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Project Title:  Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/11/2013  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 09/30/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Rose, Raphael  Ph.D. / University of California, Los Angeles 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 951563, 1285 Franz Hall 
Los Angeles , CA 90095-1563 
Email: rose@psych.ucla.edu 
Phone: 310-825-9048  
Congressional District: 33 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Los Angeles 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Craske, Michelle  Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA-Johnson Space Center Nutrition Biochemistry Lab 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AC47G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AC47G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 6/30/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC (Ed., 1/10/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 11/29/16)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 12/11/2013-12/10/2016 per NSSC information (previously noted as 9/18/2013-10/31/2015 per HRP information)--Ed., 9/9/14

Task Description: Stress and anxiety-related problems are some of the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society. For those working in operational environments (i.e., astronauts, flight controllers, military), stress and anxiety-related problems before, during, or after missions can seriously compromise efficiency, safety, and performance. To address behavioral health issues like stress, it is important to maximize the privacy, validity, and acceptability of the training and countermeasures used. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating behavioral health problems. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Our prior research validated the autonomous multimedia resilience training program we created (i.e., Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance; SMART-OP). SMART-OP interactively trains users to manage stress and build resilience over 6 weekly training sessions lasting approximately 45 minutes each. Results from a randomized controlled trial with a stressed but otherwise healthy sample (N=66) indicated that SMART-OP decreased perceived stress, improved perceived control over stress, and was rated as significantly more useful than an attention control group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. SMART-OP was also rated as “excellent” in terms of user-friendliness, acceptability, and had low dropout, and high homework adherence. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controllers and instructors (including those in training flow) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by comparing it to a Wait List Control group. Additionally, we will examine the effects of self-guided stress management and resilience training on biomarkers for stress (i.e., cortisol, a-amylase), heart rate, and cognitive and behavioral performance. Based on several meetings with the Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) Working Group, we learned that trainees are not progressing through the training flow satisfactorily and that they identified stress as a potential contributor to poor trainee performance. Additionally, stress was identified as an area of concern to address with flight controller and instructors. Since SMART-OP significantly reduced perceived stress, increased perceived control over stressors, and was rated as highly useful, SMART-OP could provide helpful stress management training for flight controllers. Also, since SMART-OP is evidence-based, confidential, and self-directed, it may be more acceptable to flight controller trainees than other programs.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An important aspect of the research that NASA supports is the potential applications on Earth and benefits to society in general. Stress-related health and mental problems are among the most common and costly in the country. Further validation and development of SMART-OP can help potential further dissemination of the program to other populations, for example, those who work in operational settings (e.g., military, police, medical personnel), including their family members, or to those who lead stressful lives (which could be applicable to nearly any individual). SMART-OP could have significant impact on Earth in helping people manage the deleterious effects of stress thereby addressing a major aspect of the important work that NASA pursues and supports.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controllers, trainees, and directors at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) by comparing SMART-OP to a wait-list condition (WLC). Evaluating SMART-OP with this population at JSC provided us the opportunity to assess the program’s use with an operationally focused analogous sample to astronauts.

We hypothesized that participants in the SMART-OP group would show significantly lower perceived stress, higher perceived control of stress, and increased resilience based on measures of self-report than the WLC from pre- to post-assessment. We also hypothesized that participants would rate the program as very useful and easy to use.

Our second aim was to provide feedback to SFRM and FOD (Flight Operations Directorate) based on data from the RCT and suggest modifications and implementation strategies of SMART-OP for use with astronauts.

The main deliverable of our task was to provide data on the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of a self-guided, multimedia, stress management and resilience training program as tested in an RCT with flight controllers. The outcome data on perceived stress and perceived control over stress provides information on the efficacy of such training in helping to alleviate stress, a problem identified by SFRM working group in the training flow of flight controllers. Data on the usefulness and usability of SMART-OP will provide important information on the acceptability of self-guided multimedia behavioral health training with individuals who work in operational settings. For additional sources of data, we collected stress biomarker and heart rate data and had participants perform an acute stressor/frustrating task and measure neurocognitive performance. This data will inform future potential applications of such training with other individuals at JSC working in stressful environments including astronauts.

