Menu

 

The NASA Task Book
Advanced Search     

Project Title:  Macrocognition in Teams: Examining and Developing Team Cognitive Processes and Products in the Context of Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2016  
End Date: 05/31/2018  
Task Last Updated: 01/12/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Cognitive Sciences Laboratory 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sfiore@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-0298  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO72G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO72G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
(3) Train:Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(3) SHFE-TRAIN-01:We do not know which validated objective measures of operator proficiency and of training effectiveness should be used for future long-duration exploration missions. (IRP Rev F. Previously: How can we develop objective training measures to determine operator proficiency during and after ground training?)
(4) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/7/19)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Teams conducting long-duration exploration missions (LDEM) face the pervasive risk of decrements due to inadequate collaboration within the spaceflight crew as well as between and across Mission Control teams. Given that team cognition has been shown to be a significant predictor of team performance across a number of domains and tasks (DeChurch et al., 2010; Salas & Fiore, 2004), it is critical to understand how team cognition occurs under LDEM conditions, how it shifts over time, and how to implement countermeasures to improve it. Fiore and colleagues developed the macrocognition in teams model (MITM) to integrate the more general literature on team cognition with a particular focus on complex real world collaborative cognition (Fiore et al., 2010a; Fiore et al., 2010b). Building off of this theory, the Principal Investigator (PI) recently examined this in the context of LDEM and detailed a set of team cognitive processes and team cognitive knowledge to explicate the form of team cognition that needed to be understood for LDEM (Fiore et al., 2015). In this proposal we describe a multidisciplinary approach designed to refine and validate the MITM in the context of LDEM and use this as the theoretical foundation to develop and validate training protocols that lead to resilient team cognitive processes. In doing so, we take a multi-pronged approach combining analysis of archival documents and qualitative coding of crew communication in analog environments with new ground-based and analog studies. Our goal is to: (1) provide a richer understanding of team cognition and its relation to team performance in space crews and the larger multi-team system and (2) use this understanding to refine and validate training to mitigate decrements in team cognition.

DeChurch, L., Hiller, N., Murase, T., Doty, D., & Salas, E. (2010). Leadership across levels Levels of leaders and their levels of impact. Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1069-1085.

Salas, E. E., & Fiore, S. M. (Eds.) (2004). Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fiore, S. M., Rosen, M. A., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Letsky, M. & Warner, N. (2010a). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Predicting processes in complex collaborative contexts. Human Factors, 52(2), 203-224.

Fiore, S. M., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Warner, N., & Letsky, M. (2010b). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Developing and defining complex collaborative processes and products. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 11(4), 250-271.

