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Project Title:  Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 01/09/2018  
Task Last Updated: 08/06/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. / Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Address:  1275 York Ave 
Lee Jones Lab, Exercise Oncology Research Program 
New York , NY 10065 
Email: scottj1@mskcc.org 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE (Ed., 8.1.18): Moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, in summer 2017; formerly at Universities Space Research Association, Houston 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Haykowsky, Mark  Ph.D. University of Alberta 
Martin, David  B.A. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ozgur, Omar  M.D. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
Hamilton, Scott  M.B.A. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. 80NSSC17K0573 ; Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health OMNIBUS 
Grant/Contract No.: 80NSSC17K0573 ; Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: New grant 80NSSC17K0573 issued for this work when PI moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in Summer 2017; end date changed to 1/09/2018 (Ed., 8/1/18)

Task Description: NOTE (Ed., 8/1/18): New grant 80NSSC17K0573 issued in August 2017 for this work when PI moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in summer 2017; end date changed to 1/09/2018.

CENTRAL OBJECTIVES: To date, 19 out of 25 long-duration crew members (76%) have experienced in-flight and/or post-flight vision changes. These changes define the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome (Ed. note August 2018--now known as Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome). Although the exact cause of VIIP is unknown at this time, it is suspected that the microgravity-induced shift in fluids from the lower body to the upper body (cephalad fluid shift) plays a significant role. This fluid shift, in turn, may cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Another factor that has been proposed to contribute to VIIP is exercise. Although moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise have clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health, whether such exercise contributes to the development of VIIP is unknown.

METHODS: Our overall goal is to characterize the impact of 3 exercise modalities used by astronauts on cerebral blood flow, ICP, and IOP. We propose to use head down tilt (HDT), a ground based analog that is well established to elicit similar cephalad fluid shifts as spaceflight. Subjects will undergo 3 HDT sessions: 1) HDT + resistance exercise, 2) HDT + moderate intensity aerobic exercise, and 3) HDT + high intensity aerobic exercise. During and following each HDT session cerebral blood flow, IOP, and ICP will be measured.

SIGNIFICANCE: Information characterizing factors contributing to the VIIP syndrome is of fundamental importance for sustaining human presence in space and extending the exploration of our Solar system. NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) has therefore established risks and gaps related to determining the etiology of visual acuity and ocular structural and functional changes observed in- and post-flight, and identifying safe and effective countermeasure to mitigate changes in ocular structure and intracranial hypertension. This proposal addresses the NASA request for short-term proposals that could lead to novel breakthroughs addressing one or more risks and gaps. Our proposal is specifically relevant for: Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations and the following Gaps: Gap VIIP1: What are the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and post-flight? Gap VIIP13: Identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will provide important information that could ultimately not only improve the well being of astronauts in microgravity and upon return to Earth, but could also enhance the well-being of numerous populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research Impact: This project will provide essential data and methods to quantify the impact of exercise on ICP and IOP during a cephalad fluid shift. Additionally, results from this investigation will provide important information to protect the health and mission readiness of current International Space Station (ISS) crew and to safeguard the fitness of even longer duration astronauts for Moon and Mars missions.

Earth Benefits: There is currently no evidence on concurrent cerebral and ocular hemodynamics and pressures during exercise in the upright or spaceflight analog conditions. This data will enable accurate assessment of exercise-induced differences in cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures between exercise in a 1G environment and exercise in the spaceflight environment. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will also provide information that could enhance the well-being of numerous clinical populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma. We are also testing novel technology that could be used in clinical settings. Specifically, we evaluated acquisition of IOP continuously using a contact lens (Triggerfish, Sensimed), and the reliability and validity of a 3D imaging tool to quantify cephalad fluid shift induced facial edema. These tools could be applied to a patient being followed for thyroid eye disease, or a space occupying lesion such as an orbital tumor producing proptosis.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: Exercise normalized cephalad fluid shift-induced changes in cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures.

