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Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 12/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 03/29/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC HRP (Ed., 3/9/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on International Space Station (ISS) is Reaction Self Test (RST)) is intended to provide astronauts in spaceflight with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, as well as recording their subjective ratings of workload, sleep timing and quality, tiredness, fatigue, and stress. The PVT Self Test is suited for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (less than 5 minutes) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult.

Our initial Reaction Self Test study evaluated 24 astronauts, before, during, and after 6-month missions on the International Space Station (ISS). A total of 2,856 RST evaluations were obtained from 21 astronauts participating in 6-month ISS missions.

To determine whether there were continuing changes in Reaction Self Test outcomes for ISS missions greater than 6-month duration, a study was conducted on the RST outcomes of N=2 participants in the initial 1-year mission (i.e., one US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut). The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project for the 1-year mission. The US astronaut and Russian cosmonaut were evaluated within the 1-year mission, and relative to data from the N=21 astronauts in 6-month missions.

1) Evaluate whether there were changes in sleep duration and/or sleep quality within the 1-year mission (i.e., first 6 months compared to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission), and differences in these outcomes between the 1-year and 6-month missions.

2) Evaluate whether there were changes in psychomotor speed, performance lapses, and premature responses on the Brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B) within the 1-year mission (i.e., first 6 months compared to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission), and differences in these outcomes between the 1-year and 6-month missions.

3) Evaluate whether there were changes in subjective ratings of sleepiness, fatigue, tiredness, physical exhaustion, workload, and stress within the 1-year mission (i.e., first 6 months compared to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission), and differences in these outcomes between the 1-year and 6-month missions.

4) To investigate changes in the intake of caffeine and medications within the 1-year mission (i.e., first 6 months compared to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission), and differences in these outcomes between the 1-year and 6-month missions.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Principal Investigator (PI) developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), from which the Reaction Self Test was derived, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently more than 200 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors.

The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Data obtained from the RST project included: Time in Bed, Total Sleep Time, Poor Sleep Quality, Sleepiness, Tiredness, Fatigue, Physical Exhaustion, Stress, Workload, Caffeine Consumption, PVT Response Speed, PVT Lapses, PVT Premature Responses, and PVT Performance Score. No medications were reported by either astronaut. Linear mixed effect models with random subject effect were created using SAS version 9.3 and adjusted only for administration time (morning/evening). The five groups that were compared were: N=21 astronauts with valid data from the PVT on ISS 6-month mission, first 6 months of data from astronaut Y, second 6 months of data from astronaut Y, first 6 months of data from astronaut Z, and second 6 months of data from astronaut Z. Paired t-tests were used to compare the first and second 6-month periods for astronaut Y and to compare the first and second 6-month periods for astronaut Z. Independent t-tests were used to compare data from N=21 astronauts on the 6-month mission with the first and second 6-month periods for astronaut Y, and to compare data from N=21 astronauts from the 6-month mission with the first and second 6-month periods for astronaut Z.

Astronaut Y had no significant changes from the first 6 months to the second 6 months in the following in-flight VAS scales: Time in Bed (TIB), Total Sleep Time (TST), Poor Sleep Quality, Sleepiness, Tiredness, Fatigue, Physical Exhaustion, and Workload. Astronaut Y did, however, have a significant increase in subjective Stress ratings from the first 6 months to the second 6 months in-flight.

Relative to PVT-B performance, Astronaut Y had no significant changes from the first to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission in PVT Response Speed or PVT Premature Responses. However, Astronaut Y did have significantly more PVT Lapses in the second 6 months of the mission. Moreover, Astronaut Y had significantly more PVT Lapses in both six month periods of the 1-year mission relative to the N=21 astronauts who undertook 6-month ISS missions. Therefore, Astronaut Y had a lower overall PVT-B Performance Score than the N=21 astronauts from the 6-month mission.