Since this is the last task report for this study, we are presenting task progress since the last report period from the end of 2017 as well as a summary of task progress over the course of the 4 years. Since the last report, recruitment was completed at the end of December 2017 and we wrapped up running the remaining subjects (approximately N=10) through the study protocol, which concluded in March 2018. The remainder of this last task period was spend organizing and cleaning data. The JSC Nutritional Biochemistry Lab conducted biomarker assays on saliva samples conducted over the course of the project and send those results to us. We closed out the assessments and organized a return of the equipment from JSC as well as all data retrieval via encrypted methods. Lastly, we spent this task period conducting analyses as well as writing up the final task report with study results and conclusions and began preparation for submitting a peer-reviewed manuscript.

Over the course of the 4-year study 189 individuals expressed interest in participating. This was typically done by signing an interest sheet after presentation pitches about the study to different groups of flight controllers. Eighty-eight or 46% of those interested were screened for eligibility which means that over half of those interested in the study were never screened for study eligibility. The team at UCLA worked with NASA BHP (Behavioral Health & Performance) personnel over the course of the study to try to address the issues in recruitment and screening and while strides were made; unfortunately most of the people who expressed interest in participating were never screened.

Of the 88 who were screened, 61 were eligible with the remaining 27 not eligible primarily due to having too low stress scores. Of the eligible 61, 45 individuals completed pre-assessment and were randomized to one of our two conditions. Twenty-four participants were randomized to the SMART-OP condition, and 21 participants were randomized to the wait-list condition (WLC). Forty-one participants completed the first post-assessment, 20 from SMART-OP and 21 from WLC which constituted the main outcome comparison groups. Sixteen participants from the WLC completed a second post-assessment after they completed SMART-OP sessions, for a total of 37 final post-assessments.

It should be noted that this was the first study to utilize the BHP Lab facilities and organizational structure; thus, there was steep learning curve to implementing this project. Many valuable lessons were learned over the course of this study in terms of subject recruitment that will ideally help future similarly conducted research.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2018
Project Title:  Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/11/2013  
End Date: 06/30/2018  
Task Last Updated: 01/25/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Rose, Raphael  Ph.D. / University of California, Los Angeles 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 951563, 1285 Franz Hall 
Los Angeles , CA 90095-1563 
Email: rose@psych.ucla.edu 
Phone: 310-825-9048  
Congressional District: 33 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Los Angeles 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Craske, Michelle  Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA-Johnson Space Center Nutrition Biochemistry Lab 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AC47G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AC47G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 6/30/2018 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC (Ed., 1/10/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 11/29/16)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 12/11/2013-12/10/2016 per NSSC information (previously noted as 9/18/2013-10/31/2015 per HRP information)--Ed., 9/9/14

Task Description: Stress and anxiety-related problems are some of the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society. For those working in operational environments (i.e., astronauts, flight controllers, military), stress and anxiety-related problems before, during, or after missions can seriously compromise efficiency, safety, and performance. To address behavioral health issues like stress, it is important to maximize the privacy, validity, and acceptability of the training and countermeasures used. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating behavioral health problems. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Our prior research validated the autonomous multimedia resilience training program we created (i.e., Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance; SMART-OP). SMART-OP interactively trains users to manage stress and build resilience over 6 weekly training sessions lasting approximately 45 minutes each. Results from a randomized controlled trial with a stressed but otherwise healthy sample (N=66) indicated that SMART-OP decreased perceived stress, improved perceived control over stress, and was rated as significantly more useful than an attention control group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. SMART-OP was also rated as “excellent” in terms of user-friendliness, acceptability, and had low dropout, and high homework adherence. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controllers and instructors (including those in training flow) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by comparing it to a Wait List Control group. Additionally, we will examine the effects of self-guided stress management and resilience training on biomarkers for stress (i.e., cortisol, a-amylase), heart rate, and cognitive and behavioral performance. Based on several meetings with the Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) Working Group, we learned that trainees are not progressing through the training flow satisfactorily and that they identified stress as a potential contributor to poor trainee performance. Additionally, stress was identified as an area of concern to address with flight controller and instructors. Since SMART-OP significantly reduced perceived stress, increased perceived control over stressors, and was rated as highly useful, SMART-OP could provide helpful stress management training for flight controllers. Also, since SMART-OP is evidence-based, confidential, and self-directed, it may be more acceptable to flight controller trainees than other programs.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An important aspect of the research that NASA supports is the potential applications on Earth and benefits to society in general. Stress-related health and mental problems are among the most common and costly in the country. Further validation and development of SMART-OP can help potential further dissemination of the program to other populations, for example, those who work in operational settings (e.g., military, police, emergency room personnel), including their family members, or to those who lead stressful lives (which could be applicable to nearly any individual). SMART-OP could have significant impact on Earth in helping people manage the deleterious effects of stress thereby addressing a major aspect of the important work that NASA pursues and supports.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance) is a self-guided, multimedia, interactive, computer-based, stress management and resilience training program based on evidenced-based cognitive-behavioral principles and emotion regulation approaches. The main aim of this project is to evaluate SMART-OP for effectiveness and acceptability in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of stressed, but healthy flight controllers, instructors and directors at NASA-JSC, in comparison to wait list control (WLC) group. So far, 26 eligible participants have been randomized either to SMART-OP or to WLC, and 22 of these have already completed the study including post-assessment.