Fiore, S. M., Wilshire, T. J., Sanz, E. J., & Pajank, M. E. (2015). Critical team cognitive processes for long-duration exploration missions. NASA/TM-2015-218583.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The proposed effort will impact numerous areas of research need for NASA. First, this research will address theoretical gaps associated with how individual and team cognitive processes affect each other and change over time. The relevant gaps identified by NASA are: (1) The need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (Team Gap 1), (2) The need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration in missions (Team Gap 4), and (3) The need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration and/or exploration missions (Team Gap 5). The current literature does not provide much information regarding longitudinal shifts in cognition, especially in the context of teams working in LDEM settings. Because of these knowledge gaps, it is essential to determine the causes that impact cognitive processes across the lifespan of teams throughout LDEM settings. This knowledge supports this effort’s second contribution in the development of effective countermeasures aimed to maintain adequate levels of cognition at both the individual and team level. Finally, the third contribution will be the identification of a suite of measures for assessing individual and team cognitive processes and how these change over time. The elements of isolation and confinement in future LDEM warrant investigation of innovative and less intrusive assessments of cognition. Thus, this effort will attempt to identify the types of individual and team cognitive measures that can be implemented effectively in such environments. Findings from this research will contribute, not just to gaps identified by NASA, but will also enrich the broader area of team cognition research. In particular, by studying the inter-relation of individual and team cognition, and providing potential alternatives to traditional assessment techniques, this research will inform the general study of teams in complex contexts. The resultant knowledge gained will assist in facilitating crew performance by identifying the manner in which cognitive processes change over time, how individual decrements in cognition cascade to the team level to impact the crew’s performance, and potential countermeasures for such effects. Additionally, it will also impact those on Earth as this awareness can be used to facilitate the interaction between crew and ground control so as to maximize the synergy present in these expert teams.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Ed. note Jan 2021: Final reporting not received. See Bibliography for resulting publications since last report.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/12/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wiltshire TJ, Steffensen SV, Fiore SM. "Multiscale movement coordination dynamics in collaborative team problem solving." Appl Ergon. 2019 Sep;79:143-51. Epub 2018 Aug 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.07.007 ; PMID: 30103905 , Sep-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Hall KL, Vogel AL, Huang GC, Serrano KJ, Rice EL, Tsakraklides SP, Fiore SM. "The science of team science: A review of the empirical evidence and research gaps on collaboration in science." Am Psychol. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):532-48. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000319 ; PMID: 29792466 , May-2018
Project Title:  Macrocognition in Teams: Examining and Developing Team Cognitive Processes and Products in the Context of Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2016  
End Date: 05/31/2018  
Task Last Updated: 11/24/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Cognitive Sciences Laboratory 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sfiore@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-0298  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO72G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO72G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
(3) Train:Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(3) SHFE-TRAIN-01:We do not know which validated objective measures of operator proficiency and of training effectiveness should be used for future long-duration exploration missions. (IRP Rev F. Previously: How can we develop objective training measures to determine operator proficiency during and after ground training?)
(4) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2018 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/7/19)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Teams conducting long-duration exploration missions (LDEM) face the pervasive risk of decrements due to inadequate collaboration within the spaceflight crew as well as between and across Mission Control teams. Given that team cognition has been shown to be a significant predictor of team performance across a number of domains and tasks (DeChurch et al., 2010; Salas & Fiore, 2004), it is critical to understand how team cognition occurs under LDEM conditions, how it shifts over time, and how to implement countermeasures to improve it. Fiore and colleagues developed the macrocognition in teams model (MITM) to integrate the more general literature on team cognition with a particular focus on complex real world collaborative cognition (Fiore et al., 2010a; Fiore et al., 2010b). Building off of this theory, the Principal Investigator (PI) recently examined this in the context of LDEM and detailed a set of team cognitive processes and team cognitive knowledge to explicate the form of team cognition that needed to be understood for LDEM (Fiore et al., 2015). In this proposal we describe a multidisciplinary approach designed to refine and validate the MITM in the context of LDEM and use this as the theoretical foundation to develop and validate training protocols that lead to resilient team cognitive processes. In doing so, we take a multi-pronged approach combining analysis of archival documents and qualitative coding of crew communication in analog environments with new ground-based and analog studies. Our goal is to: (1) provide a richer understanding of team cognition and its relation to team performance in space crews and the larger multi-team system and (2) use this understanding to refine and validate training to mitigate decrements in team cognition.

DeChurch, L., Hiller, N., Murase, T., Doty, D., & Salas, E. (2010). Leadership across levels Levels of leaders and their levels of impact. Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1069-1085.

Salas, E. E., & Fiore, S. M. (Eds.) (2004). Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fiore, S. M., Rosen, M. A., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Letsky, M. & Warner, N. (2010a). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Predicting processes in complex collaborative contexts. Human Factors, 52(2), 203-224.

Fiore, S. M., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Warner, N., & Letsky, M. (2010b). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Developing and defining complex collaborative processes and products. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 11(4), 250-271.

Fiore, S. M., Wilshire, T. J., Sanz, E. J., & Pajank, M. E. (2015). Critical team cognitive processes for long-duration exploration missions. NASA/TM-2015-218583.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The proposed effort will impact numerous areas of research need for NASA. First, this research will address theoretical gaps associated with how individual and team cognitive processes affect each other and change over time. The relevant gaps identified by NASA are: (1) The need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (Team Gap 1), (2) The need to identify psychological measures that can be used to select individuals most likely to maintain team function for autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration in missions (Team Gap 4), and (3) The need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration and/or exploration missions (Team Gap 5). The current literature does not provide much information regarding longitudinal shifts in cognition, especially in the context of teams working in LDEM settings. Because of these knowledge gaps, it is essential to determine the causes that impact cognitive processes across the lifespan of teams throughout LDEM settings. This knowledge supports this effort’s second contribution in the development of effective countermeasures aimed to maintain adequate levels of cognition at both the individual and team level. Finally, the third contribution will be the identification of a suite of measures for assessing individual and team cognitive processes and how these change over time. The elements of isolation and confinement in future LDEM warrant investigation of innovative and less intrusive assessments of cognition. Thus, this effort will attempt to identify the types of individual and team cognitive measures that can be implemented effectively in such environments. Findings from this research will contribute, not just to gaps identified by NASA, but will also enrich the broader area of team cognition research. In particular, by studying the inter-relation of individual and team cognition, and providing potential alternatives to traditional assessment techniques, this research will inform the general study of teams in complex contexts. The resultant knowledge gained will assist in facilitating crew performance by identifying the manner in which cognitive processes change over time, how individual decrements in cognition cascade to the team level to impact the crew’s performance, and potential countermeasures for such effects. Additionally, it will also impact those on Earth as this awareness can be used to facilitate the interaction between crew and ground control so as to maximize the synergy present in these expert teams.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The first year of effort put into this research project was spent in a “pre-work” phase appropriately termed the ‘Definitional Phase.’ The main objective for the Definitional Phase of this project was to update, refine, and/or expand upon various aspects of our research proposal aimed at understanding the cognitive processes (both individual and team) involved in long duration exploration missions (LDEM). Three gaps were initially identified by NASA, but through this process, five overarching tasks of work were elicited where refinements were made to the initial proposal, going into specific detail on how all relevant aspects were affected.