Manuscript is currently in final preparation stages for submission to peer-reviewed journal. Expected submission date to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: September 2018.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/05/2019) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Scott JM, Tucker WJ, Martin D, Crowell JB, Goetchius E, Ozgur O, Hamilton S, Otto C, Gonzales R, Ritter M, Newby N, DeWitt J, Stenger MB, Ploutz-Snyder R, Ploutz-Snyder L, Morgan B, Haykowsky MJ. "Association of exercise and swimming goggles with modulation of cerebro-ocular hemodynamics and pressures in a model of spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 Jun 1;137(6):652-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.0459 ; PubMed PMID: 30998818 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6567831 [Reported originally in Aug 2018 as "to be submitted" and in Other journals category] , Jun-2019
Project Title:  Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 10/01/2016  
Task Last Updated: 08/01/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. / Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Address:  1275 York Ave 
Lee Jones Lab, Exercise Oncology Research Program 
New York , NY 10065 
Email: scottj1@mskcc.org 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE (Ed., 8.1.18): Moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, in summer 2017; formerly at Universities Space Research Association, Houston 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Haykowsky, Mark  Ph.D. University of Alberta 
Martin, David  B.A. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ozgur, Omar  M.D. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
Hamilton, Scott  M.D. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Allcorn, Aaron  
Center Contact: 281.244.8402 
aaron.j.allcorn@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health OMNIBUS 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: CENTRAL OBJECTIVES: To date, 19 out of 25 long-duration crew members (76%) have experienced in-flight and/or post-flight vision changes. These changes define the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Although the exact cause of VIIP is unknown at this time, it is suspected that the microgravity-induced shift in fluids from the lower body to the upper body (cephalad fluid shift) plays a significant role. This fluid shift, in turn, may cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Another factor that has been proposed to contribute to VIIP is exercise. Although moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise have clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health, whether such exercise contributes to the development of VIIP is unknown.

METHODS: Our overall goal is to characterize the impact of 3 exercise modalities used by astronauts on cerebral blood flow, ICP, and IOP. We propose to use head down tilt (HDT), a ground based analog that is well established to elicit similar cephalad fluid shifts as spaceflight. Subjects will undergo 3 HDT sessions: 1) HDT + resistance exercise, 2) HDT + moderate intensity aerobic exercise, and 3) HDT + high intensity aerobic exercise. During and following each HDT session cerebral blood flow, IOP, and ICP will be measured.

SIGNIFICANCE: Information characterizing factors contributing to the VIIP syndrome is of fundamental importance for sustaining human presence in space and extending the exploration of our Solar system. NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) has therefore established risks and gaps related to determining the etiology of visual acuity and ocular structural and functional changes observed in- and post-flight, and identifying safe and effective countermeasure to mitigate changes in ocular structure and intracranial hypertension. This proposal addresses the NASA request for short-term proposals that could lead to novel breakthroughs addressing one or more risks and gaps. Our proposal is specifically relevant for: Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations and the following Gaps: Gap VIIP1: What are the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and post-flight? Gap VIIP13: Identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will provide important information that could ultimately not only improve the well being of astronauts in microgravity and upon return to Earth, but could also enhance the well-being of numerous populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research Impact: This project will provide essential data and methods to quantify the impact of exercise on ICP and IOP during a cephalad fluid shift. Additionally, results from this investigation will provide important information to protect the health and mission readiness of current International Space Station (ISS) crew and to safeguard the fitness of even longer duration astronauts for Moon and Mars missions.

Earth Benefits: There is currently no evidence on concurrent cerebral and ocular hemodynamics and pressures during exercise in the upright or spaceflight analog conditions. This data will enable accurate assessment of exercise-induced differences in cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures between exercise in a 1G environment and exercise in the spaceflight environment. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will also provide information that could enhance the well-being of numerous clinical populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma. We are also testing novel technology that could be used in clinical settings. Specifically, we evaluated acquisition of IOP continuously using a contact lens (Triggerfish, Sensimed), and the reliability and validity of a 3D imaging tool to quantify cephalad fluid shift induced facial edema. These tools could be applied to a patient being followed for thyroid eye disease, or a space occupying lesion such as an orbital tumor producing proptosis.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Year 2 overview:

To characterize variability in internal jugular vein (IJV) flow and to create a standardized protocol for IJV acquisition, we assessed IJV flow in 10 healthy adults at -20º, 0º, and +90º. Results indicate that in order to minimize systematic error, blood velocity acquisition should encompass the vessel lumen close to omohyoid muscle.