Study Implementation: The randomized controlled trial was launched at the end of 2014, and implementation has successfully continued for two years. Participants are randomized either to begin SMART-OP right away, or to a 6-week wait-list control. Before and after training, and before and after the wait period, participants complete a pre- or post-assessment that takes about two hours, and is administered by the Nutritional Biochemistry Lab at JSC. The self-guided SMART-OP sessions are conducted weekly and take about 35-45 minutes to complete. Participants in the wait-list control group complete a weekly stress measure that takes a minute or two to complete.

Recruitment: Participant recruitment is being addressed by the UCLA team in conjunction with Test Subject Screening (TSS) and Behavioral Health & Performance (BHP) element personnel. Several presentations were made by the Principal Investigator (PI) at JSC to generate study interest, and advertising is regularly done in the JSC Today. Since the time of this report last year, 68 new potential participants have expressed interest (through informational sessions/presentations, and advertisements) in the study. Fifteen of those have been cleared by TSS and were screened for eligibility, and 8 met inclusion criteria (no medical or psychiatric diagnoses, but stressed based on self-report).

Data collection: Collected data is extracted approximately weekly by our research team, and a data entry system has been developed in preparation for data analysis. We will be looking at self-report measures of stress, resilience, depression, anxiety, personality, emotion, sleep, and health behaviors, neurocognitive performance when stressed, psychophysiological data such as 24-hour heart rate, alpha amylase, and cortisol, and user feedback such as perceived system usability, working alliance, and treatment credibility.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/11/2013  
End Date: 12/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 11/06/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Rose, Raphael  Ph.D. / University of California, Los Angeles 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 951563, 1285 Franz Hall 
Los Angeles , CA 90095-1563 
Email: rose@psych.ucla.edu 
Phone: 310-825-9048  
Congressional District: 33 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Los Angeles 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Craske, Michelle  Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA-Johnson Space Center Nutrition Biochemistry Lab 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AC47G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AC47G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date is now 12/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 11/29/16)

NOTE: Period of performance changed to 12/11/2013-12/10/2016 per NSSC information (previously noted as 9/18/2013-10/31/2015 per HRP information)--Ed., 9/9/14