Astronaut Z had no significant changes from the first 6 months to the second 6 months in the following in-flight VAS scales: TST, Poor Sleep Quality, Tiredness, and Fatigue. Astronaut Z did, however, have a significant decrease in TIB, increase in Sleepiness, increase in Physical Exhaustion, decrease in Stress, increase in Workload, and decrease in Caffeine Consumption in the second 6 months relative to the first 6 months.

Relative to PVT-B Performance, Astronaut Z had no significant changes from the first 6 months to the second 6 months of the 1-year mission in PVT Response Speed or PVT Premature Responses. However, Astronaut Z did have significantly less PVT Premature Responses in the second 6 months of the mission. Therefore, Astronaut Z had a significant increase in PVT Performance Score in the second 6 months relative to the first 6 months of the mission. The PVT-B Performance Score of Astronaut Y was more adversely affected by Slam shifts during the first 6 months of the mission than was PVT-B Performance of Astronaut Z.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 12/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC HRP (Ed., 3/9/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on International Space Station (ISS) is Reaction Self Test (RST)) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on International Space Station (ISS) missions, as well as recording their subjective ratings of workload, sleep timing and quality, tiredness, fatigue, and stress. The PVT Self Test is suited for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (less than 5 minutes) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult.

The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project:

1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting.

2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA).

3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission.

4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS.

5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Principal Investigator (PI) developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), from which the Reaction Self Test was derived, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently more than 200 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors.

The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The final report for the N=24 astronauts investigated during 6-month ISS missions was submitted in April 2016. These astronauts performed 394 RST test bouts pre-flight, 2,109 test bouts in-flight, and 353 test bouts post-flight for a total of 2,856 test bouts.

Data acquisition in the 1-year ISS mission subjects concluded with the last post-flight test bout in June 2016. Overall, 9 test bouts were collected pre-flight, 158 test bouts were collected in flight, and 6 bouts were collected post-flight for a total of 173 test bouts. Data analyses of the 1-year mission data is near completion and the final report is being prepared. Preliminary results were reported at a 1-Year Mission Investigator Working Group Meeting on March 28, 2017 at USRA (Universities Space Research Association) in Houston, TX.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone D, Ecker A, Jones CW, Mott C, Hyder EC, Di Antonio A, Dennis LE, Kan K. "PVT on ISS: reaction self-test (RST) from 6-month missions." Oral presentation at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Boland EM, Rao H, Dinges DF, Smith RV, Goel N, Detre JA, Basner M, Sheline YI, Thase ME, Gehrman PR. "Meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of acute sleep deprivation." J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Sep/Oct;78(8):e1020-e1034. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16r11332 ; PubMed PMID: 28937707 , Sep-2017
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 12/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 06/01/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC HRP (Ed., 3/9/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on International Space Station (ISS) is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on International Space Station (ISS) missions, as well as recording their subjective ratings of workload, sleep timing and quality, tiredness, fatigue, and stress. The PVT Self Test is suited for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-5 minutes) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult.

The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project:

1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting.

2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA).

3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission.

4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS.

5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The Principal Investigator (PI) developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), from which the Reaction Self Test was derived, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors.