Task 1 involved the elaboration of plans made for performing archival analyses. Within this task, we specifically identified a comprehensive set of sources for examination and extraction of critical incidents. The purpose of the extraction of critical incidents from archival sources such as books, interviews, analog experiments, and documented spaceflight events is to further study cognition in real world settings. To this end, we aim to understand cognitive processes in complex settings, how these shift over time, what the conditions are that cause these shifts, and how we can improve team cognition. Also included in this task are how and why sources were chosen, and protocols for both conducting interviews and training in the effective extraction of incident data.

Task 2 pertained to the methods and measures we plan to implement within analog environment testbeds. We provide a detailed overview of our analog environment research plan as it relates to our macrocognition in teams theoretical approach. Particularly, we provide an explanation of how we have elaborated on our model and integrated it with specific measures that will be used to address our research questions. Facilitating this effort was previous work conducted by the principal investigator on the study of well-structured and ill-structured problems in constrained vs. unconstrained solution spaces. This work aided the identification of tasks and measures to be utilized within the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). From this, hypotheses were revised and measures identified that would tap the constructs of interest. The goal was to integrate our approach for studying individual and team cognition with research in the HERA context, building from what we identified in the archival analyses (Task 1).

Task 3 comprised of all lab experiment specifications. The purpose of this task was to review measures of individual and team cognitive processes that can be implemented in our laboratory studies, and further details of the methodology and specific variables targeted in said studies. The individual-level facets of cognition of attention, working memory, and reasoning were examined and measures targeting those constructs identified. Similar work was conducted on team cognitive knowledge (i.e., shared mental models and transactive memory) and team cognitive processes (i.e., planning, decision making, and problem solving), along with identification of measures designed to tap those constructs. The work detailed in this section provided the necessary first steps toward developing validated measures aimed at assessing individual-level and team-level cognitive processes in LDEM. This also offered insight into the development and validation of training protocols that lead to resilient team cognitive processes. Additionally, this task is related to our theoretical foundation for understanding the linkages between individual and team cognition which may influence team performance in LDEM.

Task 4 was conducted in order to determine the uniqueness of the training countermeasures proposed within the grant, but also to take initial steps to facilitate the transition of the countermeasure to operational use. In doing so, we were not only interested in mapping our approach, methodology, and content against current operational training efforts, but also garnering input regarding the utility and feasibility of the proposed training from operations. In performing these functions, we delineated a new task (not initially identified in the original proposal) to be conducted in later years of the project involving ensuring that: 1) the developed tool fits its unique niche, 2) the terminology used within the developed tool is in alignment with current training, and 3) investigate potential points where it might best fit into the timeline. This task involves working with NASA personnel involved in astronaut candidate (ASCAN) training to establish both face and content validity as well as operational utility. We aim to conduct focus groups (or one-on-one interviews, depending on circumstances at the time) with individuals involved in the development and implementation of training, as well as portions of the user community to include but not limited to astronauts and personnel within mission control. The two goals of this task are to gain information on potential barriers to implementation or additional considerations that we may need to take into account during the design process, in addition to gaining insight into how we can best incorporate our efforts into the models which are currently being utilized to train ASCAN.