Task Description: Stress and anxiety-related problems are some of the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society. For those working in operational environments (i.e., astronauts, flight controllers, military), stress and anxiety-related problems before, during, or after missions can seriously compromise efficiency, safety, and performance. To address behavioral health issues like stress, it is important to maximize the privacy, validity, and acceptability of the training and countermeasures used. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating behavioral health problems. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Our prior research validated the autonomous multimedia resilience training program we created (i.e., Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance; SMART-OP). SMART-OP interactively trains users to manage stress and build resilience over 6 weekly training sessions lasting approximately 45 minutes each. Results from a randomized controlled trial with a stressed but otherwise healthy sample (N=66) indicated that SMART-OP decreased perceived stress, improved perceived control over stress, and was rated as significantly more useful than an attention control group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. SMART-OP was also rated as “excellent” in terms of user-friendliness, acceptability, and had low dropout, and high homework adherence. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controllers and instructors (including those in training flow) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by comparing it to a Wait List Control group. Additionally, we will examine the effects of self-guided stress management and resilience training on biomarkers for stress (i.e., cortisol, a-amylase), heart rate, and cognitive and behavioral performance. Based on several meetings with the Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) Working Group, we learned that trainees are not progressing through the training flow satisfactorily and that they identified stress as a potential contributor to poor trainee performance. Additionally, stress was identified as an area of concern to address with flight controller and instructors. Since SMART-OP significantly reduced perceived stress, increased perceived control over stressors, and was rated as highly useful, SMART-OP could provide helpful stress management training for flight controllers. Also, since SMART-OP is evidence-based, confidential, and self-directed, it may be more acceptable to flight controller trainees than other programs.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An important aspect of the research that NASA supports is the potential applications on Earth and benefits to society in general. Stress-related health and mental problems are among the most common and costly in the country. Further validation and development of SMART-OP can help potential further dissemination of the program to other populations; for example, those who work in operational settings (e.g., military, police, emergency room personnel), including their family members, or to those who lead stressful lives (which could be applicable to nearly any individual). SMART-OP could have significant impact on Earth in helping people manage the deleterious effects of stress thereby addressing a major aspect of the important work that NASA pursues and supports.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Summary: SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance) is a self-guided, multimedia, interactive, computer-based, stress management, and resilience training program based on evidenced-based cognitive-behavioral principles and emotion regulation approaches. The main aim of this project is to evaluate SMART-OP for efficacy and acceptability in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of stressed but healthy flight controllers/instructors at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). So far 22 eligible participants have been randomized either to SMART-OP or to a wait-list control, and 13 of these have already completed the study including post-assessment. Three of eligible participants dropped out prior to the pre-assessment citing time constraints.

Study Implementation: The randomized controlled trial was launched at the end of our first year, and this year implementation has successfully continued with 20 new participants who have either completed or are currently in the process of completing SMART-OP. The self-guided SMART-OP sessions are conducted weekly and take about 35-45 minutes to complete. Participants are randomized either to begin SMART-OP right away, or to a 6-week wait-list control. Before and after training, and before and after the wait period, participants complete a pre- or post-assessment that takes about two hours and is administered by the Nutritional Biochemistry Lab at JSC. So far, 32 pre- and post-assessments have been successfully completed, as well as 76 SMART-OP training sessions.

Recruitment: Participant recruitment is being addressed by the UCLA team in conjunction with Test Subject Screening (TSS) and Behavioral Health & Performance (BHP) element personnel. Several presentations were made by the Principal Investigator at JSC to generate study interest, and advertising is regularly done in the JSC Today. Since the time of this report last year, 62 new potential participants have expressed interest (through informational sessions/presentations, and advertisements) in the study. Thirty-one of those have been cleared by TSS, we have screened 30 for eligibility, and 17 met inclusion criteria (no medical or psychiatric diagnoses, but stressed based on self-report).

Revisions: Four revisions to the originally proposed procedures were made during this past year. Most importantly we replaced the Attention Control condition with a wait-list control (WLC) condition. The Attention Control condition was eliminated due to concerns that this was not a sufficiently beneficial use of participants’ time, and because WLC is a more externally valid comparison group condition in the population of flight controllers. We also made a minor change to our eligibility screening procedure, and included an additional measure of stress to our pre- and post-assessment protocols. Lastly, we eliminated the proposed 3-month follow-up due to time constraints, and because the wait-list control group can serve as its own control condition by comparing within-subject changes across three assessments. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for these revisions was obtained from JSC in April 2015.