The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: The Reaction Self Test (RST) observational study on ISS astronauts resulted in data being acquired on a total of N = 24 astronauts flying on N = 19 ISS increments from 2009 to 2013. Data acquisition yielded a total of 2,856 RST evaluations obtained throughout the ~6-month pre-flight period, ~6-month in-flight period, and up to 3 months post-flight (i.e., 78.9% of all scheduled RSTs and 83.8% of all scheduled RSTs in-flight). An overall adherence rate of = 75% was determined a priori to be sufficient to ensure valid data and meet project goals. The project achieved the targeted goal of providing extensive data on astronauts’ perceived sleep times and sleep quality; their sleep and pain medication intake; their neurobehavioral alertness and psychomotor speed (via PVT-B performance); and variations in their perceptions of their basic behavioral states (i.e., sleepiness, workload, fatigue, exhaustion, tiredness, and stress). The project also fulfilled the requirement from a pre-study scientific review by a NASA-convened Non-Advocate Review (NAR) Panel that required the minimum of RST testing on ISS needed to be twice a day, every 4 days in-flight, and at prescribed times pre-flight and post-flight. The NAR Panel considered this RST assessment rate to be essential to ensure the study would address high-priority NASA research gaps related to the effects of fatigue from sleep loss, poor sleep quality, high workload, and time in mission on astronaut behavioral alertness and performance. The resulting RST data acquisition was sufficient for comprehensive data analyses and interpretation of results, which included 2,109 completed RSTs in-flight. With the exception of assessing the effects of EVAs (extravehicular activities) on RST outcomes (due to too little data), sufficient RST data was acquired for evaluating all project Specific Aims.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 03/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on International Space Station (ISS) missions, as well as recording their subjective ratings of workload, sleep timing and quality, tiredness, fatigue, and stress. The PVT Self Test is suited for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-5 minutes) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult.

The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project:

1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting.

2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA).

3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission.

4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS.

5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), from which the Reaction Self Test was derived, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors.

The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: Data acquisition is complete for 24 of the 26 enrolled subjects and data collection is underway for the remaining two subjects. The target sample size was originally N=24 but has now been extended to N=26 to include the two 12 month mission subjects. As of March 31, 2015, all 26 astronauts have given informed consent for the project. On the date of the last data download from ISS (December, 2014), baseline data collection has been completed in N=26 astronauts. N=24 astronauts have completed in-flight data acquisition. N=24 astronauts have completed post-flight data acquisition. 507 Reaction Self Tests were performed pre-flight, 2109 Reaction Self Tests were performed in-flight, and 353 Reaction Self Tests were performed post-flight. We have de-briefed 24 astronauts post-flight and gained important insights on astronauts' perception of the Reaction Self Test. Preliminary results were shown to Dr. Mark Shelhamer (NASA) at his request to supply evidence for the need of longer duration missions on ISS (i.e., 1 year mission) to study the dynamic behavioral changes of astronauts living and working on ISS. The PI gave permission to Dr. Shelhamer to present preliminary data at the Aerospace Medicine conference. Additionally, preliminary results were also shown to Dr. Lauren Leveton (NASA Behavior, Health, and Performance--BHP).

Pulsar Informatics, Inc. has established a quality control process that extracts the data of every PVT SelfTest bout immediately after it was downloaded to allow plausibility and compliance checks. Momentarily, Pulsar Informatics, Inc. generates graphs for each individual astronaut containing information on PVT performance, scheduled and self-reported sleep times, critical mission events, and self-reported measures (like perceived stress levels and workload). These graphs are used for astronaut debriefs.

We have made several changes to the Reaction SelfTest software based on astronaut feedback during debriefs. We designed changes to the user interface to ease the burden of data entry, with updates to functionality such as sliding scales and drop down menus. We also modified the questionnaires in the software to exclude questions that astronauts felt were extraneous.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Ecker AJ, Jones CW, Hyder EC, DiAntonio A, Savelev I, Kan K, Morukov BV, Sutton JP. "Reaction Self-Test (RST) results from astronauts on ISS compared to RST assessments from the crew of the 520-day simulated mission to Mars." Presented at 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 03/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, as well as recording their subjective ratings of workload, sleep timing and quality, tiredness, fatigue, and stress. The PVT Self Test is suited for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-5 minutes) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult.

The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project:

1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting.

2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA).

3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission.

4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS.

5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors.

