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Project Title:  Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)--NNX16AO74G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2016  
End Date: 01/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 01/11/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. University of Michigan 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO74G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO74G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A06:Develop pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight evaluations to determine if VO2 standards are met (IRP Rev G)
(2) A07:Develop the most efficient and effective exercise program for the maintenance of VO2 standards (IRP Rev G)
(3) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(6) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 1/31/2019 per NSSC information and J. McFather/JSC (Ed., 7/8/19)

Task Description: ED. NOTE (October 2016): Continuation of "Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)," which was an internal project at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center, while Principal Investigator was affiliated there.

Current exercise countermeasures are insufficient to prevent muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone loss associated with long-duration spaceflight. A known limitation has been the inability of the International Space Station (ISS) exercise hardware to provide sufficient loads to the human body that are required for maintaining physiological function. New flight exercise hardware, including the advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) and 2nd generation treadmill (T2), are designed to provide astronauts with the ability to exercise at higher intensity. This opens an array of new possibilities for exercise programming in long-duration spaceflight. While the ability to do resistance exercises at heavier loads, the ability to run faster and potentially with more body loading are obvious improvements in exercise capabilities, the details of how this new equipment should be used are not so obvious. Towards this end, two workshops were held, the NASA Muscle Workshop in June 2008 and the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008. Intramural and extramural experts concluded that using higher intensity resistance exercises and interval aerobic exercise would help to maintain physiological function while simultaneously decreasing total exercise time and volume. The panel then recommended that this evidence-based approach to the development of a novel exercise prescription for use on ISS should immediately be proposed. Therefore the purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a new integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program designed to minimize loss of muscle, bone, and cardiovascular function during ISS missions.

Highlights of the iRAT include an increase in the intensity and a reduction in the volume of resistance exercises, inclusion of very short, but high intensity interval-type aerobic exercises, and starting the exercise countermeasures as early as possible in the flight, preferably in the first week. Pre-, in-, and post-flight testing, and data sharing with selected on-going medical assessment tests, will be used to assess the effectiveness of this candidate prescription. Tests include detailed measurements of lower body muscle structure and function (MRI, ultrasound, muscle performance testing, shared muscle medical tests), maximal aerobic capacity, ventilatory threshold, left ventricular mass and cardiac contractility, and bone mineral density. Twenty (20) long duration crew members will be recruited as active subjects in iRAT; and 20 will be asked to serve as controls that perform the standard care exercise prescription and the pre-post flight testing.

This proposal is sponsored by the Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project and directly addresses the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Risks of Impaired Performance Due To Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance and Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due To Reduced Aerobic Capacity, and Risk of Accelerated Osteoporosis. This proposal addresses Gap M7: Can the current in-flight performance be maintained with reduced exercise volume? The proposal addresses IRP Gap M8 (What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for operationally relevant tasks?) and Gap M9 (What is the minimum set of equipment needed to maintain those (M8) fitness levels?).

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Development of more efficient exercise programs could be used on Earth.

A more thorough understanding of how cardiovascular, skeletal muscle, and bone health is affected by exercise.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: Ed. note: Reporting not received and considered "done" per Element management. See Bibliography for publications from the project

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ryder JW, Fullmer P, Buxton RE, Crowell JB, Goetchius E, Bekdash O, DeWitt JK, Hwang EY, Feiveson A, English KL, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "A novel approach for establishing fitness standards for occupational task performance." Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019 Jul;119(7):1633-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04152-3 ; PMID: 31069517. , Jul-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals English KL, Downs M, Goetchius E, Buxton R, Ryder JW, Ploutz-Snyder R, Guilliams ME, Scott JM, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "High intensity training during spaceflight: Results from the NASA Sprint Study." npj Microgravity. 2020 Aug 18;6(1):21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-020-00111-x ; PMID: 33574275 , Aug-2020
Project Title:  Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)--NNX16AO74G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2016  
End Date: 01/31/2019  
Task Last Updated: 09/19/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. University of Michigan 
Downs, Meghan  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc./NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO74G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO74G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A06:Develop pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight evaluations to determine if VO2 standards are met (IRP Rev G)
(2) A07:Develop the most efficient and effective exercise program for the maintenance of VO2 standards (IRP Rev G)
(3) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(6) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 1/31/2019 per NSSC information and J. McFather/JSC (Ed., 7/8/19)

Task Description: ED. NOTE (October 2016): Continuation of "Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)," which was an internal project at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center, while Principal Investigator was affiliated there.