Data was acquired in 10 additional subjects to:

1) Assess estimated intraocular pressure (IOP) continuously during exercise using Sensimed’s Triggerfish contact lens system.

2) Determine whether raising IOP during exercise with swimming goggles rebalances translaminar pressure gradient.

3) Evaluate a 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging tool to provide an estimate of facial edema.

Analysis is ongoing.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/05/2019) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Scott JM, Martin D, Crowell B, Goetchius E, Seponski C, Gonzales R, Matz T, Ploutz-Snyder R, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures." Presented at 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Project Title:  Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2016  
Task Last Updated: 07/30/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. / Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Address:  1275 York Ave 
Lee Jones Lab, Exercise Oncology Research Program 
New York , NY 10065 
Email: scottj1@mskcc.org 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE (Ed., 8.1.18): Moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, in summer 2017; formerly at Universities Space Research Association, Houston 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Haykowsky, Mark  Ph.D. University of Alberta 
Martin, David  B.A. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Westby, Christian  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health OMNIBUS 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: CENTRAL OBJECTIVES: To date, 19 out of 25 long-duration crew members (76%) have experienced in-flight and/or post-flight vision changes. These changes define the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Although the exact cause of VIIP is unknown at this time, it is suspected that the microgravity-induced shift in fluids from the lower body to the upper body (cephalad fluid shift) plays a significant role. This fluid shift, in turn, may cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Another factor that has been proposed to contribute to VIIP is exercise. Although moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise have clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health, whether such exercise contributes to the development of VIIP is unknown.

METHODS: Our overall goal is to characterize the impact of 3 exercise modalities used by astronauts on cerebral blood flow, ICP, and IOP. We propose to use head down tilt (HDT), a ground based analog that is well established to elicit similar cephalad fluid shifts as spaceflight. Subjects will undergo 3 HDT sessions: 1) HDT + resistance exercise, 2) HDT + moderate intensity aerobic exercise, and 3) HDT + high intensity aerobic exercise. During and following each HDT session cerebral blood flow, IOP, and ICP will be measured.

SIGNIFICANCE: Information characterizing factors contributing to the VIIP syndrome is of fundamental importance for sustaining human presence in space and extending the exploration of our Solar system. NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) has therefore established risks and gaps related to determining the etiology of visual acuity and ocular structural and functional changes observed in- and post-flight, and identifying safe and effective countermeasure to mitigate changes in ocular structure and intracranial hypertension. This proposal addresses the NASA request for short-term proposals that could lead to novel breakthroughs addressing one or more risks and gaps. Our proposal is specifically relevant for: Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations and the following Gaps: Gap VIIP1: What are the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and post-flight? Gap VIIP13: Identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will provide important information that could ultimately not only improve the well being of astronauts in microgravity and upon return to Earth, but could also enhance the well-being of numerous populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Research Impact: This project will provide essential data and methods to quantify the impact of exercise on ICP and IOP during a cephalad fluid shift. Additionally, results from this investigation will provide important information to protect the health and mission readiness of current International Space Station (ISS) crew and to safeguard the fitness of even longer duration astronauts for Moon and Mars missions.

