal circadian rhythm.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: This study received approval from the Johnson Space Center Institutional Review Board and is in review with the Institutional Review Board at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The estimated start of data collection is October 2017.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/31/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Integrative Physiology of VIIP: Cardiopulmonary, Sleep, and Cognitive Function Assessment During Hypercapnic Bed Rest Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 04/01/2016  
End Date: 06/07/2018  
Task Last Updated: 01/05/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Laurie, Steven  Ph.D. / KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratory 
2400 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-2749 
Email: steven.laurie@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-244-0029  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: KBR/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hu, Xiao  Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco 
Lathan, Corrinna  Ph.D. AnthroTronix, Inc. 
Lee, Stuart  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lovering, Andrew  Ph.D. University of Orego 
Martin, David  M.S. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-MIXEDTOPICS. Appendix E: Behavioral Health & Human Health Countermeasures Topics 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(3) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS12:We do not know whether ground-based analogs and/or models can simulate Space Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
(4) Sleep Gap 10:We need to identify the spaceflight environmental and mission factors that contribute to sleep decrements and circadian misalignment, and their acceptable levels of risk (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: Over 70% of crew members completing long-duration space flight missions have developed ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the Vision Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, yet no ground-based analogs have successfully replicated these symptoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) and has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP, which may explain why previous ground-based analog studies which have not included elevated CO2 levels in the ambient air have not successfully replicated VIIP. The research outlined in this grant proposal seeks to link physiological changes that occur during exposure to chronic hypercapnia (elevated carbon dioxide, 0.5% CO2 inspired) similar to that occurring on ISS, in subjects undergoing the space flight analog of 6° head-down tilt bed rest, with changes associated with the VIIP syndrome and decrements in cognition, sleep quality, and circadian alignment. Optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, cerebral and ocular blood flow, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide will be used to assess the development of VIIP and determine the relationship between physiological changes associated with hypercapnic bed rest and VIIP symptoms. Cognitive function will be assessed using two tools: the Cognition battery currently being tested on ISS crew members, and the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, the only FDA-cleared computerized cognitive assessment tool which has been validated in thousands of active military personnel. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine compliant Embletta GOLD Portable Sleep System will be used to assess sleep quality and body temperature measured via telemetry will be used to determine circadian misalignment. This research proposal addresses multiple risks within NASA’s Integrated Research Plan, including determining if this unique ground-based analog can simulate VIIP, and if the mild hypercapnic environment represents a threat to behavioral health and performance, sleep quality, and normal circadian rhythm.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/31/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016