Data collection: Collected data is extracted weekly by our research team, and a system for data entry is currently being developed in preparation for data analysis. We will be looking at over 500 variables of data, including self-report measures of stress, resilience, depression, anxiety, personality, emotion, sleep, and health behaviors, psychophysiological data such as 24-hour heart rate, alpha amylase, and cortisol, and user feedback such as perceived system usability, working alliance, and treatment credibility.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/11/2013  
End Date: 12/10/2016  
Task Last Updated: 10/13/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Rose, Raphael  Ph.D. / University of California, Los Angeles 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 951563, 1285 Franz Hall 
Los Angeles , CA 90095-1563 
Email: rose@psych.ucla.edu 
Phone: 310-825-9048  
Congressional District: 33 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Los Angeles 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Craske, Michelle  Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA-Johnson Space Center Nutrition Biochemistry Lab 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AC47G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AC47G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Period of performance changed to 12/11/2013-12/10/2016 per NSSC information (previously noted as 9/18/2013-10/31/2015 per HRP information)--Ed., 9/9/14

Task Description: Stress and anxiety-related problems are some of the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society. For those working in operational environments (i.e., astronauts, flight controllers, military), stress and anxiety-related problems before, during, or after missions can seriously compromise efficiency, safety, and performance. To address behavioral health issues like stress, it is important to maximize the privacy, validity, and acceptability of the training and countermeasures used. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating behavioral health problems. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Our prior research validated the autonomous multimedia resilience training program we created (i.e., Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance; SMART-OP). SMART-OP interactively trains users to manage stress and build resilience over 6 weekly training sessions lastly approximately 45 minutes each. Results from a randomized controlled trial with a stressed but otherwise healthy sample (N=66) indicated that SMART-OP decreased perceived stress, improved perceived control over stress, and was rated as significantly more useful than an attention control group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. SMART-OP was also rated as “excellent” in terms of user-friendliness, acceptability, and had low dropout, and high homework adherence. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controllers and instructors (including those in training flow) at Johnson Space Center by comparing it to an attention control group. Additionally, we will examine the effects of self-guided stress management and resilience training on biomarkers for stress (i.e., cortisol, a-amylase), heart rate, and cognitive and behavioral performance. Based on several meetings with the Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) Working Group, we learned that trainees are not progressing through the training flow satisfactorily and that they identified stress as a potential contributor to poor trainee performance. Additionally, stress was identified as an area of concern to address with flight controller and instructors. Since SMART-OP significantly reduced perceived stress, increased perceived control over stressors, and was rated as highly useful, SMART-OP could provide helpful stress management training for flight controllers. Also, since SMART-OP is evidence-based, confidential, and self-directed, it may be more acceptable to flight controller trainees than other programs.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An important aspect of the research that NASA supports is the potential applications on Earth and benefits to society in general. Stress-related health and mental problems are among the most common and costly in the country. Further validation and development of SMART-OP can help potential further dissemination of the program to other populations, for example, those who work in operational settings (e.g., military, police, emergency room personnel), including their family members, or to those who lead stressful lives (which could be applicable to nearly any individual). SMART-OP could have significant impact on Earth in helping people manage the deleterious effects of stress thereby addressing a major aspect of the important work that NASA pursues and supports.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: Summary: SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance) is a self-guided, multimedia, interactive, computer-based, stress management and resilience training program based on evidenced-based cognitive-behavioral principles. The main aim of this project is to evaluate SMART-OP for efficacy and acceptability in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of stressed but healthy flight controllers/instructors at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). During this past (first) year of the project, we worked on various areas required to set up the study at JSC and also began participant recruitment and enrollment.

Study Implementation: The majority of work this past year was spent on various aspects of implementing the study at JSC. The study is designed to be conducted in a self-guided fashion where possible which means the study participant needs to conduct much of the assessment and all of the stress management training independently (i.e., without research coordinators). IRB (Institutional Review Board) protocols and approvals were obtained at JSC and UCLA to conduct the study. Biweekly teleconferences with NASA Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) personnel addressed various areas of study implementation and maintained regular communication. Our progress this year covered several areas including reserving and setting up a study room on site to conduct the study including assessments. Study computers and iPads were programmed and authenticated for use in the study. Additional study materials were purchased including heart rate monitors. There were several logistical/technical issues/hurdles that were addressed to give the UCLA research team required access to conduct the study from afar. Accomplishing this involved regular communication with JSC BHP and IT staff and personnel. The UCLA research team made two trips to JSC to address various aspects of study implementation including giving several informational session presentations for study recruitment; adding software and other information to JSC computers for assessments and stress management training sessions; testing computers for functionality and reliability; and testing the downloading of training session and assessment data for functionality.