The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Data acquisition began in September 2009 with Expedition 21-22. The target sample size was N=24. As of July 31, 2012, all 24 astronauts have given informed consent for the project. On the date of the last data download from ISS (April 14, 2014), baseline data collection has been completed in all N=24 astronauts. N=24 astronauts have completed (3 during the past year) in-flight data acquisition. N=23 astronauts have completed and N=1 astronauts have started post-flight data acquisition. 507 Reaction Self Tests were performed pre-flight, 2086 Reaction Self Tests were performed in-flight, and 338 Reaction Self Tests were performed post-flight. In-flight data from the N=24 astronauts yielded an average of 86 Reaction Self Tests per subject. We have de-briefed 23 astronauts post-flight and gained important insights on astronauts' perception of the Reaction Self Test. To allow for the completion of data collection and analysis the project has been extended through 3/31/2017.

Preliminary results were shown to Dr. Mark Shelhamer (NASA) at his request to supply evidence for the need of longer duration missions on ISS (i.e., 1 year mission) to study the dynamic behavioral changes of astronauts living and working on ISS. The PI gave permission to Dr. Shelhamer to present preliminary data at the Aerospace Medicine conference. Additionally, preliminary results were also shown to Dr. Lauren Leveton (NASA Behavioral Health & Performance Element).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Jones CW, Ecker AJ, Bartels R, Mott C. "Elevated workload and reduced sleep duration." Talk July 9, 2013 at 19th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Cologne, Germany, July 7-13, 2013.

19th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Cologne, Germany, July 7-13, 2013. Abstract #136. , Jul-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Jones CW, Ecker AJ, Bartels R, Mott C. "Effects of time in mission: ISS astronauts ratings of stress." Talk at International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Space Exploration Conference, Washington, DC, January 9, 2014.

International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Space Exploration Conference, Washington, DC, January 9, 2014. , Jan-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Jones CW, Ecker AJ, Bartels R, Mott C. "Effects of time in mission: ISS astronauts ratings of stress." Talk at 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3256.pdf , Feb-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mollicone DJ, Sutbna MD, Kan KGW, Mott CG, Basner M, Dinges DF, Pickard S. "Software system for real-time medical operational support on ISS." Talk at 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3265.pdf , Feb-2014

Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 03/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 05/03/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is now 3/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/14)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2014 per PI (Ed., 5/3/2013)

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions. The PVT Self Test is ideal for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-minute) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult. The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project: 1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting. 2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA). 3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission. 4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS. 5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), from which the Reaction Self Test was derived, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators, and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-reviewed papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors. The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Data acquisition began in September 2009 with Expedition 21-22. As of July 31, 2012, all 24 astronauts have given informed consent for the project. On the date of the last data download from ISS (April 13, 2013), baseline data collection has been completed in N=21 astronauts and is underway in N=3 astronauts. N=19 astronauts have completed (6 during the past year) and N=2 astronauts have started in-flight data acquisition. N=18 astronauts have completed and N=1 astronauts have started post-flight data acquisition. 462 Reaction Self Tests were performed pre-flight, 1677 Reaction Self Tests were performed in-flight, and 254 Reaction Self Tests were performed post-flight. Of the 19 astronauts who completed the in-flight period, we received a total of 1376 in-flight tests, averaging 76 Reaction Self Tests per subject. We have de-briefed 19 astronauts post-flight and gained important insights on astronauts' perception of the Reaction Self Test. To allow for the completion of data collection and analysis a no-cost extension was granted by NASA through 7/31/2014.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Goel N, Braun M, Jones CW, Ecker A, Bartels R, Mott C, Stubna M. "ISS Missions: Elevated Workload and Reduced Sleep Duration." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mollicone DJ, Kan KGW, Mott CG, Basner M, Dinges DF, Stubna MD. "BHP Dashboard as an aid in the detection of acute and chronic radiation effects." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Stubna MD, Kan KGW, Mott CG, Basner M, Dinges DF, Mollicone DJ. "Software System for Supporting Crew Behavioral Health on ISS." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Jones CW, Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Dinges DF. "Self-Reported and Scheduled Sleep in Spaceflight." SLEEP 2013--27th Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC (APSS) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, June 1-5, 2013.