Current exercise countermeasures are insufficient to prevent muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone loss associated with long-duration spaceflight. A known limitation has been the inability of the International Space Station (ISS) exercise hardware to provide sufficient loads to the human body that are required for maintaining physiological function. New flight exercise hardware, including the advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) and 2nd generation treadmill (T2), are designed to provide astronauts with the ability to exercise at higher intensity. This opens an array of new possibilities for exercise programming in long-duration spaceflight. While the ability to do resistance exercises at heavier loads, the ability to run faster and potentially with more body loading are obvious improvements in exercise capabilities, the details of how this new equipment should be used are not so obvious. Towards this end, two workshops were held, the NASA Muscle Workshop in June 2008 and the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008. Intramural and extramural experts concluded that using higher intensity resistance exercises and interval aerobic exercise would help to maintain physiological function while simultaneously decreasing total exercise time and volume. The panel then recommended that this evidence-based approach to the development of a novel exercise prescription for use on ISS should immediately be proposed. Therefore the purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a new integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program designed to minimize loss of muscle, bone, and cardiovascular function during ISS missions.

Highlights of the iRAT include an increase in the intensity and a reduction in the volume of resistance exercises, inclusion of very short, but high intensity interval-type aerobic exercises, and starting the exercise countermeasures as early as possible in the flight, preferably in the first week. Pre-, in-, and post-flight testing, and data sharing with selected on-going medical assessment tests, will be used to assess the effectiveness of this candidate prescription. Tests include detailed measurements of lower body muscle structure and function (MRI, ultrasound, muscle performance testing, shared muscle medical tests), maximal aerobic capacity, ventilatory threshold, left ventricular mass and cardiac contractility, and bone mineral density. Twenty (20) long duration crewmembers will be recruited as active subjects in iRAT; and 20 will be asked to serve as controls that perform the standard care exercise prescription and the pre-post flight testing.

This proposal is sponsored by the Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project and directly addresses the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Risks of Impaired Performance Due To Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance and Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due To Reduced Aerobic Capacity, and Risk of Accelerated Osteoporosis. This proposal addresses Gap M7: Can the current in-flight performance be maintained with reduced exercise volume? The proposal addresses IRP Gap M8 (What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for operationally relevant tasks?) and Gap M9 (What is the minimum set of equipment needed to maintain those (M8) fitness levels?).

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Development of more efficient exercise programs could be used on Earth.

A more thorough understanding of how cardiovascular, skeletal muscle, and bone health is affected by exercise.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Long-duration spaceflight causes wholesale physiologic deconditioning including decrements in muscle mass, muscle strength and function, aerobic capacity, and bone mineral density. Even the performance of near-daily exercise countermeasures is largely inadequate to prevent this degradation. Current exercise hardware on the International Space Station (ISS) employed to combat these maladaptations consists of a cycle ergometer (CEVIS), the second-generation treadmill (T2), and advanced resistive exercise device (ARED); crewmembers on the ISS have used these systems and previous legacy devices to exercise 6 d per week with 2.5 h per day allotted to exercise countermeasures. This represents a significant time commitment and reduces crewmembers’ availability to perform other important mission tasks. Higher intensity/lower volume aerobic intervals have been incorporated into ISS exercise prescriptions; however, velocity restrictions on the first ISS treadmill curtailed their usage and individual crewmember preferences limited ubiquitous implementation. Similarly, resistance exercise on the ISS was performed at lower intensities due to the loading limitations of the original resistive exercise device until the 2009 deployment of ARED which provides up to 272 kg of resistance; subsequently, up to 6-repetition maximum loads have been used.