Earth Benefits: There is currently no evidence on concurrent cerebral and ocular hemodynamics and pressures during exercise in the upright or spaceflight analog conditions. This data will enable accurate assessment of exercise-induced differences in cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures between exercise in a 1G environment and exercise in the spaceflight environment. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will also provide information that could enhance the well-being of numerous clinical populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: During the past year, a cycle ergometer and leg press machine were modified for head down tilt exercise. In order to accurately quantify cerebral blood flow regulation during exercise with a cephalad fluid shift, we assessed cerebral inflow in 5 vessels, outflow in 1 vessel, and pressure in 2 vessels. Seven subjects have completed the study demonstrating the capability to acquire cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures during exercise in a head down tilt. Analysis is ongoing; however, initial findings suggest there is a slight increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) during exercise with a cephalad fluid shift, with a concomitant large increase in estimated intracranial pressure, resulting in a 2 fold increase in the translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/05/2019) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Scott JM, Westby C, Martin D, Stenger M, Ploutz-Snyder R, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Influence of exercise modality on cerebral-ocular hemodynamics and pressures." Presented at 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Project Title:  Influence of Exercise Modality on Cerebral-Ocular Hemodynamics and Pressures Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 10/01/2014  
End Date: 09/30/2016  
Task Last Updated: 11/20/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Scott, Jessica  Ph.D. / Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Address:  1275 York Ave 
Lee Jones Lab, Exercise Oncology Research Program 
New York , NY 10065 
Email: scottj1@mskcc.org 
Phone:   
Congressional District: 12 
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE (Ed., 8.1.18): Moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, in summer 2017; formerly at Universities Space Research Association, Houston 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Haykowsky, Mark  Ph.D. University of Alberta 
Martin, David  B.A. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Stenger, Michael  Ph.D. Wyle Laboratories, Inc. 
Westby, Christian  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 HERO NNJ13ZSA002N-Crew Health OMNIBUS 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Arrhythmia:Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems
(2) SANS:Risk of Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (IRP Rev I)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV07:How are fluids redistributed in flight?
(2) SANS01:We do not know the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and postflight (IRP Rev I)
(3) SANS13:We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures (CMs) to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight (IRP Rev I)
Task Description: CENTRAL OBJECTIVES: To date, 19 out of 25 long-duration crew members (76%) have experienced in-flight and/or post-flight vision changes. These changes define the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Although the exact cause of VIIP is unknown at this time, it is suspected that the microgravity-induced shift in fluids from the lower body to the upper body (cephalad fluid shift) plays a significant role. This fluid shift, in turn, may cause an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Another factor that has been proposed to contribute to VIIP is exercise. Although moderate and high intensity aerobic or resistance exercise have clearly identified benefits for cardiac, muscle, and bone health, whether such exercise contributes to the development of VIIP is unknown.

METHODS: Our overall goal is to characterize the impact of 3 exercise modalities used by astronauts on cerebral blood flow, ICP, and IOP. We propose to use head down tilt (HDT), a ground based analog that is well established to elicit similar cephalad fluid shifts as spaceflight. Subjects will undergo 3 HDT sessions: 1) HDT + resistance exercise, 2) HDT + moderate intensity aerobic exercise, and 3) HDT + high intensity aerobic exercise. During and following each HDT session cerebral blood flow, IOP, and ICP will be measured.

SIGNIFICANCE: Information characterizing factors contributing to the VIIP syndrome is of fundamental importance for sustaining human presence in space and extending the exploration of our Solar system. NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) has therefore established risks and gaps related to determining the etiology of visual acuity and ocular structural and functional changes observed in- and post-flight, and identifying safe and effective countermeasure to mitigate changes in ocular structure and intracranial hypertension. This proposal addresses the NASA request for short-term proposals that could lead to novel breakthroughs addressing one or more risks and gaps. Our proposal is specifically relevant for: Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations and the following Gaps: Gap VIIP1: What are the etiological mechanisms and contributing risk factors for ocular structural and functional changes seen in-flight and post-flight? Gap VIIP13: Identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will provide important information that could ultimately not only improve the well being of astronauts in microgravity and upon return to Earth, but could also enhance the well-being of numerous populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: It is expected that results from the proposed investigation will provide important information that could ultimately not only improve the well being of astronauts in microgravity and upon return to Earth, but could also enhance the well-being of numerous populations such as individuals with intracranial hypertension and glaucoma.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 09/05/2019) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2015