Sleep. 2013;36(Abstract Suppl):A60. Abstract 0157. , May-2013

Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions. The PVT Self Test is ideal for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-minute) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult. The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project: 1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting. 2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA). 3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission. 4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS. 5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-reviewed papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors. The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Data acquisition began in September 2009 with Expedition 21-22. As of July 31, 2012, all 24 astronauts have given informed consent for the project (3 during the past year). On the date of the last data download from ISS (April 30, 2012), baseline data collection has been completed in N=15 astronauts and is underway in N=3 astronauts. N=12 astronauts have completed (3 during the past year) and N=3 astronauts have started in-flight data acquisition. N=9 astronauts have completed and N=3 astronauts have started post-flight data acquisition. 355 Reaction Self Tests were performed pre-flight, 1149 Reaction Self Tests were performed in-flight, and 166 Reaction Self Tests were performed post-flight. Of the 12 astronauts who completed the in-flight period, we received a total of 974 in-flight tests, averaging 81 Reaction Self Tests per subject. We have de-briefed 12 astronauts post-flight and gained important insights on astronauts' perception of the Reaction Self Test.

Pulsar Informatics, Inc. has established a quality control process that extracts the data of every PVT SelfTest bout immediately after it was downloaded to allow plausibility and compliance checks. Momentarily, Pulsar Informatics, Inc. generates graphs for each individual astronauts containing information on PVT performance, scheduled and self-reported sleep times, critical mission events, and self-reported measures (like perceived stress levels and workload). These graphs are used for astronaut de-briefs.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Mott C, Dinges DF. "PVT Self Test on ISS: Objective measurement of fatigue-related decrements in vigilant attention and psychomotor speed in space flight." Poster at 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Dinges DF. "Development of briefer versions of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) as sensitive assays of fatigue-related decrements in vigilant attention." Talk on February 15, 2012 at 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Dinges DF. "An adaptive-duration version of the PVT accurately tracks changes in psychomotor vigilance induced by sleep restriction." Sleep. 2012 Feb 1;35(2):193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1620 ; PMID: 22294809 , Feb-2012
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Rubinstein J. "Fitness for duty: A 3-minute version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test predicts fatigue-related declines in luggage-screening performance." Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2011 Oct;53(10):1146-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31822b8356 ; PMID: 21912278 , Oct-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Dinges DF. "Validity and sensitivity of a brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation." Acta Astronautica. 2011 Dec;69(11-12):949-59. PMID: 22025811 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.07.015 , Dec-2011
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/27/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions. The PVT Self Test is ideal for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-minute) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult. The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project: 1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration above 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting. 2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA). 3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission. 4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS. 5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors. The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call, etc.).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: Data acquisition began in September 2009 with Expedition 21-22. As of July 31, 2011, N=21 astronauts have given informed consent for the project (10 during the past year). Baseline data collection has been completed in N=10 astronauts and is underway on N=3 astronauts. N=9 astronauts have completed (5 during the past year) and N=2 astronauts have started in-flight data acquisition. N=6 astronauts have completed and N=2 astronauts have started post-flight data acquisition. On the date of the last data download from ISS (April 25, 2011), 142 Reaction Self Tests were performed pre-flight, 715 Reaction Self Tests were performed in-flight, and 101 Reaction Self Tests were performed post-flight. Adherence rates (i.e., percentage of scheduled Reaction Self Tests completed) averaged 38%-54% pre-flight, 85%-91% in-flight, and 52%-68% post-flight, respectively (adherence rate estimates vary as the data of some scheduled tests have not been collected yet). We have de-briefed 7 astronauts post-flight and gained important insights on astronauts' perception of the Reaction Self Test.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Mott CG, Dinges DF. "Objective measurement of fatigue-related decrements in vigilant attention and psychomotor speed in space flight: PVT Self Test on ISS." Poster at the 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Dinges DF. "Validation of a modified brief version of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT)." Talk at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC 2011, Minneapolis, MN, June 11-15, 2011.