The effectiveness of high intensity/low volume training (HIT) has been extensively documented in populations ranging from elite athletes to clinical patients. In addition to the time savings of shorter exercise sessions, there is evidence to suggest that HIT may elicit superior physiologic adaptations compared to traditional lower intensity/higher volume training. For instance, over a 6-week period (5 d/wk), Tabata et al. compared 60 min bouts of continuous exercise (70% VO2peak) to 7-8 intervals (20 s at 170% VO2peak /10 s rest). Despite cumulative exercise time of only ~2 h compared to 30 h for the continuous group, the HIT group increased both aerobic and anaerobic capacity whereas the continuous, high volume group only improved aerobic capacity. Somewhat longer duration intervals of 2-4 min have been shown to maintain or improve aerobic capacity during bed rest unloading and athletic training.

In light of the potential for similar if not superior physiologic protection despite diminished exercise volume, the purpose of this investigation was to compare physiologic outcomes after long-duration (~six months) spaceflight on the ISS in crewmembers who performed exercise countermeasures consisting of either 1) lower intensity/higher volume exercise (6 d/wk resistance exercise and 6 d/wk aerobic exercise) or 2) high intensity/lower volume exercise (3 d/wk resistance exercise and 6 d/wk aerobic exercise).

Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M et al. Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(10):1327-30.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals De Witt JK, English KL, Crowell JB, Kalogera KL, Guilliams ME, Nieschwitz BE, Hanson AM, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Isometric midthigh pull reliability and relationship to deadlift one repetition maximum." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2018 Feb;32(2):528-33. https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2018/02000/Isometric_Midthigh_Pull_Reliability_and.28.aspx ; PubMed PMID: 27548797 , Feb-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Durham WJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Ryder JW, Danesi CP, Randolph KM, Gilkison CR, Urban RJ. "Efficacy of testosterone plus NASA exercise countermeasures during head-down bed rest." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2018 Sep;50(9):1929-39. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001616 ; PubMed PMID: 29924745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6095739 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Cromwell RL, Scott JM, Downs M, Yarbough PO, Zanello SB, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Overview of the NASA 70-day Bed Rest Study." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Sep;50(9):1909-19. Epub 2018 Mar 22. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001617 ; PubMed PMID: 29570535 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ploutz-Snyder LL, Downs M, Goetchius E, Crowell B, English KL, Ploutz-Snyder R, Ryder J, Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Scott JM. "Exercise training mitigates multi-system deconditioning during bed rest." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Sep;50(9):1920-8. Epub 2018 Mar 26. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001618 ; PubMed PMID: 29924746 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Scott JM, Martin D, Ploutz-Snyder R, Downs M, Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Efficacy of exercise and testosterone to mitigate atrophic cardiovascular remodeling." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2018 Sep;50(9):1940-9. Epub 2018 Mar 22. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001619 ; PubMed PMID: 29570536; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6095799 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Durham WJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Ryder JW, Danesi CP, Randolph KM, Gilkison CR, Urban RJ. "Efficacy of testosterone plus NASA exercise countermeasures during head-down bed rest." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Sep;50(9):1929-39. Epub 2018 Mar 26. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001616 ; PubMed PMID: 29924745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6095739 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Miller CA, Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Taylor LC, Lawrence EL, Wood SJ, Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Buxton RE, May-Phillips TR, Stenger MB, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Ryder JW, Feiveson AH, Bloomberg JJ. "Physiological and functional alterations after spaceflight and bed rest." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Sep;50(9):1961-80. Epub 2018 Apr 3. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001615 ; PubMed PMID: 29620686 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals English KL, Lee SMC, Loehr JA, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Isokinetic strength changes following long-duration spaceflight on the ISS." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015 Dec;86(12 Suppl):A68-A77. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.EC09.2015 ; PMID: 26630197 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ploutz-Snyder L. "Evaluating countermeasures in spaceflight analogs." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016 Apr 15;120(8):915-21. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00860.2015 ; PMID: 26662054 , Apr-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Scott JM, Martin DS, Ploutz-Snyder R, Matz T, Caine T, Downs M, Hackney K, Buxton R, Ryder JW, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Panoramic ultrasound: A novel and valid tool for monitoring change in muscle mass." J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Jun;8(3):475-81. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12172 ; PMID: 28052593; PMCID: PMC5476852 , Jun-2017
Project Title:  Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)--NNX16AO74G Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2016  
End Date: 09/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 10/11/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L. Ph.D. / University of Michigan 
Address:  OBL 4170, 1402 Washington Hts. 
School of Kinesiology 
Ann Arbor , MI 48109-2013 
Email: lorips@umich.edu 
Phone: (734) 764-5210  
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Michigan 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: Previously at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center until July 2016.  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. University of Michigan 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO74G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO74G 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Aerobic:Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due to Reduced Aerobic Capacity
(2) Fracture:Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-induced Changes to Bone (IRP Rev F)
(3) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) A06:Develop pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight evaluations to determine if VO2 standards are met (IRP Rev G)
(2) A07:Develop the most efficient and effective exercise program for the maintenance of VO2 standards (IRP Rev G)
(3) M02:Characterize in-flight and post-flight muscle performance (IRP Rev F)
(4) M07:Develop the most efficient exercise program for maintenance of muscle fitness (IRP Rev F)
(5) Osteo05:We need an inflight capability to monitor bone turnover and bone mass changes during spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(6) Osteo07:We need to identify options for mitigating early onset osteoporosis before, during and after spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