Assessment Procedures: The UCLA research team created several assessment tasks required for the study. The tasks involved computer programming so that study participants could conduct much of the assessments in a self-guided fashion. These involved creating online questionnaires, programming for computerized tasks designed to frustrate/stress users, modification of the neuropsychological battery for use in current study, creation of study protocols instructing the user how to conduct assessments and stress management training sessions on their own. The JSC Nutritional Biochemistry Lab (NBL) is leading a portion of the assessment procedures which involve collection of saliva and urine to measure stress biomarkers (cortisol and alpha amylase). This part of the assessment procedures was developed jointly between the UCLA and NBL teams, protocols formulated, and then the procedures were tested during the visits of the UCLA team to JSC.

SMART-OP Program Revisions: We made modifications to the SMART-OP program needed for implementation in the current study.

Recruitment: Participant recruitment is being coordinated by the UCLA team in conjunction with TSS and BHP personnel. Several presentations were made by the Principal Investigator (PI) at JSC to generate study interest; advertising was done in the JSC Today; pamphlets,and email announcements sent to various departments and personnel at JSC.

Randomized Controlled Trial: Study enrollment recently commenced. At the time of this report, 17 individuals have been cleared by TSS at NASA to participate in the study; 12 of them have been consented, 10 screened, and 5 of those met our eligibility criteria. Of the 5 eligible participants two have completed their pre-assessments and the remainder are scheduled to complete theirs.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

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Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Rose RD. "Self-guided multimedia stress management and resilience training." Journal of Positive Psychology. 2014;9(6):489-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.927907 , Apr-2014
Project Title:  Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 12/11/2013  
End Date: 12/10/2016  
Task Last Updated: 09/24/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Rose, Raphael  Ph.D. / University of California, Los Angeles 
Address:  Department of Psychology 
Box 951563, 1285 Franz Hall 
Los Angeles , CA 90095-1563 
Email: rose@psych.ucla.edu 
Phone: 310-825-9048  
Congressional District: 33 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of California, Los Angeles 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Craske, Michelle  Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 
Smith, Scott  Ph.D. NASA-Johnson Space Center Nutrition Biochemistry Lab 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX14AC47G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX14AC47G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: Yes 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed01:We need to identify and validate countermeasures that promote individual behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Period of performance changed to 12/11/2013-12/10/2016 per NSSC information (previously noted as 9/18/2013-10/31/2015 per HRP information)--Ed., 9/9/14

Task Description: Stress and anxiety-related problems are some of the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society. For those working in operational environments (i.e., astronauts, flight controllers, military), stress and anxiety-related problems before, during, or after missions can seriously compromise efficiency, safety, and performance. To address behavioral health issues like stress, it is important to maximize the privacy, validity, and acceptability of the countermeasures used. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating behavioral health problems. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Our prior research validated the autonomous multimedia resilience training program we created (i.e., SMART-OP). Results from a randomized controlled trial with a stressed but otherwise healthy sample (N=66) indicated that SMART-OP decreased perceived stress, improved perceived control over stress, and was rated as significantly more useful than an attention control group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. SMART-OP was also rated as “excellent” in terms of user-friendliness, had low dropout, and high homework adherence. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of SMART-OP with a sample of flight controller trainees at Johnson Space Center by comparing it to an attention control group. Additionally, we will examine the effects of self-guided stress management and resilience training on biomarkers for stress (i.e., cortisol, a-amylase), heart rate, and cognitive and behavioral performance. Based on several meetings with the SFRM Working Group, we learned that trainees are not progressing through the training flow satisfactorily and that they identified stress as a potential contributor to poor trainee performance. Since SMART-OP significantly reduced perceived stress, increased perceived control over stressors, and was rated as highly useful, SMART-OP could provide helpful stress management training for flight controllers. Also, since SMART-OP is evidence-based, confidential, and self-directed, it may be more acceptable to flight controller trainees than other programs.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2013.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

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 None in FY 2014