Sleep 2011;34 Suppl:A110. , May-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Mollicone DJ, Dinges DF. "Validity and Sensitivity of a Brief Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B) to Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation." Acta Astronaut, in revision, May 2011. , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Rubinstein J. "Fitness for duty: A 3 minute version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test predicts fatigue related declines in luggage screening performance." Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, in press, May 2011. , May-2011
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Dinges DF. "Maximizing sensitivity of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to sleep loss." Sleep. 2011 May 1;34(5):581-91. PMID: 21532951 , May-2011
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Basner, Mathias  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Mathias Basner, MD, MSc, was added as Co-P.I.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions. The PVT Self Test is ideal for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-minute) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult. The ultimate goal of the Reaction Self Test project is to validate the sensitivity of the PVT Self Test on astronauts on ISS so they can use it to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space. The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project: 1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration between 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting. 2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA). 3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission. 4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep on ISS. 5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors. There are currently 180 published peer-review papers on the sensitivity of the 10-min. PVT to fatigue-related factors. The Reaction Self Test is a 3-minute PVT Self Test that contains special timing and algorithm characteristics and that has been validated against the 10-minute PVT. The 3-minute Reaction Self Test) will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call, etc.).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: Data acquisition began in September 2009 with Expedition 21-22, and has extended to soliciting astronauts in Expeditions 22-23, 23-24, 24-25, and 25-26. To date N=11 astronauts have given informed consent for the project. Baseline data collection is underway or been completed on all N=11 astronauts, and N=7 of these completed the baseline data acquisition period with an average 89% data completion rate (i.e., 162/182 scheduled Reaction Self Tests were completed). Most missing data pertained to the week immediately prior to flight (L-7 to L-1). In flight data acquisition has been underway or completed on N=4 astronauts. A total of 237 Reaction Self Tests have been completed in flight, out of an expected 336 scheduled tests in flight (i.e., 71%). Additional data may be forthcoming in ISS downloads of data from different ISS SSCs. Post-flight data has not yet been aggregated to gain an estimate of completion rates.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Dinges DF, Mollicone D, Ecker A, Basner M. "Development of the PVT Self Test for Fatigue Management--A Critical Role for Analogs." Presented at the Aerospace Medical Association's 81st Annual Scientific Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, May 9-12, 2010.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2010 Mar;81(3):246. , Mar-2010

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lim J, Tan JC, Parimal S, Dinges DF, Chee MW. "Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: A view from the ventral visual cortex." PLoS One. 2010 Feb 5;5(2):e9087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009087 ; PMID: 20140099 , Feb-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lim J, Wu W-C, Wang J, Detre JA, Dinges DF, Rao H. "Imaging brain fatigue from sustained mental workload: an ASL perfusion study of the time-on-task effect." Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 15;49(4):3426-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.11.020 ; PMID: 19925871 , Feb-2010
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lim J, Dinges DF. "A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables." Psychological Bulletin, 2010 May;136(3):375-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018883 ; PMID: 20438143 , May-2010
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 05/30/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: The Psychomotor Vigilance (PVT) Self Test (operational name on ISS is Reaction Self Test) is intended to provide astronauts with objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions. The PVT Self Test is ideal for repeated use in spaceflight because unlike other cognitive tests, it is very brief (3-minute) while being free of learning effects and aptitude differences that make interpretation of other cognitive measures difficult. The PVT Self Test on the International Space Station can aid astronauts to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space (e.g., acute and chronic sleep restriction, sleep shifts, extravehicular activity [EVA], and residual sedation from sleep medications). The following are the objectives (specific aims) of the project: 1) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian disruption during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extended wake duration between 16 hours; ii) sleep restriction defined as total sleep time >0 and <6 hours per 24-hour period; and iii) circadian perturbation associated with night work and slam shifting. 2) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts is sensitive to fatigue from work intensity during ISS missions. This will include the following conditions evaluated individually and in aggregate: i) extend work durations up to 16 hours per day; ii) more than 6 consecutive work days without a day off for rest; and iii) work requiring extravehicular activity (EVA). 3) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts declines with time in mission. 4) To explore the extent to which PVT Self Test performance of astronauts will be sensitive to the carry-over effects of medications for sleep (e.g., zolpidem, ramelteon, etc.) on ISS. 5) To evaluate the extent to which PVT Self Test performance feedback (via a graphical interface) is perceived by ISS astronauts as a useful tool for assessing performance capability. This will be addressed throughout the mission by astronaut ratings.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors.