Task 5 further specified the data sharing agreements and transfer of data to the Life Sciences Data Archive common to analog research. As we have not engaged in any data sharing agreements with NASA before, we will draw on our past and current data sharing agreements, using their formats to guide the process within NASA. The data sharing agreement plans on covering what data will be shared, with whom the data will be shared, the manner in which the data is planned to be used, the length of time the data sharing agreement is in effect, and any other areas deemed necessary by traditional NASA data sharing agreements. Prior to sharing any data, we will ensure that all parties with which we are sharing data have appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval at both the host institution and NASA. Further additions and/or revisions will be made as the point of data collection approaches within the three years of the grant.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/12/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wiltshire TJ, Butner JE, Fiore SM. "Problem solving phase transitions during team collaboration." Cognitive Science. 2018 Jan;42(1):129-67. PubMed PMID: 28213928 ; https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12482 , Jan-2018
Books/Book Chapters Fiore SM, Georganta E. "Collaborative problem-solving and team development: Extending the macrocognition in teams model through considerations of the team life cycle." in "Team dynamics over time: Advances in psychological theory, methods, and practice." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, L. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 2017. p. 189-208. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-085620160000018008 , Aug-2017
Project Title:  Macrocognition in Teams: Examining and Developing Team Cognitive Processes and Products in the Context of Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2016  
End Date: 05/31/2018  
Task Last Updated: 09/30/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Fiore, Stephen  Ph.D. / University of Central Florida 
Address:  Cognitive Sciences Laboratory 
3100 Technology Pkwy 
Orlando , FL 32826-3281 
Email: sfiore@ist.ucf.edu 
Phone: 407-882-0298  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Central Florida 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Burke, Shawn  Ph.D. University of Central Florida 
Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. Rice University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO72G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP, NSBRI, OMNIBUS). Appendix A-Crew Health, Appendix B-NSBRI, Appendix C-Omnibus 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO72G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
(3) Train:Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
(3) SHFE-TRAIN-01:We do not know which validated objective measures of operator proficiency and of training effectiveness should be used for future long-duration exploration missions. (IRP Rev F. Previously: How can we develop objective training measures to determine operator proficiency during and after ground training?)
(4) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(5) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2018 per NSSC information; original end date was 7/31/2019 (Ed., 5/7/19)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Teams conducting long-duration exploration missions (LDEM) face the pervasive risk of decrements due to inadequate collaboration within the spaceflight crew as well as between and across Mission Control teams. Given that team cognition has been shown to be a significant predictor of team performance across a number of domains and tasks (DeChurch et al., 2010; Salas & Fiore, 2004), it is critical to understand how team cognition occurs under LDEM conditions, how it shifts over time, and how to implement countermeasures to improve it. Fiore and colleagues developed the macrocognition in teams model (MITM) to integrate the more general literature on team cognition with a particular focus on complex real world collaborative cognition (Fiore et al., 2010a; Fiore et al., 2010b). Building off of this theory, the Principal Investigator (PI) recently examined this in the context of LDEM and detailed a set of team cognitive processes and team cognitive knowledge to explicate the form of team cognition that needed to be understood for LDEM (Fiore et al., 2015). In this proposal we describe a multidisciplinary approach designed to refine and validate the MITM in the context of LDEM and use this as the theoretical foundation to develop and validate training protocols that lead to resilient team cognitive processes. In doing so, we take a multi-pronged approach combining analysis of archival documents and qualitative coding of crew communication in analog environments with new ground-based and analog studies. Our goal is to: (1) provide a richer understanding of team cognition and its relation to team performance in space crews and the larger multi-team system and (2) use this understanding to refine and validate training to mitigate decrements in team cognition.

DeChurch, L., Hiller, N., Murase, T., Doty, D., & Salas, E. (2010). Leadership across levels Levels of leaders and their levels of impact. Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1069-1085.

Salas, E. E., & Fiore, S. M. (Eds.) (2004). Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Fiore, S. M., Rosen, M. A., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Letsky, M. & Warner, N. (2010a). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Predicting processes in complex collaborative contexts. Human Factors, 52(2), 203-224.

Fiore, S. M., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Salas, E., Warner, N., & Letsky, M. (2010b). Toward an understanding of macrocognition in teams: Developing and defining complex collaborative processes and products. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 11(4), 250-271.

Fiore, S. M., Wilshire, T. J., Sanz, E. J., & Pajank, M. E. (2015). Critical team cognitive processes for long- duration exploration missions. NASA/TM-2015-218583.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/12/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016