Task Description: ED. NOTE (October 2016): Continuation of "Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)," which was an internal project at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center, while Principal Investigator was affiliated there.

Current exercise countermeasures are insufficient to prevent muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone loss associated with long-duration spaceflight. A known limitation has been the inability of the International Space Station (ISS) exercise hardware to provide sufficient loads to the human body that are required for maintaining physiological function. New flight exercise hardware, including the advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) and 2nd generation treadmill (T2), are designed to provide astronauts with the ability to exercise at higher intensity. This opens an array of new possibilities for exercise programming in long-duration spaceflight. While the ability to do resistance exercises at heavier loads, the ability to run faster and potentially with more body loading are obvious improvements in exercise capabilities, the details of how this new equipment should be used are not so obvious. Towards this end, two workshops were held, the NASA Muscle Workshop in June 2008 and the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008. Intramural and extramural experts concluded that using higher intensity resistance exercises and interval aerobic exercise would help to maintain physiological function while simultaneously decreasing total exercise time and volume. The panel then recommended that this evidence-based approach to the development of a novel exercise prescription for use on ISS should immediately be proposed. Therefore the purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a new integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program designed to minimize loss of muscle, bone, and cardiovascular function during ISS missions.

Highlights of the iRAT include an increase in the intensity and a reduction in the volume of resistance exercises, inclusion of very short, but high intensity interval-type aerobic exercises, and starting the exercise countermeasures as early as possible in the flight, preferably in the first week. Pre-, in-, and post-flight testing, and data sharing with selected on-going medical assessment tests, will be used to assess the effectiveness of this candidate prescription. Tests include detailed measurements of lower body muscle structure and function (MRI, ultrasound, muscle performance testing, shared muscle medical tests), maximal aerobic capacity, ventilatory threshold, left ventricular mass and cardiac contractility, and bone mineral density. Twenty (20) long duration crew members will be recruited as active subjects in iRAT; and 20 will be asked to serve as controls that perform the standard care exercise prescription and the pre-post flight testing.

This proposal is sponsored by the Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project and directly addresses the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Risks of Impaired Performance Due To Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance and Risk of Reduced Physical Performance Capabilities Due To Reduced Aerobic Capacity, and Risk of Accelerated Osteoporosis. This proposal addresses Gap M7: Can the current in-flight performance be maintained with reduced exercise volume? The proposal addresses IRP Gap M8 (What is the minimum exercise regimen needed to maintain fitness levels for operationally relevant tasks?) and Gap M9 (What is the minimum set of equipment needed to maintain those (M8) fitness levels?).

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Development of more efficient exercise programs could be used on Earth.

A more thorough understanding of how cardiovascular, skeletal muscle, and bone health is affected by exercise.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: New project for FY2017.

ED. NOTE (October 2016): Continuation of "Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)," which was an internal project at Universities Space Research Association/NASA Johnson Space Center, while Principal Investigator was affiliated there.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 05/28/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2017