The PVT SelfTest (Reaction Self Test) will have utility in a wide array of safety-sensitive environments on Earth. Potentially any occupation in which alertness and fatigue management are essential to prevent errors on critical tasks will benefit from adaptations of the PVT SelfTest technology (e.g., certain military personnel, airport security screeners, physicians on night shifts and prolonged call, etc.).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: During the current reporting period, we interacted with International Space Station Medical Project (ISSMP) personal to specify the system-level requirements for integrating experiment unique software into the Human Research Facility (HRF) computers and Station Support Computers (SSC). We completed internal quality assurance engineering documentation that specified the user requirements and system requirements for the PVT Self Test Software. We worked with ISSMP to identify data management procedures including data acquisition, storage, and transfer procedures to achieve a highly reliable and redundant experimental data acquisition plan. Unit-level system requirements testing related to data management procedures specifying expected functionality and input/output verification data was executed. We completed and received approval for the Experimental Document (ED) detailing data acquisition time points and protocol logistic for pre-flight, post-flight and in-flight study phases (approved 28 October 2008).

To complete the user interface, a series of PVT Self Test interface prototypes were developed to rapidly evaluate design choices for the SelfTest feedback screens and user input. At each iterative design step, prototypes were presented to astronauts that participated in NEEMO 9, 12, 13 (N=6 astronauts participated in the design process). A beta version of the PVT SelfTest was developed with a full user interface and PVT metrics analysis algorithm. Unit-level system requirements testing of the user interface and PVT metrics analysis algorithm was conducted using a comprehensive test plan to verify that input/output data matched specified expected functionality. We completed the ISS Display and Graphics Commonality Standard (IDGCS) and the Payload Display Review Team (PDRT) review process that included multiple interface design iterations and documentation (approved 8 April 2009). We completed and received approval for the Version Description Document (VDD) that specifies software components as well as installation, configuration, operation, maintenance, update, and removal procedures (approved 16 March 2009).

Comprehensive whole-system verification of the PVT SelfTest was performed by using an ISSMP IBM A31P laptop (replica of HRF laptop). The replica computer contained the same hardware and operating system build as the operational version on the ISS. Verification tests were performed according to a test plan containing tasks which will exercise the limits of performance of the PVT SelfTest software. The PVT Self Test software uses precise timing measurements in the response time measurement algorithm. Calibration of the system timing was conducted on the HRF replica to ensure timing precision. Additional testing conducted by NASA and ISSMP of the PVT SelfTest software on HRF and SSC computer systems resulted in additional iterations of the PVT SelfTest Software.

We made Informed Consent Briefing (ICB) presentations to N=10 astronauts. Informed consent was provided by 6 astronauts and 4 consent forms are still pending as of this report submission. We provided Baseline Data Collection (BDC) familiarization sessions with 6 astronauts on the specific procedures to use the PVT SelfTest. We began baseline data acquisition on 6 astronauts.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mollicone D, Basner M, Mott C, Ecker A, Dinges DF. "A Novel PVT Self-Test to Enhance Fatigue Mitigation Strategies in Space." Presented at the the Aerospace Medical Association's 80th Annual Scientific Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, May 4-7 2009.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2009 Mar;80(3):224. , Mar-2009

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lim J, Dinges DF. "Sleep deprivation and vigilant attention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2008;1129:305-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1417.002 ; PubMed PMID: 18591490 (Molecular and Biophysical Mechanisms of Arousal, Alertness, and Attention) , Sep-2008
Awards Dinges DF. "2009 Raymond F. Longacre Award for Outstanding Accomplishment in the Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Aerospace Medicine, Aerospace Medical Association, May 2009." May-2009
Project Title:  Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2008  
End Date: 07/31/2013  
Task Last Updated: 02/19/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Dinges, David F. Ph.D. / University of Pennsylvania 
Address:  Department of Psychiatry 
423 Service Dr., 1013 Blockley Hall 
Philadelphia , PA 19104-4209 
Email: dinges@pennmedicine.upenn.edu 
Phone: 215-898-9949  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX08AY09G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX08AY09G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
(2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
(2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: start/end dates changed per J. Dardano/JSC --previously 4/30/2008-8/31/2013 (4/16/2009)

Task Description: This project will deploy a specially developed, zero upmass, algorithmically optimized, brief (3-minute) version of the well-validated Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), referred to as the “PVT SelfTest,” on the International Space Station (ISS), to provide astronauts with objective feedback on performance changes in vigilant attention, psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, and impulsivity during ISS Increments 20 to 25 (N=24 astronauts). The overarching goal of the project is to establish the extent to which the PVT SelfTest can aid astronauts to objectively identify when their performance capability is degraded by various fatigue-related conditions that can occur as a result of ISS operations and time in space (e.g., acute and chronic sleep restriction, slam shifts, extravehicular activity (EVA), and residual sedation from sleep medications). Thus, the project addresses a number of high-priority NASA Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) research gaps including (1) identification of the best measure for assessing decrements in cognitive function due to fatigue and other aspects of spaceflight; (2) determination of an individual astronaut’s vulnerability to sleep loss; (3) establishment of cognition decline or change during long-duration missions (LDM); and (4) facilitation of ways for crewmembers and ground support to detect and compensate for decreased cognitive readiness to perform in space. The project, which will bring the PVT SelfTest to Countermeasure Readiness Level (CRL) 7 and Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (i.e., system prototype demonstration in space environment), builds on our previous NASA-funded work. Preliminary validation studies of the PVT SelfTest in astronauts engaged in NASA Extreme Environment Mission (NEEMO) missions 9, 12, and 13 indicated that the 3-minute test was acceptable to astronauts, and provided unique astronaut norms on the test. We have used the data from astronauts engaged in NEEMO missions, and related data on the PVT SelfTest from extensive laboratory validation studies, to optimize the algorithm for astronaut PVT SelfTest performance, and to complete a feedback interface that displays their performance relative to astronaut norms. The PVT SelfTest software will be deployed in a computer in the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF) throughout each of six ISS missions on N=24 astronauts. The N=4 U.S. astronauts on each of six ISS increments (20-25) will complete the PVT SelfTest (and a few pre- and post-test questions about operations relevant to fatigue) for a total time of 6 minutes, once every 4 days throughout each 180-day ISS mission. Each astronaut will serve as their own control, and data will be aggregated over time for comparisons of PVT SelfTest performance relative to the presence versus absence of sleep loss and circadian disruption (e.g., slam shifts), of various work intensity conditions (e.g., EVA), of sleep medication use, and of time in mission. Astronauts will be asked to indicate the extent to which their PVT SelfTest performance feedback (via a graphical interface) was useful for assessing their performance capability and countermeasure needs. Thus the project will help astronauts objectively identify and mitigate fatigue-related performance deficits during space operations.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/Reaction_Self_Test.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The PI developed the original 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which the Reaction Self Test was derived from, to measure changes in psychomotor speed, lapses of attention, wake state instability, and impulsivity induced by fatigue and other performance-degrading factors commonly found in operational environments. Based on research supported by federal and non-US federal agencies, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, the 10-minute PVT has been extensively validated in laboratory studies, simulators and operational environments to be sensitive to a variety of performance-degrading fatigue-related factors.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project in FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 03/18/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008